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Climate and Atmospheric Circulation

The atmosphere is a complex medium with various interactions involving ocean, clouds, earth surface and has various scales. The course presents in a didactive way the theory of the formation of weather system and links energy balance and large scale circulation to climate and climate change.

Information for admitted students Spring 2021

Congratulations! You have been admitted at Stockholm University and we hope that you will enjoy your studies with us.

In order to ensure that your studies begin as smoothly as possible we have compiled a short checklist for the beginning of the semester.

Follow the instructions on wether you have to reply to your offer or not.


Checklist for admitted students

  1. Activate your university account

    The first step in being able to register and gain access to all the university's IT services.

  2. Register at your department

    Registration can be done in different ways. Read the instructions from your department below.

  3. Read all the information on this page

    Here you will find what you need to know before your course or programme starts.


Your seat may be withdrawn if you do not register according to the instructions provided by your department.

Information from the department - courses

Welcome to your studies at the Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University.

All accepted students receive a welcome letter via email with important information for their studies.

Roll Call

At MISU, the course starts with a mandatory roll call. You will get more detailed information about the roll call via email. If you plan to start the education but for some reason cannot participate at the roll call, please contact our study counselor. Otherwise you risk losing your spot in the course. Contact information for the study counselor is listed at the bottom of this page.


If you are accepted to a course, you can register for it through your University account. If you have problems registering, please contact our study counselor. Contact information is listed at the bottom of this page.

Conditionally accepted

If you have been accepted with conditions then you must contact the study counselor before you can start the education. Please do this as soon as possible and well ahead of the start of the course. Contact information is listed at the bottom of this page.

On a waiting list

Have you received information that you are on a waiting list for a course? You will always be contacted by us via email if you are accepted. Generally, we do not accept anyone from the waiting list beyond 1 week into the semester.

Find your way to MISU

MISU has its own lecture rooms and all of them are in the same corridor as the rest of the department. You will get your own entry card for access to the department. MISU is located on 6th floor, building C in the Arrhenius Laboratories.

Classes during the spring semester 2021

Classes will be done in hybrid mode at MISU. That means that lectures can be attended onsite by a maximum of 8 participants, but that the lectures also are broadcast online. Some parts of the course may require physical presence. You will be informed if that is the case during the course and attending will be according to current regulations. We are trying to set the schedule so that rush hour commuting can be avoided as much as possible. Most staff members are working from home to facilitate for classes. Read more about how we have adjusted MISU for teaching during the Corona pandemic.

You can get more detailed information about each course via the teaching platform Athena. You will get access to each respective course page as soon as you activate your University account and have been registered for the course. If you have any questions, please contact the study counselor (contact information below).


Study counselor

Phone: 08-162418

Welcome activities

Stockholm University organises a series of welcome activities that stretch over a few weeks at the beginning of each semester. The programme is voluntary (attendance is optional) and includes Arrival Service at the airport and an Orientation Day, see more details about these events below.
Your department may also organise activities for welcoming international students. More information will be provided by your specific department. 

Find your way on campus

Stockholm University's main campus is in the Frescati area, north of the city centre. While most of our departments and offices are located here, there are also campus areas in other parts of the city.

Find your way on campus

Read more

New student

During your studies

Student unions

For new international students

Pre-departure information

New in Sweden

Large scales, the main focus here, refer to spatial scales larger than synoptic scales (few thousands km). At those scales the atmosphere tends to be close to geostrophic balance. Waves involved in synoptic and large scales play an important role in generating instabilities and controlling storms, particularly in the midlatitudes. They also play a major role in transporting heat poleward from the subtropics.

The climate and atmospheric circulation course deals with the evolution of weather systems and storm development in the midlatitude as well as large scale circulation. These scales impact climate variability and therefore affect our life on short and long terms. An outstanding feature of the course is that it brings together a unique combination of the basic theory of quasi-geostrophy and baroclinic instability with large scale circulation and their application to climate.

The course additionally gives large-scale perspective on the climate system in terms of radiative balance and energy and momentum transport, and introduces important biogeochemical cycles; it further discussed mechanisms for natural climate variability and anthropogenically induced climate change ,as well as forcing, feedback and climate sensitivity.

The course is composed of a mixture of theory and practicals. The course has three main parts.

Part 1 (DYN, 7.5 hp) deals with the main dynamical processes controlling weather systems in the midlatitudes, namely quasi-geostrophy and baroclinic instability in addition to energy conversion. Baroclinic instability is the main mechanism responsible for the formation of midlatitude weather systems.

Part 2 (CLIM, 5.5 hp) deals with application to general circulation and introduction to Earth’s climate variability and change, including the role of ocean circulation and clouds and climate sensitivity.

Part 3 (PROJ, 2 hp)  consists of a project, where the climate of a chosen region is studied and discussed in relation to the general circulation. The practical part consists of a lab work based on a computer model on part 1.  A fun rotating tank experiment will also be shown to students, which emulates large scale Rossby waves and  midlatitude baroclininc instability.

  • Course structure

    Students with background knowledge equivalent to atmospheric physics and chemistry (MO4000), with 30 credits, can easily follow the course. The climate and atmospheric circulation course covers the theory of midlatitude atmospheric dynamics, responsible for weather systems and ends up with application to Earth’s climate.

    Part 1 of the course (Dynamics) starts with a brief description of main atmospheric waves in the midlatitudes, e.g Rossby waves, and the formation of synoptic weather systems. The course then moves on to fully present quasi-gestrophic theory and atmospheric waves. Baroclinic instability theory is then discussed along with energy conversion based on a simple two-layer model. 

    Part 2 of the course (Climate) then discusses large scale circulation cells, e.g. Hadley and Ferrel cells, and their role in transporting heat poleward. It then discusses subjects related to climate variability and change including clouds and greenhouse effect, ocean circulation and climate sensitivity.

    Part 3 of the course (Project)  is a 2hp project, which the students execute throughout the second half of the course.

    Teaching format

    The course is composed of lectures (theory), slide presentations, tutorials/exercises and laboration, as well as home assignments. The lectures cover all the theory of the formation of weather systems in the midlatitudes, large scale circulation and energy transport in the ocean and atmosphere as well as energy balance, forcing and feedback, and climate sensitivity. The lectures present and deal with results obtained from observations and/or experiments in addition to applications from climate model simulations.

    To get acquainted more with the theory, the lectures are complemented with tutorials in the form of corrected exercises and home assignments. The practical work consists of a computer lab. on modeling baroclinic instability in the midlatitudes. The labs and project are to be written up, and the project presented orally.

    Course material

    You can find further information related to the course on the course Athena-site at once you have registered for the course.


    The examination is done by a written exam covering the course content, one exam in dynamics and one exam in climate. In addition, home assignments and project work are included in the grading, and the lab report included in the evaluation. The final grade is obtained as a weighted average of the written exams (dynamics and climate), and the small project. The passing grades are A-E, and the grade of each part has to be at least 50%. No mark is given to the lab, which is graded as Pass or fail.


    Here is a link to a list of examiners for 2020:

  • Schedule

    The schedule will be available no later than one month before the start of the course. We do not recommend print-outs as changes can occur. At the start of the course, your department will advise where you can find your schedule during the course.

    You can search for schedules from previous years in TimeEdit, by entering the course code.

    Link to TimeEdit

  • Course literature

    Note that the course literature can be changed up to two months before the start of the course.

    J. Holton and G. Hakim , 2013: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Academic Press.
    Hartmann, D. L.: Global physical climatology, International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, 1994
    Wallace, J. M. & Hobbs, P. V.: Atmospheric Science, An Introductory Survey, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2006.


  • More information

    Upcoming courses

    The course is given every spring semester.

  • Contact

    Student counselor

    Phone: +46 8 16 24 18