Anna Lindqvist


Visa sidan på svenska
Works at Department of Psychology
Visiting address Frescati hagväg 14
Postal address Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm


A selection from Stockholm University publication database
  • 2013. Anna Lindqvist. NORA 21 (3), 218-231

    The odour perception of perfumes is claimed to be associated with gender. Although a gender-sensitive research approach is desirable when the gender variable is in focus, a deeper analysis of this association is uncommon. In this study, 18 participants (aged 20–30 years) gender categorized 12 perfumes. A gender-sensitive approach was applied to the analysis of the gender associations when sniffing perfumes, in order to examine how the participants' gender categorizations correspond to the commercial classifications of the 12 perfumes. The results demonstrate that the participants' gender associations of the perfumes constitute a scale reflecting the perfumes' odour qualities, where only the perfumes perceived as extremely feminine or masculine were categorized in the same way as the commercial classifications. It is therefore argued that the gender dichotomy of femininity and masculinity does not correspond to the perceived gender associations of perfumes in the present study.

  • Conference Hen can do it
    2013. Emma Bäck, Anna Lindqvist, Marie Gustafsson Sendén.
  • 2013. Anna Lindqvist. Masculinity and Femininity, 143-154

    Book Description: In this book, the authors discuss the stereotypes and myths, psychology and role of culture in masculinity and femininity gender issues. Topics include student teachers' changing perceptions of gender advantages and disadvantages in the New Zealand primary school environment; the performance of black masculinity in Michael Jackson's "Bad" video; masculinity among Latino men in the wake of Arizona's 1070 Senate bill; changing masculinity norms in China and India from advertising-based observations; "Mulan" and western military mothers; gendered attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Latino and Caucasian men; the effect of culture and gender on the relationship between justice and organizational outcomes in Korea and Malaysia; measuring gender myths and gender-sensitive research in experimental psychology; and the influence of perceived masculinity upon college males' health and wellness.

  • 2013. Anna Lindqvist, Mats Nilsson, Moustafa Bensafi.

    How we smell is important to a lot of people, as indicated by the high spending on perfumes. Most perfumes are categorized as feminine or masculine, and this gender categorization is an important factor when people purchase perfumes. This thesis explores odor perception and perfume preference when the person sniffing the perfume does not know the commercial gender categorization. Three psychophysical experiments were conducted, in which the participants scaled the femininity and masculinity of the perfumes, indicated preferences, and gender categorized the perfumes. The perfumes were presented both in glass bottles and when applied on human skin. Results of three experiments indicate that female and male participants (20–30 years old) preferred the same perfumes, both for themselves and for their potential partners. The preferred perfumes tended to be “unisex,” that is, perceived as neither strongly feminine nor strongly masculine. The participants did not succeed well in identifying the commercial gender categorizations of the perfumes, and they did not succeed in guessing the gender of the human when the perfumes were applied on human skin. The commercial gender associations of the perfumes only corresponded to how they were perceived in the case of extremely feminine or extremely masculine perfumes. I conclude that the gender categorizations of most perfumes are not related to how they are actually perceived.

  • 2012. Anders Höglund (et al.). Polymer degradation and stability 97 (4), 481-487

    Human perception of odour is presented as a tool to detect early degradation of polymeric materials. Polyamide 66 (PA66) was selected as model material and subjected to accelerated ageing through thermo-oxidation. After different degradation times, participants smelled at the headspace of jars with aged polymer and scaled their perceived odour intensity. In parallel, conventional analysis by GC-MS and tensile testing was performed to measure the volatile compounds released and accompanying changes in mechanical properties during degradation. Perceived odour intensity correlated with a significant deterioration in mechanical properties and the release profiles of eight degradation products. This relationship was detected at a very early stage of degradation before any significant changes could be observed in thermal and surface properties. Odour perception, thus, constitutes a rapid and convenient method to determine the quality of plastic materials.

  • 2012. Anna Lindqvist. Chemosensory perception 5 (2), 197-204

    Perfumes are claimed to be an important factor in human social communication. Previous research on perfumes has mainly considered masculinity and femininity as two opposite poles of the same scale, while in this study, 18 naive participants scaled the femininity and masculinity of 12 perfumes as two independent attributes. They also indicated if they wanted to use the perfumes themselves (self-preference), if they wanted their partners to use the perfumes (partner preference), and the perceived pleasantness. It was found that higher scores of pleasantness were assigned to fragrances for daytime wear. Based on the olfactory description of perfumes available on the web (, a method is proposed to predict the perceived femininity. Predicted values were strongly correlated (r = 0.87, p = 0.0002) with femininity ratings obtained from the panel. The results show that self-preference and partner preference were positively correlated with each other (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) and with the pleasantness, indicating that if the participants liked a perfume, they both wanted to use it themselves and wanted their partner to use it. Nonetheless, the observed correlation is influenced by one perfume that was perceived as unpleasant, and further studies will be required to better understand the gender associations of perfumes and their impact on self-preference and partner preference.

  • 2012. Anna Lindqvist. Journal of sensory studies 27 (6), 490-497

    The perception of fragrances has been a growing field of interest, where perfumes classified as either typically feminine or typically masculine primarily have been used as stimuli. The current study explored gender associations and preferences of more unisex perfumes found in the middle of a gender continuum of fragrances, both when the fragrances were applied on humans, and when they were presented in glass bottles. Blindfolded participants indicated if they wanted to use the fragrances themselves, if they wanted their partner to use the perfumes, scaled gender associations (femininity and masculinity) for each perfume and tried to guess the gender of the person each perfume was applied on when not presented in a bottle. Results show that the gender of the person that the perfume was applied on did not affect the participants' preference or their gender scaling. Moreover, the preference did not differ between female and male participants, indicating that the commercial gender categorization is less important to the perfume consumers. Practical Implications On the commercial market, most perfumes are classified as either feminine or masculine, although the odor quality of feminine and masculine odors are overlapping and constitute a continuum rather than two separate clusters of odors. Earlier research has shown that participants tend to prefer perfumes positioned in the middle of this gender continuum. The current study investigates gender associations and preferences of perfumes from the middle of the gender continuum while these are applied on humans. When blindfolded participants evaluated their perception of the perfumes in this study, it became clear that neither the gender of the humans that the perfumes were applied on, nor the commercial gender labeling of the perfumes were important to their perception. Consequently, the commercial gender categorization does not seem to be sufficient for all perfumes. Instead, the classification of perfumes could be according to other aspects, e.g., according to odor quality.

  • 2012. Anna Lindqvist, Anders Höglund, Birgitta Berglund. Perception 41 (11), 1373-1391

    Twenty participants scaled similarities in odour quality, odour intensity and pleasantness/unpleasantness of 10 binary and 5 higher-order mixtures of 5 odorous degradation products from the polymer Polyamide 6.6. The perceived odour qualities of all binary mixtures were represented well as intermediary vectors relative to their component-odour vectors in a three-component principal components analysis. The odour qualities of the floral/fruity 2-pentylcyclopentan-1-one and the sharp/cheese-like pentanoic acid contributed profoundly to their binary mixtures, as did the minty cyclopentanone, but in fewer cases. Conversely, the ether-like 2-methyl pyridine and nutty butanamide did not contribute much. Odour similarity was shown to be caused by odour quality, rather than odour intensity. Three out of five degradation products formed distinct clusters of odours and were therefore interpreted to be profound contributors to the odour quality of the binary mixtures. The higher-order mixtures created new odour qualities which were completely different and untraceable to their various parts as perceived alone. These results demonstrate that it is critical to research the perception of natural mixtures in order to be able to understand the human olfactory code.

Show all publications by Anna Lindqvist at Stockholm University

Last updated: March 23, 2018

Bookmark and share Tell a friend