Profiles

Petra Lindfors

Professor

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Arbetar vid Psykologiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 38 93
E-post pls@psychology.su.se
Besöksadress Frescati hagväg 14
Rum 324
Postadress Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2017. Petra Lindfors, Lisa Folkesson Hellstadius, Viveca Östberg. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 58 (1), 36-42

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  • 2016. Pia Svedberg (et al.). European Journal of Public Health, 26, S1

    Background

    Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, and have not accounted for genetics and shared everyday environment (familial factors), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study if work-home interference predicts SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors.

    Methods

    This prospective cohort study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women).

    Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors.

    Results

    For women, each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts was associated with SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). With further adjustments for work, health-related or familial factors, none of the associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders.

    Conclusions

    Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health and familial factors are important confounders to consider when researching work-home interference and SA, especially among women. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions.

  • 2016. Helena Falkenberg (et al.). Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv, 23-23

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 2016. Constanze Leineweber (et al.). International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 23 (6), 670-678

    PURPOSE: The aim is to study the influence of change in work-time control (WTC) on work-home interference (WHI) while adjusting for other work-related factors, demographics, changes at work and WHI at baseline among women and men. An additional aim was to explore sex differences in the relation between change in WTC and WHI.

    METHODS: The study included working participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study of the third (2010) and fourth (2012) waves (n = 5440). Based on a seven-item index, four groups of WTC were formed: stable high (40 %), stable low (42 %), increasing (9 %), or decreasing (9 %) WTC over the 2 years. WHI was measured by four items and individuals were categorised in whether suffering or not suffering of WHI. Sex-stratified logistic regression analyses with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the odds of experiencing WHI by change in WTC.

    RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and work-related factors, women with stable low (OR = 1.46; 95 % CI 1.14-1.88) and women and men with decreasing WTC (women OR = 1.99; 95 % CI 1.38-2.85; men OR = 1.80; 95 % CI 1.18-2.73) had higher odds of WHI than those with a stable high WTC. Additionally, adjusting for changes at work and WHI at baseline did not alter the results substantially. Interaction analysis did not reveal any significant sex difference in the relation between WTC and WHI.

    CONCLUSIONS: For both women and men decreased and for women only, low control over working hours resulted in WHI also after adjusting for work-related factors and demographics.

  • 2016. Marian E. Papp (et al.). Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 22 (1), 81-87

    Background: Yoga exercises are often used as a form of body and mind exercise to increase performance. However, knowledge about the physiologic effects of performing high-intensity Hatha yoga exercises over a longer time period remains limited.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of high-intensity yoga (HIY) on cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, estimated from the Cooper running test), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate recovery (HRR), blood pressure (BP), adipocytokines, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in healthy students.

    Methods: The 44 participants (38 women and 6 men; median age, 25 years [range, 20–39 years]) were randomly assigned to an HIY or a control group. The HIY program was held for 6 weeks (60 minutes once a week). Cardiovascular fitness, RPE, HR, HRR, BP, adipocytokines, HbA1c, ApoA1, and ApoB were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks in both groups.

    Results: HIY had no significant effects on cardiovascular fitness (mean dose: 390 minutes [range, 210–800 minutes]), HR, HRR, BP, or any of the blood parameters. However, ApoA1 (1.47 ± 0.17 to 1.55 ± 0.16 g/L; p = 0.03) and adiponectin (8.32 ± 3.32 to 9.68 ± 3.83 mg/L; p = 0.003) levels increased significantly in the HIY group after 6 weeks.

    Conclusions: Six weeks of HIY did not significantly improve cardiovascular fitness. However, ApoA1 and adiponectin levels increased significantly in the HIY group. This finding suggests that HIY may have positive effects on blood lipids and an anti-inflammatory effect.

  • 2016. M.E. Papp (et al.). Abstract Book WONCA Europe Copenhagen 2016, 693-693

    Background and Aim: Yogic exercises have been shown to increase functional capacity and decrease symptoms in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, the knowledge regarding physiological and mental effects of hatha yogic exercises and breathing exercises over longer time periods in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases remains limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hatha yoga (HY) compared to an individual program of strength and endurance training (IT) on functional capacity, pulmonary function, perceived exertion, disease specific symptoms and oxygen saturation in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods: 36 patients (23 women, median age = 64, age range: 40–84 yrs) were randomized into HY (n = 19) or IT (n = 17). Both HY and IT involved a 12-week program. Functional capacity (estimated from a 6 minute walk test (6MWT), spirometry, oxygen saturation, perceived exertion and a disease specific chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ) were measured at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 6 months. Results: Significant improvements emerged within each group on 6MWT (HY, baseline: 593.5±116.4, after 12 weeks: 626.2±111.6, p = 0.014; IT, baseline 502.3±136.3, after 12 weeks: 544.8±138.5, p= 0.002). for IT but not HY, these improvements sustained at 6 months. CRQ showed significant improvement in the domain mastery for the HY group and in all domains in the IT group. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of HY and IT improved functional capacity in both groups with no significant between group effects. However, at the 6-month follow-up effects sustained in the IT but not in the HY group. The IT group, showed self-reported disease-specific improvements across all domains while HY group showed improvements in the mastery domain only. This suggests that both IT and HY have positive short-term effects while IT has long-term effects on functional capacity.

  • 2016. M.E. Papp (et al.). Proceedings from the Fourth Annual Conference of The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine

    Background: Yogic exercises have been shown to increase functional capacity and decrease symptoms in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, the knowledge regarding physiological and mental effects of hatha yogic exercises and breathing exercises over longer time periods in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases remains limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hatha yoga (HY) compared to an individual program of strength and endurance training (IT) on functional capacity, pulmonary function, perceived exertion, disease specific symptoms and oxygen saturation in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. Method: 36 patients (23 women, median age = 64, age range: 40–84 yrs) were randomized into HY (n = 19) or IT (n = 17). Both HY and IT involved a 12-week program. Functional capacity (estimated from a 6 minute walk test (6MWT), spirometry, oxygen saturation, perceived exertion and a disease specific chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ) were measured at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 6

    months. Results: Significant improvements emerged within each group on 6MWT (HY, baseline: 593.5±116.4, after 12 weeks: 626.2±111.6, p = 0.014; IT, baseline 502.3±136.3, after 12 weeks: 544.8±138.5, p=0.002). For IT but not HY, these improvements sustained at 6 months. CRQ showed significant improvement in the domain mastery for the HY group and in all domains in the IT group. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of HY and IT improved functional capacity in both groups with no significance between group effects. However, at the 6-month follow-up effects sustained in the IT but not in the HY group. The IT group, showed self-reported disease-specific improvements across all domains while HY group showed improvements in the mastery domain only. This suggests that both IT and HY have positive short-term effects while IT has long-term effects on functional capacity.

  • 2016. Magnus Sverke (et al.).

    Den här kunskapssammanställningen utgår från ett uppdrag från Arbetsmiljöverket med syfte att utifrån befintlig forskning klargöra vilka samband som finns mellan organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer i arbetet i förhållande till olika arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall bland yrkesarbetande kvinnor och män. Ytterligare ett syfte består i att beskriva hur vanligt förekommande olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer är bland yrkesarbetande kvinnor och män. För att kunna hantera ett sådant omfattande uppdrag behövs en strukturerad ansats. För att klargöra om och hur olika faktorer i arbetet hänger samman med olika utfall identifierades relevanta systematiska översiktsstudier, inklusive metaanalyser och systematiska litteratursammanställningar, genom litteratursökning i databaser som samlar internationell och nationell forskningslitteratur. Olika söktermer användes för att identifiera sådan forskningslitteratur samt systematiska litteraturöversikter från svenska myndigheter som undersöker samband mellan olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer i förhållande till olika utfall. Tidsperioden för litteratursökningen begränsades till de senaste tio åren.

    Utifrån litteratursökningen identifierades 27 olika arbetsmiljöfaktorer. Med utgångspunkt i etablerade teorier och modeller inom forskningsområdet kategoriserades dessa faktorer som organisatoriska eller psykosociala. Sammantaget identifierades 8 organisatoriska faktorer och 19 olika psykosociala faktorer. Återigen användes befintlig forskning för att definiera och kategorisera de psykosociala faktorerna som krav eller resurser. Kategoriseringen av krav och resurser resulterade i 13 krav och 6 resurser. Bland de organisatoriska faktorerna ingick exempelvis skiftarbete, typ av anställning, ledarskap och organisationsförändring. De psykosociala faktorerna inkluderade bland annat krav i form av spänt arbete och anställningsotrygghet medan resurser exempelvis inkluderade kontroll och socialt stöd.

    För att klargöra hur vanligt förekommande de identifierade organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorerna är bland kvinnor och män användes nationellt representativ statistik. Sammanställningen av underlaget visar på vissa skillnader mellan yrkesarbetande kvinnor och män i Sverige. Exempelvis är det en större andel kvinnor än män som arbetar deltid, har skiftarbete och anger höga krav och lägre resurser. Jämfört  med kvinnor är det exempelvis en större andel män som har långa arbetstider. För övriga organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer är dock andelen kvinnor och män överlag relativt jämförbar.

    I de systematiska översiktsstudier som utgör grund för den här kunskapssammanställningen finns olika samband. Vi kodade de samband som anger hur olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer är kopplade till olika utfall. Den här kodningen resulterade i att vi identifierade 23 olika utfall. De här utfallen delades in i två övergripande kategorier, nämligen arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall. Arbetsrelaterade utfall omfattar tre underkategorier: arbetsrelaterade attityder, arbetsrelaterade beteenden och andra arbetsrelaterade utfall. Den andra övergripande kategorin, som inkluderar hälsorelaterade utfall, delades in i psykisk respektive fysisk hälsa. Sammantaget resulterade det här i ett stort antal möjliga samband att undersöka.

    De övergripande samband som framkom visar vad som är känt från tidigare systematiska översiktsstudier, nämligen att en rad olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer har betydelse för olika ar bets- och hälsorelaterade utfall. När det gäller kvinnor och män mer specifikt, eller yrken och sektorer där kvinnor eller män är i majori tet, är kunskapsläget mer oklart. Den slutsatsen gäller med utgång punkt i vad som framgår av systematiska litteraturöversikter och metaanalyser. De samband som ändå finns rapporterade för kvinnor respektive män tyder dock på att betydelsen av olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer för olika utfall är jämförbar för kvinnor och män. Det relativt sett oklara kunskapsläget kan hänga samman med att separata analyser av samband för kvinnor respektive män försvåras av att enskilda studier inte alltid analyserar samband separat för kvinnor och män.

    Med tanke på att det finns vissa variationer i förekomsten av olika organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer mellan kvinnor och män kan det möjligen framstå som något förvånande att resultaten på en övergripande nivå visar att betydelsen av organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer för olika arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall är jämförbar för kvinnor och män. Det är dock viktigt att beakta att variationer i förekomst av organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer mellan kvinnor och män bara ger en del av en komplex bild. Befintlig offentlig statistik avseende organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer skulle kunna länkas till olika utfall för att klargöra och följa utvecklingen av sambanden mellan arbetsmiljöfaktorer och relevanta utfall över tid. Sådana analyser skulle kunna bidra till bättre förståelse av skillnader och likheter mellan kvinnor och män, liksom mellan kvinnor och män i kvinno- respektive mansdominerade yrken och sektorer.

    Sådana analyser skulle, tillsammans med forskning som belyser arbetsmiljön och dess konsekvenser i olika organisatoriska kontexter, ge värdefulla bidrag för att bättre förstå kvinnors och mäns arbetsvillkor. Sådana underlag skulle också underlätta för arbetsgivare att följa lagstiftning och regelverk kring arbetsmiljö och även underlätta Arbetsmiljöverkets inspektionsarbete för att främja ett hälsosamt och hållbart arbetsliv för olika grupper av anställda. De samband som dokumenteras i den här kunskapssammanställningen visar att alltför höga krav och begränsade resurser i arbetet generellt sett hänger samman med lägre arbetstrivsel, en ökad vilja att säga upp sin anställning samt sämre psykisk och fysisk hälsa. Resultaten visar också att det finns en gedigen kunskap om vilka organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer som kan bidra till positiva arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall. Det visar på vikten av att främja en generellt god arbetsmiljö, för kvinnor såväl som för män, för olika yrken och för arbetsmarknadens olika sektorer.

  • 2016. Petra Lindfors, Lisa Folkesson Hellstadius, V. Östberg. Proceedings from the Fourth Annual Conference of The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine

    Aim: Measures of perceived stress have been criticised for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods: Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) 30 minutes after waking up, 3) 60 minutes after waking up, and 4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analysed for cortisol. Results: Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. Conclusions: To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents. Also, the finding suggests that health psychology research on adolescent stress should focus on multiple biomarkers.

  • 2016. Petra Lindfors. Proceedings from the Fourth Annual Conference of The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine

    Background: Contextual factors including neighbourhood status have consistently been associated with health disparities. Focusing on mechanisms, this study investigated linkages between psychosocial stress, health and cortisol in working women (N=542) living in high and low status neighbourhoods. Method: Women living with children in objectively defined high and low status neighbourhoods in Stockholm County suburban areas were invited to a questionnaire study and a subsample (n=88) also

    provided salivary samples analysed for cortisol. Results: Results showed that women in high status neighbourhoods had significantly better selfrated health while women in low status neighbourhoods had significantly lower waking cortisol. However, there were no group differences in aggregate cortisol measures. Conclusions The findings follow previous research with cortisol results tentatively suggesting hypocortisolism as a pathway linking neighbourhood status and health disparities, albeit a less consistent finding in this particular sample. This may relate to the Swedish welfare state and its way of fostering of equality, which is an important contextual aspect to factor in also in health psychology research.

  • 2016. Maria Öhrstedt, Petra Lindfors. European Journal of Psychology of Education 31 (2), 209-223

    Research on students' adoption of course-specific approaches to learning in parallel courses is limited and inconsistent. This study investigated second-semester psychology students' levels of deep, surface and strategic approaches in two courses running in parallel within a real-life university setting. The results showed significant differences in course-specific adoption regardless of approach. However, the strategic approach seemed more stable. Sub-groups of students exhibited substantial variation: more than half of the students adopted similar approaches in both courses while large minorities showed great variability. Students scoring low on the surface approach, high on the deep approach or high on the strategic approach to learning were flexible in adopting different parallel approaches. However, students scoring high on the surface approach, low on the deep approach or low on the strategic approach seemed stable across contexts. This suggests that even smaller variations in teaching and learning environments can influence students' approaches to learning.

Visa alla publikationer av Petra Lindfors vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 16 maj 2017

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