Gabriela Bjarne LarssonUniversitetslektor
Hittills i min forskning har jag studerat svensk historia under perioden 1250-1500. Det började med att jag i min avhandling undersökte den tilläggslagstiftning som utfärdades som komplement till lagarna. Inom vilka områden var det nödvändigt att komma med tillägg och på vilket sätt förändrade denna lagstiftning innehållet i rikslagen från 1350? Jag visade också hur denna tilläggslagsstiftning påverkade och inkorporerades i den reviderade rikslagen från 1442. I undersökningen diskuterades också lagstiftningens konsekvenser för självägande bönder samt för kyrkan och frälsets landbor.
I min andra monografi intresserade jag mig för hur kvinnor och män förvärvade jordegendomar under senmedeltiden. Bytte de till sig egendomen eller köpte de den, fick de egendomen i gåva eller erhöll de den efter en förfallen pant? Stora skillnader uppdagades mellan kvinnor och mäns delaktighet i de olika transaktionsformerna, oavsett om de var självägande bönder eller tillhörde frälset. Kvinnor köpte ytterst sällan jord och deras transaktioner hade oftast som mål att säkra sin egen försörjning eller en nära anhörigs försörjning. Jag studerade också om parterna i en transaktion var beroende av varandra eller om det fanns utrymme för marknadsrelationer. Det var vanligare att betala med mynt när relationen var marknadsinriktad. Vid en gåvorelation betalades egendomen med varor eller så uppgavs inte värdet eller betalningen alls.
Nyckelord: senmedeltid, kvinnor, bönder, frälset, civilstånd, bördsrätt, gåvor, monetarisering
I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
Skärseld, mässor och döda själar 1527
2012. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Auktoritet i förvandling, 13-31Kapitel
Kunglig auktoritet i det medeltida Sverige före 1280
2012. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Statsutvikling i Skandinavia i middelalderen, 169-191Kapitel
Wives or Widows and their Representatives
2012. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Scandinavian Journal of History 37 (1), 49-68Artikel
The main purpose of this article is to scrutinize the opportunities married women had to administer their inheritance and reversions compared to widows' opportunities to administer their inheritance, dower and share from the former marriage. It has been claimed that medieval women had to wait until they were widowed to take charge over their own property. In this article I challenge this view. I argue that a noble woman's opportunities to act independently depended on the origins of the property she wanted to sell, and if male representatives from that family laid claim to the land or not.
I investigate all written transactions carried out by freeholders and transactions carried out by noble families in two different regions in present-day Sweden during the period from 1300 to 1500. I establish in what type of transactions the women stood as sole executors in the charters, and if they were named as wives or as widows. I also investigate if they participated in varied forms of transactions when widowed compared to when they were in marriage.
The principal result is that the wife of a freeholder did not execute deeds herself. This was done by her husband or, when she was young, by her brother. It was extremely rare that a woman of this status administered her inheritance herself, due to the stronger pre-emptive rights for men besides the brother in Jämtland. As wealthy widows, however, women in this position sometimes executed deeds, presumably because their brothers were dead. Noble women administered their property more frequently. Their pre-emptive rights were stronger and they therefore had more property to dispose of. In the absence of men from the noble family from where the land originated, noble women could act independently, irrespective of if they were widows or wives.
Omsorg om själen - vård av kroppen
2011. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Historisk Tidskrift (S) 131 (3), 433-458Artikel
Pastoral and bodily care in religious houses and churches
This article compares endowments given to religious houses and churches in the periods 1282 to 1314 and 1401 to 1410. In the first period the pattern was for a testator to donate a large sum to one main recipient for his burial place and several smaller sums in money to diverse recipients for chantry prayers. Many of the latter recipients were monasteries and convents, especially of the mendicant orders. These recipients ceased in the second period when instead a sole recipient stod for all pastoral care. During both periods women and men gave more poperty and more frequently to monasteries belonging to the Cistercian order than to the mendicant orders.
The yield from designated farmsteads financed the gifts during the first period, especially when the gift finally was given in coins. In the first period the receiver only aquired perpertual right to the yield when a chantry (prebenda) in a cathedral or in a monastery was established. In contrast, in the later period the receiver almost always got such a right. In the former period this only happened when a donator who had received bodily care had died. In the 15th century the right of possession was trasferred foremost to monasteries, not only when the donator sought bodily care but also when seaking such pasoral care as chantry prayers, masses, month-minds, year-minds and intercessionary prayers. When yield paid for the care it seems that it was easier for the donators to turn to the mendicant orders than it was in the 15th century. None from any of the Franciscan orders then received possession of landed property, as expected. But some female Dominicans and the John Baptist brethrens from the town of Eskelstura received landed property during this later period too.
Den andlige änklingen och den världsliga änkan
2008. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Medeltidens mångfald, 227-246Kapitel
The spiritual widower and the wordly widow.
Civil status was not something that bothered late medieval Swedish people. Of course marriage was crucial both for women and for men but in different ways. Women attained their majority when they married. Men, when they married, not only ruled their own lives but governed their wives´lives, as well as the life of the whole household.
The author furthers previous studies on women´s liberty of action and independence. Earlier studies advocate the view-point that it was widowhood itself that made it possible for women to take part in public life. The author asserts that this was not always the case and that a woman gained the possibility to participate when she got married, provided she had private means to dispose of and that her husband let her act independently. The author points out that the concept "widow" during the late Middle Ages only was used when the woman had children under age. The concept widow meant "fatherless child", that is to say from having their father as the normal guardian they now had their mother. Widowhood gave a woman the right to administer her children´s means. When the widow administered her own means during widowhood the charters did not use the concept widow. In this essay this is demonstrated by tracing the real life of two noble women and their heirs, covering the period 1400 - 1501.
Kvinnor, manlighet och hushåll 1350 - 1500
2003. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Hans och hennes, 81-111Kapitel
Jordförvärv och ränteförbud under 1300- och 1400-talen
2002. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson. Ny väg till medeltidsbreven, 197-216Konferens
Laga fång för medeltidens kvinnor och män
2010. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson.Bok
Stadgelagstiftning i senmedeltidens Sverige
1994. Gabriela Bjarne Larsson.Avhandling (Dok)
The subject of this thesis is all preserved secular statutes in Sweden from 1350 to 1500, with the exception of city privileges and statutes. The formal changes in these statutes and their contents are analyzed. A thorough investigation of the relationship of the statutes and their influence on the Swedish National Law of King Magnus Eriksson from appoximately 1350 and the National Law of King Christopher from 1442 is made.
The aim of this study is to investigate how the royal power on the one hand and the aristocracy on the other used statutory legislation to obtain political or economic power. It also analyzes the consequences of such legislation for the peasants. The statutes are here considered as a contract between the royal power and aristocracy concerning their different claims to political power or their claims to land, yield and farmers. Statutory decisions concerning the relationship between power and aristocracy were, to a great extent, incorporated both in the National Law og King Magnus Eriksson and in the Law of King Christopher. By incorporating these statutes in the national laws, the royal power and aristocracy gained control, regulated their mutual relationships and legitimized their power.
The statutory legislation differentiated the heterogeneous mass of peasants. This population was divided into the categories Crown peasants (freeholders, Sw. skattebönder) and peasants of the nobility (tenats, Sw. landbor). Through statutory legislation, the Crown tried to maintain the amount of freeholders (almost 50 % of this population) and to increase its revenue through new taxes. The Crown thus obtained greater control of the freeholders´ land and its cultivators. On the other hand, landlords united and there was therefore less mutual rivalry over the tenants, as the nobles tried to bind them more closely by submitting them to new rent fees. Even so, the Swedish tenants were able to maintain their independence. The balance of power between Crown and nobility, as well as the fact that they shared the peasants between them, ultimately meant that freeholders remained freeholders. Their land became economically sound enough to pay taxes to the Crown and in the long run, the Swedish freeholders obtained unique political power.