Ingela HolmströmUniversitetslektor, Docent i teckenspråk med inriktning mot tvåspråkighet
Jag är docent i teckenspråk med inriktning mot tvåspråkighet och är verksam inom ämnena Dövas och hörselskadades flerspråkighet och Teckenspråk. Jag är också ämnesföreståndare för Teckenspråksavdelningen.
Presentation på svenskt teckenspråk
Jag undervisar främst på kurser i Svenska som andraspråk för döva, men också på kurser som handlar om dövas tvåspråkighet, dövundervisningens historia och teckenspråksteori. För närvarande har jag dock ett uppehåll i undervisningen för att ägna mig åt forskningsprojektet Mulder samt administrativa uppgifter på institutionen.
Mitt övergripande forskningsintresse handlar om kommunikation och interaktion mellan döva, hörselskadade och hörande i olika sammanhang, där olika språkliga resurser används. Jag disputerade 2013 i pedagogik vid Örebro universitet med avhandlingen Learning by hearing? Technological framings for participation, vilken fokuserar just dessa intresseområden. Bland annat gör jag där en sociohistorisk analys av tidskriftdata från 1890 till 2010 som fokuserar teknologier, språk och identitet för döva och hörselskadade över tid. I avhandlingen har jag också gjort två fallstudier där jag följt två barn som har cochlea implantat och går i klasser med hörande elever. I denna studie har frågor om deltagande, makt och användning av teknologier varit av särskilt intresse tillsammans med övergripande frågor kring kommunikation och interaktion.
Jag har sedan 2014 varit verksam på Institutionen för lingvistik på Stockholms universitet och har sedan dess arbetat med en rad olika forskningsprojekt. Det senaste är det fyraåriga projektet Mulder som jag leder och som är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet (2020-2023). Projektet handlar om döva nyanländas flerspråkiga situation i Sverige. Information om projektet på svenskt teckenspråk
Ett annat av de projekt jag arbetat med handlar om dövas och hörselskadades tvåspråkighet, DHT-projektet, vilket har fokus på såväl specialskolor som kommunala skolor och hörselklasskolor. I projektet undersöker vi framför allt hur döva och hörselskadade elevers skrivna svenska och svenska teckenspråk ser ut idag.
Undervisningsrelaterade frågor är ett annat av mina specialintressen och jag har i flera projekt studerat t.ex. undervisningsmetoder och klassrumsinteraktion. Bland annat leder jag ett projekt som handlar om undervisning i svenskt teckenspråk som andraspråk för hörande nybörjarstudenter, UTL2. I detta projekt studerar vi olika aspekter av undervisningen, med det huvudsakliga målet att öka kunskaperna kring hur undervisningen kan genomföras för att leda till god progression i inlärningen av svenskt teckenspråk. Ett annat relaterat projekt är MM-projektet, i vilket vi studerade multimodal flerspråkighet i undervisning som bedrivs av döva lärare i högre utbildning (se Holmström & Schönström 2018).
Även interaktion utanför skolsammanhang har varit i fokus i min forskning. Jag har t.ex. medverkat i det VR-finansierade projektet PAL (Participation for All?) som leds av professor Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta vid Jönköpings universitet och där fokus ligger på unga vuxna som har ADHD respektive är döva och deras delaktighet i samhället.
Jag har också erfarenhet från enkät- och intervjustudier. Det senaste är en enkätstudie av föräldrars upplevelser och erfarenheter av att ha ett dövt eller hörselskadat barn och de kommunikationsformer som familjerna använder, som svenskt teckenspråk, tecken som stöd och/eller talad svenska. Ett tidigare avslutat projekt som också bygger på en enkätstudie i kombination med intervjuer är HP-projektet där jag arbetat med att kartlägga den kompetens som finns hos kommunerna då det gäller skolelever med hörselnedsättning, med särskilt fokus på kommunala hörselpedagoger. Resultat från den studien återfinns i Holmström & Schönström (2017).
Mer om de forskningsprojekt jag leder och/eller medverkar i kan man läsa under våra forskningsprojekt här på institutionens webbplats. Mina publikationer finns listade i DiVA (se länk till publikationer här på sidan).
- Kommunikation och interaktion
- Svenskt teckenspråk
- Dövas och hörselskadades svenska
- Tvåspråkighet och flerspråkighet
- Undervisningsrelaterade frågor
- Dövundervisningen i historik och samtid
I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
Communication, Information, and Support for Swedish Parents with Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children
2022. Ingela Holmström. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 24 (1), 165-180Artikel
Communication is an important but complicated issue for parents to deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Professionals have debated whether a DHH-child should have opportunity to learn spoken language, sign language, or a mixture of both. Two perspectives dominate: the medical (viewing deafness as a disability) vs. the cultural-lingual (viewing DHH-people as a cultural and linguistic minority). Parents have to handle these conflicting perspectives while they would need support and information about parenting a DHH-child. This article investigates preferred communication in the families, whether parents get information about STS, attend STS-courses, if parents get adequate support and information. 118 parents responded on a survey focusing on these issues, and the results show that spoken Swedish was preferred, but that STS or sign-supported Swedish often was used in parallel. Most parents without previous knowledge of DHH-people were satisfied with the information and support received, while parents with previous knowledge had negative experiences.
L2M1 and L2M2 Acquisition of Sign Lexicon: The Impact of Multimodality on the Sign Second Language Acquisition
2022. Krister Schönström, Ingela Holmström. Frontiers in Psychology 13Artikel
In second language research, the concept of cross-linguistic influence or transfer has frequently been used to describe the interaction between the first language (L1) and second language (L2) in the L2 acquisition process. However, less is known about the L2 acquisition of a sign language in general and specifically the differences in the acquisition process of L2M2 learners (learners learning a sign language for the first time) and L2M1 learners (signers learning another sign language) from a multimodal perspective. Our study explores the influence of modality knowledge on learning Swedish Sign Language through a descriptive analysis of the sign lexicon in narratives produced by L2M1 and L2M2 learners, respectively. A descriptive mixed-methods framework was used to analyze narratives of adult L2M1 (n = 9) and L2M2 learners (n = 15), with a focus on sign lexicon, i.e., use and distribution of the sign types such as lexical signs, depicting signs (classifier predicates), fingerspelling, pointing, and gestures. The number and distribution of the signs are later compared between the groups. In addition, a comparison with a control group consisting of L1 signers (n = 9) is provided. The results suggest that L2M2 learners exhibit cross-modal cross-linguistic transfer from Swedish (through higher usage of lexical signs and fingerspelling). L2M1 learners exhibits same-modal cross-linguistic transfer from L1 sign languages (through higher usage of depicting signs and use of signs from L1 sign language and international signs). The study suggests that it is harder for L2M2 learners to acquire the modality-specific lexicon, despite possible underlying gestural knowledge. Furthermore, the study suggests that L2M1 learners’ access to modality-specific knowledge, overlapping access to gestural knowledge and iconicity, facilitates faster L2 lexical acquisition, which is discussed from the perspective of linguistic relativity (including modality) and its role in sign L2 acquisition.
Diverse challenges for deaf migrants when navigating in Nordic countries
2022. Ingela Holmström, Nina Sivunen. The Routledge Handbook of Sign Language Translation and Interpreting, 409-424Kapitel
A growing body of research focusses on migration issues for deaf migrants, particularly those in forced migration and resettlements. Despite this, knowledge is limited regarding their situation, opportunities and obstacles in the new host country. In recent years, the Nordic countries have seen a growing number of deaf migrants arriving, many of them for reasons of being in need of protection. And in the encounter between the migrants and the Nordic societies and systems, many things may come into conflict, particularly regarding language policy and education. In this chapter, the challenges deaf migrants may meet when navigating their way in Nordic countries are highlighted: for example, when they must learn both a sign and written language in parallel, and when they have to use national interpreters before they can master the new country’s sign language. The challenges are greater for the migrants with limited educational background who are emerging readers. The chapter concludes that greater awareness and understanding of the deaf migrants’ situation are needed, as well as further research in this field.
Patient or Citizen? Participation and Accessibility for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People in the Context of Interpretation in Sweden
2021. Ingela Holmström, Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 23 (1), 209-223Artikel
Drawing upon ethnographic data from two projects, this paper focuses on interpretation issues in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) individuals’ everyday lives. A specific issue is the importance of and the ways in which interpretation services and Swedish – Swedish Sign Language interpreters shape their experiences and participation. Three themes are illustrated, highlighting tensions that facilitate or obstruct DHH individuals’ participation. The analysis shows that they are positioned as both patients and citizens. Unequal power relationships position them in passive roles, as patients, with limited possibilities to shape the interpreter services, while they simultaneously shoulder major responsibility for its smooth functioning. The mundane nature of the analysis also highlights how they are accorded the position of citizen within the same services.
Modality-Focused L2-Instruction in Swedish Sign Language
2021. Ingela Holmström. Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching 12 (1), 93-114Artikel
Most second language (L2) learning happens in the same modality, i.e., a learner who has a spoken language as the first language most commonly learns additional spoken languages as L2. In such language acquisition cases, learners can build on what they already physically know about how to express language. But, if they begin to learn a sign language, they have to learn how to express language in a new modality, i.e. the visual-gestural one. It requires expressing the language using hands, arms, face, and body instead of the speech organs, and this is very unfamiliar for them. Furthermore, learners need to learn specific linguistic features that largely differ from those of spoken languages, such as spatiality, iconicity and simultaneity. In this paper, the teaching of such modality-specific features in a cohort of first-year hearing L2 students, who are learning Swedish Sign Language at the university level, is examined and described. This empirical study shows a language teaching context that largely differs from other language teaching contexts and how students experience this new language learning process.
Four Decades of Sign Bilingual Schools in Sweden
2021. Krister Schönström, Ingela Holmström. Critical Perspectives on Plurilingualism in Deaf Education, 15-34Kapitel
This chapter provides insight into the progress and current status of a national sign bilingual program, with a special focus on the linguistic situation. The chapter begins with a historical overview and a description of sign bilingual education in Sweden and how it has changed during the last four decades, due in great part to advancements in hearing technology; i.e., cochlear implantation. Based on semi-structured interviews with teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students, the chapter then provides an empirical account of the current linguistic situation of sign bilingual education in Sweden. Approaching this situation from a bilingual perspective sheds some light on the schooling of the new generation of deaf and hard-of-hearing students and shows that the linguistic situation for deaf students has changed. The chapter ends with a discussion of how sign bilingual education in Sweden has shifted from a position of being acclaimed to one of being challenged, driven by various factors that are basically derived from monolingual norms.
2020. Ingela Holmström, Krister Schönström. The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education, 341-352Kapitel
In this chapter, focus lie in translation as a language teaching practice in sign bilingual settings in deaf education. Due to limited or no access to sounds, many deaf pupils learn and use spoken languages primarily in their written form. Thus, in this translation practice, deaf pupils are translating between a written language and a sign language. The chapter focuses on translation practices in language teaching contexts and consider both experiences of using sign language translation as an approach in deaf education, sign language studies and translation studies, as well as (second) language teaching. Some concrete pedagogical examples of the application of translation as a pedagogical approach in sign language-based education at different levels, e.g. syllabus, classroom practice and assessment are provided. The chapter begins with an historical account of research on sign languages, sign language translation, and gives a brief account on the history of deaf education. A summary of key research approaches related to sign bilingual teaching with particular focus on translation as a method are also provided. Furthermore, some practical approaches and methods are presented with concrete examples from a sign bilingual classroom. The chapter ends with a conclusion and discussion about future directions.
When language recognition and language shaming go hand in hand – sign language ideologies in Sweden and Norway
2019. Hilde Haualand, Ingela Holmström. Deafness and Education InternationalArtikel
This article focuses on the similar approaches to, yet different contexts of legal recognition of sign languages in Sweden and Norway. We use examples from sign language documentation (both scientific and popular), legislation that mentions sign language, organization of implementation of sign language acquisition, and public discourse (as expressed by deaf associations’ periodicals from the 1970s until today), to discuss the status and ideologies of sign language, and how these have affected deaf education. The legal documents indicate that Norway has a stronger and more wide-reaching legislation, especially sign language acquisition rights, but the formal legal recognition of a sign language is not necessarily reflected in how people discuss the status of the sign language. Our analysis reveals that the countries’ sign languages have been subject to language shaming, defined as the enactment of linguistic subordination. The language shaming has not only been enacted by external actors, but has also come from within deaf communities. Our material indicates that language shaming has been more evident in the Norwegian Deaf community, while the Swedish Deaf community has been more active in using a “story of legislation” in the imagination and rhetoric about the Swedish deaf community and bilingual education. The similarities in legislation, but differences in deaf education, popular discourse and representation of the sign languages, reveal that looking at the level and scope of legal recognition of sign language in a country, only partially reflects the acceptance and status of sign language in general.
Teaching a Language in Another Modality
2019. Ingela Holmström. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 10 (4), 659-672Artikel
This study focuses on a Swedish Sign Language (STS) interpreting education, in which the students learn a second language (L2) that is expressed in the visual-gestural modality instead of the auditory-vocal one. Due to the lack of research on sign language L2 instruction, the teachers have limited scientific knowledge and proven experience to lean on in their work. Therefore, an action research-based project was started with the aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge about effective ways of teaching STS as an L2, and to examine how teaching can lead to students making good progress and attaining deep knowledge in STS. The article presents results from one of the projects’ sub-studies, Initial teaching through different primary languages, where a hearing STS L2 teacher’s approaches are examined when teaching the hearing students the new language in another modality than their previous language(s). The results show how this teacher uses her own knowledge from learning STS as an L2 and how she, through using spoken Swedish, provides rich metalinguistic knowledge that contributes to the students’ deeper theoretic knowledge about STS in addition to their practical STS learning. This had pedagogical implications for the further development of the instruction at the interpreting program.
Deaf lecturers’ translanguaging in a higher education setting. A multimodal multilingual perspective
2018. Ingela Holmström, Krister Schönström. Applied Linguistics Review 9 (1), 90-111Artikel
In a few universities around the world courses are offered where the primary language of instruction is a national sign language. Many of these courses are given by bilingual/multilingual deaf lecturers, skilled in both national sign language(s) and spoken/written language(s). Research on such deaf-led practices in higher education are lacking, and this study will contribute to a greater understanding of these practices. Drawing on ethnographically created data from a higher education setting in Sweden, this case study examines the use of different languages and modalities by three deaf lecturers when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students in theoretic subjects. The analysis is based on video-recordings of the deaf lecturers during classroom activities at a basic university level in which Swedish Sign Language (SSL) is used as the primary language. The results illustrate how these deaf lecturers creatively use diverse semiotic resources in several modes when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students, which creates practices of translanguaging. This is illustrated by classroom activities in which the deaf lecturers use different language and modal varieties, including sign languages SSL and ASL as well as Swedish, and English, along with PowerPoint and whiteboard notes. The characteristics of these multimodal-multilingual resources and the usage of them will be closely presented in this article.
Resources for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream schools in Sweden
2017. Ingela Holmström, Krister Schönström. Deafness and Education International 19 (1), 29-39Artikel
Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However, the functions of these resources and how these relate to deaf students’ learning is currently unknown. Thus, the present study examines public school resources, including the function of a profession called a hörselpedagog (HP, a kind of pedagogue that is responsible for hard-of-hearing students). In particular, the HPs’ perspectives on the functioning and learning of deaf students in public schools were examined. Data were collected via (i) two questionnaires: one quantitative (n = 290) and one qualitative (n = 26), and (ii) in-depth interviews (n = 9). These show that the resources provided to deaf children and their efficacy are highly varied across the country, which holds implications for the language situations and learning of deaf students.
Communicating and hand(ling) technologies
2015. Ingela Holmström, Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Rickard Jonsson. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 25 (3), 256-284Artikel
Different technologies are commonly used in mainstream classrooms to teach pupils who wear surgically implanted cochlear hearing aids. We focus on these technologies, their application, how pupils react to them, and how they affect mainstream classrooms in Sweden. Our findings indicate that language ideologies play out in specific ways in such technified environments. The hegemonic position wielded by adults with regard to the use of technology usage has specific implications for pupils with cochlear implants.