Research on crime and punishment is conducted in a wide range of disciplines, including criminology, economic history, history, journalism, and law. The research investigates crime and criminality from a variety of perspectives and focuses on law violations committed by individuals, organisations, and governments, as well as how such violations can be prevented or prosecuted. Another focus of study concerns the conditions for, and development of, criminal behaviour. Comparative and historical studies of crime and criminality might focus on how law enforcement has been organised in different societies and different historical periods. The subject matter also has an international dimension, as it studies international security systems and government violations of international regulations. Through the study of criminal law, the subject matter has a special connection to the law programme. In addition, the Department of Criminology and the Department of Law engage in extensive outreach activities in this area by acting as experts, communicating knowledge through the media, and writing consultation responses on legislative matters. The research area has received large grants.