Research in materials chemistry focuses on the production and study of materials with unique properties that are important to sustainable energy production and energy use, as well as environment and health. Porous materials is a central field in which new materials and sustainable processes are developed for the transformation and refinement of biomass into valuable products. Nanomaterials are tailored to have new and improved functions, including catalytic, mechanical, thermal, magnetic, and optical properties. Ceramic materials that are durable and able to withstand high temperatures can be used in the processing of metal alloys. Understanding the structure of a material is crucial for being able to explain its properties and optimise them for specific applications. Electron microscopy, diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy are examples of important methods used to characterise the structure of a particular material.