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Victoria BlomAssistant Professor

Publications

A selection from Stockholm University publication database

  • The Role of Executive Function in the Effectiveness of Multi-Component Interventions Targeting Physical Activity Behavior in Office Workers

    2022. Rui Wang (et al.). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (1)

    Article

    A knowledge gap remains in understanding how to improve the intervention effectiveness in office workers targeting physically active (PA) behavior. We aim to identify the modifying effect of executive function (EF) on the intervention effectiveness targeting PA-behaviors, and to verify whether the observed effect varies by Job Demand Control (JDC) categories. This workplace-based intervention study included 245 participants who were randomized into a control group and two intervention arms—promoting physical activity (iPA) group or reducing sedentary behavior (iSED) group. The interventions were conducted through counselling-based cognitive behavioral therapy and team activities over 6 months. PA-behaviors were measured by an accelerometer. EF was assessed by the Trail Making Test-B, Stroop, and n-back test. The JDC categories were measured by the demand control questionnaire. Higher EF level at baseline was significantly associated with the intervention effect on increased sleep time (β-coefficient: 3.33, p = 0.003) and decreased sedentary time (−2.76, p = 0.049) in the iSED-group. Participants with active jobs (high job demands, high control) presented significantly increased light-intensity PA in the iSED-group in comparison to the control group. Among participants with a high level of EF and active jobs, relative to the control group, the iPA-group showed a substantial increase in light-intensity PA (1.58, p = 0.036) and the iSED-group showed a tendency of reducing sedentary behavior (−5.35, p = 0.054). The findings suggest that office workers with a high EF and active jobs may benefit most from an intervention study targeting PA-behaviors.

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  • Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector

    2017. Victoria Blom (et al.). International Journal of Workplace Health Management 10 (4), 286-299

    Article

    Purpose: Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Findings: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

    Practical implications: Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

    Originality/value: This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

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  • Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to salivary cortisol measures and subjective health complaints in women working in the public sector

    2017. Petra Lindfors (et al.).

    Conference

    Purpose: From a biopsychosocial approach, moderate intensity and variation between demands of different life domains are central to health. Focusing on different aspects of work and non-work demands, we investigated how total workload (TWL) and work-family conflict (WFC) related to the stress marker cortisol and to subjective health complaints (SHC) among women working in the public sector. Overall, we hypothesized that more TWL and WFC would be reflected in poorer health.

    Design/methodology: Data came from a study of 250 women working within the health care sector. All provided self-reports in questionnaires on time spent on TWL and associated stress perceptions, WFC and SHC. A subsample of 68 women provided salivary samples during one workday. These samples were analyzed for cortisol and used to compute aggregate cortisol measures. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to investigate how TWL and WFC were related to cortisol and SHC respectively.

    Results: TWL stress from unpaid work was associated with cortisol. Also, stress from both paid and unpaid work, and TWL-stress, were related to SHC. Importantly, number of hours spent on paid and unpaid work were not linked to any health-related measure. Instead, stress perceptions were associated with both cortisol and SHC. This underscores the importance of individuals’ experiences of demands from different life domains for different health-related measures.

    Limitations: We included only women.

    Research/practical implications: Time use data are insufficient meaning that self-reports of individual experiences are needed.

    Originality/value: Combining biomarker data with self-reports is an obvious strength.

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  • A twin study of work-home interference and the risk of future sickness absence with mental diagnoses

    2016. Pia Svedberg (et al.). European Journal of Public Health, 26, S1

    Conference

    Background

    Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, and have not accounted for genetics and shared everyday environment (familial factors), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study if work-home interference predicts SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors.

    Methods

    This prospective cohort study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women).

    Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors.

    Results

    For women, each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts was associated with SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). With further adjustments for work, health-related or familial factors, none of the associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders.

    Conclusions

    Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health and familial factors are important confounders to consider when researching work-home interference and SA, especially among women. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions.

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  • An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout

    2016. Lisa Mather (et al.). Twin Research and Human Genetics 19 (6), 619-627

    Article

    Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment. Univariate analyses tested sex limitation models and multivariate analysis tested Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models. The phenotypic correlations were 0.71 (0.69-0.74) between MDD and GAD, 0.58 (0.56-0.60) between MDD and burnout, and 0.53 (0.50-0.56) between GAD and burnout. Heritabilities were 45% for MDD, 49% for GAD, and 38% for burnout; no statistically significant sex differences were found. A common pathway model was chosen as the final model. The common factor was influenced by genetics (58%) and unique environment (42%), and explained 77% of the variation in MDD, 69% in GAD, and 44% in burnout. GAD and burnout had additive genetic factors unique to the phenotypes (11% each), while MDD did not. Unique environment explained 23% of the variability in MDD, 20% in GAD, and 45% in burnout. In conclusion, the covariation was explained by an underlying common factor, largely influenced by genetics. Burnout was to a large degree influenced by unique environmental factors not shared with MDD and GAD.

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Show all publications by Victoria Blom at Stockholm University