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Constanze LeineweberForskare, Docent

Om mig

Jag arbetar sedan 2007 som forskare vid Stressforskningsinstitutet. Genom mitt arbete som data manager för den Svenska Longitudinella studien Om Sociala förhållanden, arbetsliv och Hälsa (SLOSH, se även, som idag omfattar enkäts- och registerdata om omkring 40.000 personer, kommer jag i kontakt med många olika forskningsfält inom arbetsmiljö och epidemiologi. Mina egna forskningsintressen berör bl.a. samspelet mellan arbete och privatlivet, där jag har publicerat om samband mellan arbete-familj konflikt, kontroll över arbetstider, organisatorisk rättvisa och egenföretagares speciella situation. Jag är även intresserad av och forskar om arbetsmiljöns betydelse för sjukpension och sjukfrånvaro bland vårdpersonal. Nära relaterad till sjukfrånvaro är sjuknärvaro, ett fenomen som jag också har belyst i min forskning. Mycket av min forskning baseras på longitudinella data med upprepade mätningar och jag använder gärna mer avancerade statistiska modeller. Jag handleder studenter på kandidat- och mastersnivå inom ämnen psykologi och folkhälsovetenskap och är för närvarande handledare för tre doktorander. Sedan 2018 är jag associated editor för tidskriften BMC Public Health.


2001 legitimerad psykolog

2004 Med. dr. i psykosocial medicin



I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers: Differences in demographic and work-related factors and associations with health

    2019. Constanze Leineweber (et al.). Work & Stress


    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

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  • Are trajectories of prefered- and expected retirement ages associated with health and effort-impalance at work? Findings from a six-year Swedish longitudinal study

    2019. Marta Sousa-Ribeiro (et al.). Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 1450-1450


    Purpose: One key dimension in the study of retirement decision making is the preferred retirement age (PR-A). Another relevant although less investigated indicator is the age at which one realistically expects to retire (ER-A). This study aimed at identifying trajectories of preferred- and expected retirement age and exploring their associations with changes in self-rated health, depressive symptoms and effortreward imbalance (ERI).

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: The study used data from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sample consisted of 1440 workers aged 50–59 in 2010 who participated in all waves. Latent class growth modeling was used to estimate trajectories of PR-A and ER-A and their associations with self-rated health, depressive symptoms and ERI were investigated. Participants were divided in two groups according to age at T0 (50-54; 5559) and analyses were age stratified.

    Results: Preliminary results suggest both between-person and within-person variability in retirement age preferences and expectations over six years in the two groups. Trajectories characterised by lower PRA were associated with poorer health and higher levels of ERI. ER-A trajectories in turn seem to be less associated with health and ERI.

    Limitations: This study relies exclusively on self-report measures.

    Research/Practical Implications: The findings reinforce the importance of healthy work environments that facilitate a balance between efforts and rewards for promoting longer working lives.

    Originality/Value: Retirement longitudinal studies are scarce and this study is one of the first to investigate longitudinal relationships between PR-A and ER-A trajectories, and health and effort-reward imbalance at work.

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  • Trajectories in Effort-Reward Imbalance Over Time and their Associations with Health Complaints

    2018. Constanze Leineweber (et al.). Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 223-223


    Objectives: The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is one of the predominant models in contemporary stress research. It defines stress as a combination of high efforts at work and low work-related rewards. While ERI has been found to be related to a range of health outcomes, little is known about developments in ERI over time. The aim of this study is to (i) identify long- term patterns (trajectories) of effort-reward imbalance in the Swedish working population, to (ii) describe these trajectories with respect to background and work-related factors, and to (iii) evaluate health complaints associated with these trajectories.

    Methods: The study was based on panel data with four measurement points (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) collected within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Latent class growth modelling was conducted and differences in background and work factors as well as differences in health outcomes, covering self-rated health, sickness absence, depression, musculoskeletal disorder, migraine, cardiovascular heart disease, and blood pressure between trajectories, were analysed.

    Results: Four trajectories were found. A low imbalance trajectory characterised by moderate values of effort and reward comprised the majority of the study population (90%). The next largest trajectory, comprising 4% of all participants, showed the highest baseline value of effort and the lowest baseline value of reward. This trajectory was characterised by a decrease in ERI score followed by an increase and labelled as U-shaped imbalance. The third trajectory, which we called inverted U-shaped, represented 3% of all participants. It was characterised by moderate values of effort matched with moderate values of reward. Its development showed an increase in ERI followed by a decrease. The last trajectory also represented 3% of all participants and was characterised by a rather high mean value in effort in combination with a moderate mean value of reward. This trajectory showed an accelerating increase in ERI over time. We labelled it the increasing imbalance trajectory. The most favourable trajectory was dominated by men working in the private sector, while women were overrepresented in the less favourable ERI trajectories. Also, being in a less favourable trajectory was found to be associated with health complaints and diseases. For the increasing imbalance trajectory, this association remained stable also after controlling for baseline health.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that about 10% of all employees experience an imbalance between efforts and received rewards at work. To a large extent, these workers are women working in the public sector. As effort-reward imbalance is a contributing factor to these workers’ill-health, measures should be taken to increase balance between efforts and rewards, particularly in the most vulnerable groups identified in this study.

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  • A Review of Work-Family Research in the Nordic Region

    2018. Constanze Leineweber, Helena Falkenberg. The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work–Family Interface, 288-302


    A fundamental issue concerning work and family is the extent that women and men work and take care of children. The Nordic countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland for the purposes of this review) are characterized by a “dual-worker model” in which a majority of both women and men participate in paid work, but are also, to some extent, characterized by a “dual-carer model” in which both women and men actively take part in the upbringing of their children (Edlund & Öun, 2016). The Nordic countries have a history of family policies being directed toward both mothers and fathers, and state provisions for dual-earner family support and childcare were developed in a political context with women’s equality in mind (Ellingsaeter & Leira, 2006). Still, the challenge of combining work and family domains is under continual debate and development in the Nordic countries. In the next sections, we will briefly describe the general trends of women’s participation in the labor market in relation to the development of the welfare system. This historical development is crucial for the understanding of how women and men combine work and family in the Nordic countries today.

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  • Associations between onset of effort-reward imbalance at work and onset of musculoskeletal pain

    2018. Jaana I. Halonen (et al.). Pain 159 (8), 1477-1483


    Existing evidence of an association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and musculoskeletal pain is limited, preventing reliable conclusions about the magnitude and direction of the relation. In a large longitudinal study, we examined whether the onset of ERI is associated with subsequent onset of musculoskeletal pain among those free of pain at baseline, and vice versa, whether onset of pain leads to onset of ERI. Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. We used responses from 3 consecutive study phases to examine whether exposure onset between the first and second phases predicts onset of the outcome in the third phase (N = 4079). Effort-reward imbalance was assessed with a short form of the ERI model. Having neck-shoulder and low back pain affecting life to some degree in the past 3 months was also assessed in all study phases. As covariates, we included age, sex, marital status, occupational status, and physically strenuous work. In the adjusted models, onset of ERI was associated with onset of neck-shoulder pain (relative risk [RR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.89) and low back pain (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.50). The opposite was also observed, as onset of neck-shoulder pain increased the risk of subsequent onset of ERI (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.74). Our findings suggest that when accounting for the temporal order, the associations between ERI and musculoskeletal pain that affects life are bidirectional, implying that interventions to both ERI and pain may be worthwhile to prevent a vicious cycle.

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