Stockholm university

Gláucia Laís SalomãoResearcher

About me

I am a researcher in Speech and Voice Science. My main research interests are in the human voice, both in speech and singing, particularly 

  • the relationships between voice acoustics, voice production and voice perception
  • the communication of emotions through voice 
  • the neurobiological correlates of voice production and voice perception of emotions
  • the neurobiological correlates of emotional empathy arising from "emotional voices"

I received my Ph.D. in Linguistics/Voice Acoustics in 2009 and this included a scholarship for the doctoral stage carried out in the Department of Speech, Music and Hearing at the Royal Institute of Technology (TMH-KTH). I moved from Brazil to Sweden in 2010 and since then I have worked in various voice-related research projects at KTH as well as in cooperation with other European universities. 

A grant awarded by the Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center (SUBIC) in 2020 has facilitated the initiation of the project "Listening to other's emotions". This project has now been awarded grants by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (Stiftelsen Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P22-0574). With the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), I aim to investigate the neural representations underlying empathy in relation to emotional voices. "Listening to other's emotions"  started in March, 2023, and is being carried out in collaboration with SUBIC, Karolinska Institute and the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics (Germany). 







Selected peer-reviewed original articles, conference contributions and book chapter

Salomão GL, Sardarian N, Schieche CF, Almeida R (2024) “Inner voices”. A pilot study on the similarities between neuro representations underlying voice imagery and actual voice production. 15th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC), Santander, Spain

Salomão GL, Schieche CF (2024) Do I feel what I express? Relationships between objective and subjective measurements of the emotional experience. The Voice Foundation's 52ndAnnual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, Philadelphia, USA. Accepted

Sundberg J, Salomão GL, Scherer K (2023) Emotional Expressivity in Singing. Assessing physiological and Acoustic indicators of two opera Singers' Voice Characteristics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Salomão GL (2023) Patterns of neural activity associated with production and perception of emotional voices. An fMRI pilot study. The Voice Foundation's 52ndAnnual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, Philadelphia, USA

Salomão GL (2022) Listening to other's emotions: a fMRI case-study on empathy arising from emotional voices. 14th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC), Tallinn, Estonia

Sundberg J, Salomão GL, Scherer K (2022) Subglottal pressure and glottal resistance in two opera singers’ expression of emotion. A study of voice source and long-term average spectrum. 14th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC), Tallinn, Estonia

Mariz J, Camargo Z, Salomão GL (2022) Application of the VPA for perceptual assessment of voice quality in medium and high ranges in singing: preliminary findings. 14th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC), Tallinn, Estonia

Salomão GL (2022) Hearing emotions: an fMRI pilot study of neural activities underlying production and perception of emotional voices. The Voice Foundation's 51st Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, Philadelphia, USA

Salomão GL, Sundberg, J., Scherer, K. (2022) Expressivity in singing. A study of physiologically related parameters underlying vocal expression of emotions. 7th International Physiology and Acoustics of Singing Conference, Virtual Conference

Sundberg J, Salomão GL, Scherer K (2021) Analizing Emotion Expression in Singing via Flow Glottograms, Long-Term-Average Spectra, and Listener Evaluation. J Voice

Salomão GL (2020) How voice mirrors emotions: relationships between emotions and physiological, aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of phonation. Brazilian Otorhinolaryngology Foundation. Virtual Conference.

Salomão GL (2020) Como a voz reflete emoções: uma interpretação neurofisiológica de dados de expressão vocal [How voice reflects emotions: a neurophysiological interpretation of vocal expression data]. XXVIII Brazilian Congress of Speech-Language Pathology and V Ibero-American Congress of Speech Pathology. Virtual Conference

Friberg A, Lindeberg T, Hellwagner M, Helgason P, Salomão GL, Elowsson A, Lemaitre G, Ternström S (2018) Prediction of three articulatory categories in vocal sound imitations using models for auditory receptive fields. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 144(3): 1467-1483

Sundberg J, Salomão GL, & Scherer KR (2018) What does LTAS tell about the voice source? The Voice Foundation Annual 's 47th Annual Symposium, Philadelphia, USA

Sundberg J, Salomão GL, & Scherer KR (2017) Emotion Expression in Singing Voice Source: Characteristics and Emotional Coloring Used by Three World-Renowned Male Singers. The Voice Foundation Annual 's 46th Annual Symposium, Philadelphia, USA

Salomão GL (2017) Expressão Vocal de Emoções: Metáforas Sonoras, Fala e Canto (Vocal Expression of Emotions: Sound Metaphors, Speech and Singing). In: Madureira, S. (org) Sonoridades – Sonorities. Edição da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, ISBN 978-85-60453-32-0

Helgason P, Salomão GL, Ternström S (2016) A database of articulatory annotations of vocal imitations, Proceedings of the XXIX Swedish Phonetics Conference, Stockholm, Sweden

Salomão GL, Sundberg J, & Scherer KR (2015) Emotional Coloring of the Singing Voice, PEVOC 11th Pan-European Voice Conference, Florence, Italy

Salomão GL, Sundberg J, Scherer KR (2015) Emotional coloring in singing: An in-depth spectral analysis of a tenor's voice, IV International Conference on Music and Emotion, Geneva, Switzerland

Eyben F, Salomão GL, Sundberg J, Scherer K, & Schuller B (2015) Emotion in The Singing Voice A Deeper Look at Acoustic Features in the Light of Automatic Classification, EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, 2015-2019

Södersten M, Salomão GL, McAllister A, Ternström S (2015) Natural Voice Use in Patients With Voice Disorders and Vocally Healthy Speakers Based on 2 Days Voice Accumulator Information From a Database, Journal of Voice, 29(5), 646 -646

Gerholm T, Gustavsson L, Salomão GL, Schwarz I-C (2015) The Swedish MINT Project: modelling infant language acquisition from parent-child interaction, WEIRCLE, Paris, France

Scherer KR, Sundberg J, Tamarit L, Salomão GL (2014) Comparing the acoustic expression of emotion in the speaking and singing voice, Computer Speech & Language, 29(1), 218–235

Salomão GL (2013) Relevance of glottal flow parameters to the perception of voice quality, 29th World Congress of the IALP 2013, Torino, Italy

Salomão GL (2013) Relationships between flow glottal parameters and the perception of the voice quality, PEVOC 9thPan-European Voice Conference 2013. Prague, Czech Republic

Södersten M, Salomão GL, Ternström S, McAllister A (2013) Voice use during two days in patients with voice disorders and vocally healthy speakers based on voice accumulator information from a database. Occupational Voice Symposium 2013, London, England

Camargo Z, Salomão GL, Pinho S (2011) Análise acústica e aerodinâmica da voz (Acoustic and aerodynamic assessment of voice). In: Caldas, S., Melo, J., Martins, R., & Selaimen, S. (Eds.), Tratado de Otorrinolaringologia [Treatise on Otorhinolaryngology], Editora Roca. ISBN-13: 978-8572419222

Salomão GL, & Sundberg J (2009) What do male singers mean by modal and falsetto register? An investigation of the glottal voice source, Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 34(2), 73-83

Salomão GL, & Sundberg J (2008) Relation between perceived voice register and flow glottogram parameters in males, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(1), 546-551

Salomão GL, & Sundberg J (2008) Voice-source differences between male singers’ modal and falsetto registers, Voice Foundation's 37th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, Philadelphia, USA

Salomão GL (2008) Registros vocais no canto: aspectos perceptivos, acústicos, aerodinâmicos e fisiológicos da voz modal e da voz de falsete [Vocal Registers: perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and physiological aspects of modal and falsetto voices]. Doctoral thesis in Applied Linguistic. Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil.


Salomão GL (2008) Relationship between perceived vocal registers and glottal flow parameters: preliminary results, Speech Prosody 2008, Campinas, Brazil

Salomão GL (1998) Expressividade da Fala. Relações entre expressão vocal e conteúdo emotivo [Expressiveness of Speech. Relationships between vocal expression and emotional content]. Masters Dissertation in Semiotics and General Linguistics. São Paulo University, Brazil.

 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15479.64163/1

Translation and technical review of book

Salomão GL (2015) Ciência da Voz: Fatos sobre a Voz na Fala e no Canto

Translation Swedish-Portuguese of "Röstlära Fakta om rösten i tal och sång" (Voice Science Facts on Voice in Speech and Singing) of Johan Sundberg. Edusp-Editora da Universidade de São Paulo. ISBN-13: 978-8531415104.



Research projects


A selection from Stockholm University publication database

  • Analyzing Emotion Expression in Singing via Flow Glottograms, Long-Term-Average Spectra, and Expert Listener Evaluation

    2021. Johan Sundberg, Gláucia Laís Salomão, Klaus R. Scherer. Journal of Voice 35 (1), 52-60



    Acoustic aspects of emotional expressivity in speech have been analyzed extensively during recent decades. Emotional coloring is an important if not the most important property of sung performance, and therefore strictly controlled. Hence, emotional expressivity in singing may promote a deeper insight into vocal signaling of emotions. Furthermore, physiological voice source parameters can be assumed to facilitate the understanding of acoustical characteristics.


    Three highly experienced professional male singers sang scales on the vowel /ae/ or /a/ in 10 emotional colors (Neutral, Sadness, Tender, Calm, Joy, Contempt, Fear, Pride, Love, Arousal, and Anger). Sixteen voice experts classified the scales in a forced-choice listening test, and the result was compared with long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) parameters and with voice source parameters, derived from flow glottograms (FLOGG) that were obtained from inverse filtering the audio signal.


    On the basis of component analysis, the emotions could be grouped into four “families”, Anger-Contempt, Joy-Love-Pride, Calm-Tender-Neutral and Sad-Fear. Recognition of the intended emotion families by listeners reached accuracy levels far beyond chance level. For the LTAS and FLOGG parameters, vocal loudness had a paramount influence on all. Also after partialing out this factor, some significant correlations were found between FLOGG and LTAS parameters. These parameters could be sorted into groups that were associated with the emotion families.


    (i) Both LTAS and FLOGG parameters varied significantly with the enactment intentions of the singers. (ii) Some aspects of the voice source are reflected in LTAS parameters. (iii) LTAS parameters affect listener judgment of the enacted emotions and the accuracy of the intended emotional coloring.

    Read more about Analyzing Emotion Expression in Singing via Flow Glottograms, Long-Term-Average Spectra, and Expert Listener Evaluation
  • What does LTAS tell about the voice source?

    2018. Johan Sundberg, Gláucia Laís Salomão, Klaus R. Scherer. 47th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, 15-15


    Objective: The long-term-average spectrum, or LTAS has been extensively used in voice research. It provides an overall measure of voice characteristics allowing to derive a large number of parameters. A minimalistic set of parameters has been identified which offers the most essential properties [Eyben et al., 2015; 2016; Scherer et al., 2017]. LTAS analysis is typically applied to audio signals of running speech or continuous singing. It reflects the combination of formant frequency and voice source characteristics. Often, e.g. in clinical settings, it is relevant to distinguish between these two sources Voice source analysis can be performed by means of inverse filtering. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between LTAS and voice source properties.

    Method: Three internationally touring male singers sang scales in eleven different emotional colours. This material was analysed by inverse filtering as well as in terms of LTAS. The correlations between the averages across the scale tones of the flow glottogram parameters and minimalistic set of LTAS parameters were analysed.

    Results/Conclusions: A strong negative correlation was found between spectral slope and the flow glottogram’s maximum flow declination rate MFDR, and a strong positive correlation between proportion of spectral energy below 1000Hz and H1-H2. Somewhat surprisingly, a strong negative correlation was found between equivalent sound level and the normalized and un-normalized amplitude quotients (the ratio between AC peak-to-peak amplitude of the flow glottogram and MFDR). Thus, these LTAS parameters seem particularly informative with respect to voice source characteristics.

    Read more about What does LTAS tell about the voice source?
  • Expressão vocal de emoções [Vocal expression of emotions]: metáfora sonora, fala e canto [Sound metaphors, speech and singing]

    2016. Gláucia Laís Salomão. Sonoridades [Sonorities], 31-43


    The communication of emotions is crucial to social relationships and plays a fundamental role in maintaining the social order between people. In this chapter we are looking at the communication of emotions through two expressive modalities that make use of sound as a mean of communication, i.e. speech and singing. Throughout the text we argue in favor of the idea that the vocal expression of emotions reflects physiological aspects associated to the emotion itself that is expressed; that there are many similarities between the expressive patterns found in speech and in singing; and that the singing is expressive bacause it has traces of expressive patterns of speech.

    Read more about Expressão vocal de emoções [Vocal expression of emotions]
  • Emotion in the singing voice—a deeper look at acoustic features in the light of automatic classification

    2015. Florian Eyben (et al.). EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing


    We investigate the automatic recognition of emotions in the singing voice and study the worth and role of a variety of relevant acoustic parameters. The data set contains phrases and vocalises sung by eight renowned professional opera singers in ten different emotions and a neutral state. The states are mapped to ternary arousal and valence labels. We propose a small set of relevant acoustic features basing on our previous findings on the same data and compare it with a large-scale state-of-the-art feature set for paralinguistics recognition, the baseline feature set of the Interspeech 2013 Computational Paralinguistics ChallengE (ComParE). A feature importance analysis with respect to classification accuracy and correlation of features with the targets is provided in the paper. Results show that the classification performance with both feature sets is similar for arousal, while the ComParE set is superior for valence. Intra singer feature ranking criteria further improve the classification accuracy in a leave-one-singer-out cross validation significantly.

    Read more about Emotion in the singing voice—a deeper look at acoustic features in the light of automatic classification
  • The Swedish MINT Project: modelling infant language acquisition from parten-child interaction

    2015. Tove Gerholm (et al.).


    The MINT-project is a longitudinal study of verbal and nonverbal interaction between 73 Swedish children and their parents, recorded in lab environment from 3 months to 3 years of age. The overall goal of the project is to deepen our understanding of how language acquisition takes place in a multimodal and interactional framework. 

    Read more about The Swedish MINT Project

Show all publications by Gláucia Laís Salomão at Stockholm University