Anna Nyberg är Legitimerad Psykolog och Docent i psykologi på den Epidemiologiska enheten på Stressforskningsinstitutet. Ett av hennes forskningsområden handlar om hur ledarskap på arbetsplatsen påverkar stress, hälsa och hälsorelaterade konsekvenser hos anställda. Under 2014-2017 ledde hon ett projekt finansierat av FORTE som fokuserade på kvinnliga chefers arbetsmiljö, karriärutveckling och hälsa. Under 2017-2019 har hon lett två projekt som undersöker orsakerna till den ökade psykiska ohälsan och sjukfrånvaron för psykiska diagnoser bland anställda i kvinnodominerade branscher och yrken. Projekten fokuserar på organisatoriska och psykosociala faktorer såväl som faktorer i obetalt hem- och hushållsarbete. 2019-2021 leder hon ett projekt finansierat av FORTE om orsaker till och hälsokonsekvenser av genusbaserade trakasserier.
Utöver sitt arbete som forskare har Anna en bakgrund som klinisk psykolog inom arbets- och miljömedicin samt som psykologkonsult inom urval och ledarskapsutveckling.
2003 Psykologexamen, Stockholms universitet
2004 Legitimerad psykolog
2009 Medicine doktor, Karolinska Institutet
I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
How consistently does sleep quality improve at retirement? Prospective analyses with group-based trajectory models
2022. Paraskevi Peristera (et al.). Journal of Sleep Research 31 (2)Artikel
Growing evidence indicates that retiring from paid work is associated, at least in the short-term, with dramatic reductions in sleep difficulties and more restorative sleep. However, much is still not known, in particular how universal these improvements are, how long they last, and whether they relate to the work environment. A methodological challenge concerns how to model time when studying abrupt changes such as retirement. Using data from Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (n = 2,148), we studied difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, premature awakening, restless sleep, a composite scale of these items, and non-restorative sleep. We compared polynomial and B-spline functions to model time in group-based trajectory modelling. We estimated variations in the individual development of sleep difficulties around retirement, relating these to the pre-retirement work environment. Reductions in sleep difficulties at retirement were sudden for all outcomes and were sustained for up to 11 years for non-restorative sleep, premature awakening, and restless sleep. Average patterns masked distinct patterns of change: groups of retirees experiencing greatest pre-retirement sleep difficulties benefitted most from retiring. Higher job demands, lower work time control, lower job control, and working full-time were work factors that accounted membership in these groups. Compared to polynomials, B-spline models more appropriately estimated time around retirement, providing trajectories that were closer to the observed shapes. The study highlights the need to exercise care in modelling time over a sudden transition because using polynomials can generate artefactual uplifts or omit abrupt changes entirely, findings that would have fallacious implications.
A Theoretical Development of the Gender Embodiment of Enrichment
2021. Emma Hagqvist, Anna Nyberg, Constanze Leineweber. Frontiers in Sociology 6Artikel
Enrichment is a phenomenon described as the synergistic and beneficial effects of participating in both work and private life. Far too few studies have acknowledged the role of gender in enrichment. By applying a gender theoretical approach, this article has two aims; first, we aim to study the role of gender in enrichment by examining the factorial structure of enrichment in men and women; secondly, we aim to study the relationship between enrichment and work and private life factors in an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis with measurement in variance was performed and this resulted in a two-factor solution for enrichment for both men and women, representing the two directions of enrichment: work-to-life enrichment (WLE) and life-to-work enrichment (LWE). Factor loadings differ across genders, indicating that men and women construct and value items of enrichment differently. Next, linear mixed models were used to answer the second aim. Results show that gendered cultural norms in work and private life manifest in the relationship between factors in the work and home sphere and enrichment. Factors in work and private life with more or less masculine or feminine epithets relate differently to WLE and LWE for men and women. The main conclusion is that masculine and feminine norms are embodied in the values and experiences of enrichment and factors related to enrichment.
Sexual and gender harassment in Swedish workplaces
2021. Katrina Blindow (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 47 (6), 466-474Artikel
Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate gender harassment and sexual harassment as risk factors for prospective long-term sickness absence (LTSA, >= 21 days). Furthermore, support from colleagues was investigated as a moderating factor of this association.
Methods Information on gender harassment, sexual harassment and support by colleagues were derived from the biannual Swedish Work Environment Survey 1999-2013, a representative sample of the Swedish working population (N=64 297). Information on LTSA as well as demographic and workplace variables were added from register data. Relative rates of LTSA the year following the exposure were determined using modified Poisson regression.
Results Monthly to daily exposure to gender harassment was a risk factor for prospective LTSA among women [rate ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.05] and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10). Monthly to daily exposure to sexual harassment was also a risk factor for LTSA among women (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13). Exposure to sexual or gender harassment once in the last 12 months was not associated with LTSA. There was no support for an interaction between either of the exposures and support from colleagues in relation to LTSA.
Conclusions Sexual harassment and gender harassment appear to contribute to a small excess risk for LTSA among women and men. For both kinds of offensive behaviors, the pervasiveness appears to be important for the outcome. The role of support by colleagues was inconclusive and needs further investigation.
The relationship between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances in the Swedish working population
2021. Meike Heming (et al.). Journal of Sleep Research 30 (5)Artikel
The study investigated the association between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances. We used self-reported data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) collected in 2014, 2016, and 2018. A two-wave design was based on participants who had no exposure to workplace violence or sleep disturbances at baseline (n = 6,928). A three-wave design was based on participants who in addition were unexposed to sleep disturbances in the second wave (n = 6,150). Four items of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire were used to measure sleep disturbances and one question was used to measure the occurrence of workplace violence or threats of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. In the two-wave approach, onset of workplace violence was associated with onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.96). The association was no longer statistically significant after further adjustment for night/evening work, demands, control, and social support at work. In the three-wave approach, results were only suggestive of an association between onset of workplace violence and subsequent onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status. Onset of frequent exposure to workplace violence was associated with subsequent onset of sleep disturbances in the adjusted analyses, but these analyses were based on few individuals (13 exposed versus 5,907 unexposed). The results did not conclusively demonstrate that onset of workplace violence predicts development of sleep disturbances. Further research could elucidate the role of other working conditions.
The role of managerial leadership in sickness absence in health and social care
2021. Johanna Stengård (et al.). BMC Public Health 21 (1)Artikel
Background: The prevalence of sickness absence is particularly high among employees in health and social care, where psychosocial work stressors are pertinent. Managerial leadership is known to affect sickness absence rates, but the role leadership plays in relation to sickness absence is not fully understood; that is, whether poor leadership (i) is associated with sickness absence directly, (ii) is associated with sickness absence indirectly through the establishment of poor psychosocial working conditions, or (iii) whether good leadership rather has a buffering role in the association between work stressors and sickness absence.
Methods: Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, 2010–2016, N=2333) were used. Autoregressive cross-lagged analyses within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework were conducted to test hypotheses i)–iii), targeting managerial leadership, register-based sickness absence and psychosocial work stressors (high psychological demands, poor decision authority and exposure to workplace violence).
Results: A direct association was found between poor leadership and sickness absence two years later, but no associations were found between leadership and the psychosocial work stressors. Finally, only in cases of poor leadership was there a statistically significant association between workplace violence and sickness absence.
Conclusions: Poor managerial leadership may increase the risk of sickness absence among health and social care workers in two ways: first, directly and, second, by increasing the link between workplace violence and sickness absence.
Workplace violence and health in human service industries
2021. Anna Nyberg (et al.). Occupational and Environmental Medicine 78 (2), 69-81Artikel
Objectives To provide systematically evaluated evidence of prospective associations between exposure to physical, psychological and gender-based violence and health among healthcare, social care and education workers.
Methods The guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched for population: human service workers; exposure: workplace violence; and study type:prospective or longitudinal in articles published 1990–August 2019. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Cochrane’s ‘Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies’.
Results After deduplication, 3566 studies remained, of which 132 articles were selected for full-text screening and 28 were included in the systematic review. A majority of the studies focused on healthcare personnel, were from the Nordic countries and were assessed to have medium quality. Nine of 11 associations between physical violence and poor mental health were statistically significant, and 3 of 4 associations between physical violence and sickness absence. Ten of 13 associations between psychological violence and poor mental health were statistically significant and 6 of 6 associations between psychological violence and sickness absence. The only study on gender-based violence and health reported a statistically non-significant association.
Conclusion There is consistent evidence mainly in medium quality studies of prospective associations between psychological violence and poor mental health and sickness absence, and between physical violence and poor mental health in human service workers. More research using objective outcomes, improved exposure assessment and that focus on gender-based violence is needed.
Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence?
2020. Emma Drake (et al.). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 93 (1), 55-65Artikel
Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds. Methods: Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n = 11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index. Results: Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence. Conclusions: We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.
Status incongruence in human service occupations and implications for mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence
2020. Anna Nyberg (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 46 (2), 209-217Artikel
Objective This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that negative status incongruence may contribute to explain higher risk of mental ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations (HSO).
Methods Participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to questionnaires in both 2014 and 2016 (N=11 814; 42% men, 58% women) were included. Status incongruence between register-based educational level and subjective social status was assessed. The association between employment in a HSO and status incongruence was estimated in linear regression analyses adjusted for age, income, work hours, sickness absence, childcare, and job qualification match. The prospective associations between status incongruence and mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence >= 31 days respectively were estimated with logistic regression analyses in models adjusted for age and outcomes at baseline. All analyses were stratified by gender.
Results Employment in a HSO was associated with more negative status incongruence in both genders [standardized coefficient men 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07; women 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09]. More negative status incongruence was furthermore associated with higher odds of mild-to-severe depressive symptoms (men OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26) and sickness absence >= 31 days (men OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.59; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28) two years later.
Conclusion Status incongruence is somewhat higher among HSO than other occupations and associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms and sickness absence.
Study protocol of a co-created primary organizational-level intervention with the aim to improve organizational and social working conditions and decrease stress within the construction industry
2020. Emma Cedstrand (et al.). BMC Public Health 20 (1)Artikel
Background: Within construction industry, physical work exposures have long been recognized as possible determinants for musculoskeletal disorders, but less attention has been given the increasing organizational and social work hazards and stress within this industry. There is to date a lack of knowledge about how to improve organizational and social working conditions and decrease stress within the construction industry.
Methods: This paper outlines the design of a controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a co-created organizational-level intervention with the aim to improve role clarity, quantitative demands, staffing, planning, team effectiveness, psychosocial safety climate and stress. Two regions (> 700 employees) within one large construction company in Sweden will participate as intervention and control group. Further we present the design of the process evaluation assessing fidelity, support from managers, readiness for change and contextual factors. We will utilize questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, observations and documentation as means for data collection, hence a mixed methods approach is applied.
Discussion: The study is expected to contribute to the understanding of how adverse organizational and social working conditions and stress can be improved within the construction industry. By applying co-creation we wish to develop an intervention and implementation strategies that fit to the context, are in line with the needs of end-users and are supported by all management levels - all of which are highlighted features in successful workplace interventions.
Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers
2020. Constanze Leineweber (et al.). Work & Stress 34 (3), 238-258Artikel
The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.
Work related sexual harassment and risk of suicide and suicide attempts
2020. Linda L. Magnusson Hanson (et al.). BMJ. British Medical Journal 370Artikel
Objective: To analyse the relation between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and suicide, as well as suicide attempts.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Participants: 86 451 men and women of working age in paid work across different occupations responded to a self-report questionnaire including exposure to work related sexual harassment between 1995 and 2013. The analytical sample included 85 205 people with valid data on sexual harassment, follow-up time, and age.
Main outcome measures: Suicide and suicide attempts ascertained from administrative registers (mean follow-up time 13 years).
Results: Among the people included in the respective analyses of suicide and suicide attempts, 125 (0.1%) died from suicide and 816 (1%) had a suicide attempt during follow-up (rate 0.1 and 0.8 cases per 1000 person years). Overall, 11 of 4095 participants exposed to workplace sexual harassment and 114 of 81 110 unexposed participants committed suicide, and 61/4043 exposed and 755/80 513 unexposed participants had a record of suicide attempt. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for a range of sociodemographic characteristics, workplace sexual harassment was associated with an excess risk of both suicide (hazard ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 5.34) and suicide attempts (1.59, 1.21 to 2.08), and risk estimates remained significantly increased after adjustment for baseline health and certain work characteristics. No obvious differences between men and women were found.
Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that workplace sexual harassment is prospectively associated with suicidal behaviour. This suggests that suicide prevention considering the social work environment may be useful. More research is, however, needed to determine causality, risk factors for workplace sexual harassment, and explanations for an association between work related sexual harassment and suicidal behaviour.
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