Two key issues in the field of Climate, Seas and Environment are how the Earth's climate and ecosystems function and how they are affected by human activity.  Understanding these issues requires a holistic approach and interdisciplinary working methods. Consequently, much of the leading research is conducted within several interdisciplinary research centres and major research programmes. The Bolin Centre for Climate Research accommodates nearly all climate research at the University; this collaboration also includes SMHI and KTH. The Stockholm Resilience Centre conducts research on sustainable development and human impact on natural resources and ecosystems. The research programme Ekoklim (Climate change effects on ecosystem services and biodiversity) studies climate and land use effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as how to best manage biodiversity and ecosystem services in the future. Research on eutrophication and the effects of toxic pollutants in the Baltic Sea is collected at the Baltic Sea Centre and the research programme BEAM (Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management), which aim to create knowledge and inform decisions that will contribute to a sustainable management of the Baltic Sea in the long term. The University is also internationally leading when it comes to the study of the Arctic region. Environmental research studies the sources of environmental contaminants, how and in what concentration substances are absorbed by the environment, as well as toxic effects on humans and animals. This research includes collaborations with SweTox and the Science for Life Laboratory.