It is becoming increasingly apparent that the human cell cycle is affected by bacterial infections. Many bacterial pathogens manipulate the host cell cycle to benefit bacterial attachment, survival and growth within the host. Prolonged local bacterial existence and survival in the epithelial cell lining can be achieved by slowing down cell cycle progression, leading to reduced epithelial renewal and less exfoliation to the detriment of the fidelity of the mucosal barrier. In addition, our harmless bacteria belonging to our normal flora can also influence the cell proliferation in healthy epithelia. Further, the infiltration of activating neutrophils at the site of local infections affects the epithelial barrier and can be utilized by the pathogens to establish infections




Epithelial cells are physical barriers and compose the interface between distinct body compartments and the outer world. The maintenance of an active cell cycle by epithelial cells enables these barriers to remain intact. The normal flora of an individual contributes to the mucosal environment by efficiently adhering to the epithelial cells and the mucus layer. In this movie, we show cell division during lactobacilli colonization.