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Kristina Sundqvist


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Arbetar vid Psykologiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 14 25
Besöksadress Frescati Hagväg 14
Rum 156
Postadress Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

Kristina Sundqvist är fil.dr i psykologi, legitimerad psykolog och utbildad socialpedagog. Kristina är anställd som forskare med fokus på problematiskt spel om pengar, samt på problematisk alkoholkonsumtion inom arbetslivet.

Hennes pågående spelprojekt handlar om spelproblem och psykiatrisk samsjuklighet ( Detta projekt ingår i programmet REGAPS

Kristina är ansvarig för projektet Alkoholpreventiva insatser i arbetslivet - en randomiserad kontrollerad studie (

Under 2019 startar också projektet Evidensbaserad internetförmedlad behandling vid alkoholproblem - en kvalitativ studie om nyttan i arbetslivet, där Kristina är projektledare.


Kristina är även FoU-ansvarig på Alna Sverige, som arbetar med skadligt bruk av alkohol, droger och spel hos personer inom arbetslivet.

Kristinas doktorandprojekt fokuserade på olika aspekter av riskspelande (dvs när spelandet får negativa konsekvenser), så som personlighet, alkoholkonsumtion och motiv till spel. Avhandlingen finns att ladda ned här:


I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2019. Eva Samuelsson, Sundqvist Kristina.

    Överdrivet spelande om pengar kan få ekonomiska, känslomässiga och sociala konsekvenser i olika grad. Hur spelare själva upplever bekymren är centralt för huruvida de kommer att försöka förändra sina spelvanor. Men vad är det egentligen vi fångar när vi mäter problemspelande i befolkningen? Vi har undersökt hur spelare som tidigare bedömts ha ett problemspelande tolkar frågorna som användes vid just denna bedömning.

  • 2019. Olof Molander (et al.). JMIR Research Protocols 8 (1)

    Background: Research on the identification and treatment of problem gambling has been characterized by a wide range of outcome measures and instruments. However, a single instrument measuring gambling behavior, severity, and specific deleterious effects is lacking. Objective: This protocol describes the development of the Gambling Disorder Identification Test (G-DIT), which is a 9-to 12-item multiple-choice scale with three domains: gambling consumption, symptom severity, and negative consequences. The scale is analogous to the widely used Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Methods: The G-DIT is developed in four steps: (1) identification of items eligible for the G-DIT from a pool of existing gambling measures; (2) presentation of items proposed for evaluation by invited expert researchers through an online Delphi process and subsequent consensus meetings; (3) pilot testing of a draft of the 9- to 12-item version in a small group of participants with problem gambling behavior (n= 12); and (4) evaluation of the psychometric properties of the final G-DIT measure in relation to the existing instruments and self-reported criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), among individuals with problem gambling and nonproblematic recreational gambling behaviors (n= 600). This protocol article summarizes step 1 and describes steps 2 and 3 in detail. Results: As of October 2018, steps 1-3 are complete, and step 4 is underway. Conclusions: Implementation of this online Delphi study early in the psychometric development process will contribute to the face and construct validity of the G-DIT. We believe the G-DIT will be useful as a standard outcome measure in the field of problem gambling research and serve as a problem-identification tool in clinical settings.

  • 2019. Sara Brolin Låftman (et al.). International Journal of Adolescence and Youth

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 2019. Eva Samuelsson, Peter Wennberg, Kristina Sundqvist. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 36 (2), 140-160

    The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a screening instrument frequently used to identify risk and problem gambling. Even though the PGSI has good psychometric properties, it still produces a large proportion of misclassifications. Aims: To explore possible reasons for misclassifications in problem gambling level by analysing previously classified moderate-risk gamblers’ answers to the PGSI items, in relation to their own current and past gambling behaviours. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 participants reporting no negative consequences from gambling. They were asked the PGSI questions within an eight-year time frame (2008 to 2016). Ambiguous answers to PGSI items were subject to content analysis. Results: Several answers to the PGSI items contained ambiguities and misinterpretations, making it difficult to assess to what extent their answers actually indicated any problematic gambling over time. The item about feelings of guilt generated accounts rather reflecting self-recrimination over wasting money or regretting gambling as a meaningless or immoral activity. The item concerning critique involved mild interpretations such as being ridiculed for buying lottery tickets or getting comments for being boring. Similar accounts were given by the participants irrespective of initial endorsement of the items. Other possible reasons for misclassifications were related to recall bias, language difficulties, selective memory, and a tendency to answer one part of the question without taking the whole question into account. Conclusions: Answers to the PGSI can contain a variety of meanings based on the respondents’ subjective interpretations. Reports of lower levels of harm in the population should thus be interpreted with caution. In clinical settings it is important to combine use of screening instruments with interviews, to be able to better understand gamblers’ perceptions of the gambling behaviour and its negative consequences.

  • 2019. Johan Svensson, Kristina Sundqvist. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 36 (2), 177-189

    Background: Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern in Sweden as in many other countries. Excessive gambling has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative consequences such as financial problems, strained relationships, criminal behaviour, depression, and an elevated risk for suicide. Research suggests a link between alcohol consumption and gambling, particularly among male gamblers. There are nevertheless gaps in the available knowledge pertaining to school-aged students in Sweden. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of gambling and frequent gambling among Swedish students in Grade 9 and Grade 11 (ages 15 and 17 years). Data and method: Data on gambling and alcohol consumption were obtained from the Swedish Council on Information and Other Drugs yearly school surveys (n = 4763) in Grade 9 and Grade 11 (n = 3720). Poisson regression models have been applied to estimate the association between less frequent and frequent gambling with the predictors of gender, family and school satisfaction, school situation, and alcohol and drug use. Results: Gambling among Swedish students is a highly gendered activity: boys gamble more and more frequently than girls. Having consumed alcohol was associated with both less frequent and more frequent gambling among Grade 9 students while controlling for other variables. In Grade 9, heavy episodic drinking was only associated with less frequent gambling, not with frequent gambling. Among Grade 11 students, both alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking was associated with less frequent gambling but heavy episodic drinking was only associated with frequent gambling. Moreover, drug use was associated with less frequent gambling in Grade 11. Skipping classes was the only school factor that was found to be associated with less frequent gambling (Grade 11). Such factors as family satisfaction and two measurements of economic situation were not associated with gambling at all.

  • 2019. Kristina Sundqvist, Ingvar Rosendahl. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1-15

    It is well known that many problem gamblers also suffer from other psychiatric conditions. However, knowledge regarding the temporal sequencing of the conditions is lacking, as well as insight in possible gender specific patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the risk for psychiatric comorbidity among problem gamblers compared to non-problem gamblers in the general Swedish population, as well as the age of onset and the temporal sequencing of problem gambling and the comorbid psychiatric conditions among lifetime problem gamblers. A case–control study nested in the Swelogs cohort was used. For both the female and the male problem gamblers, the risk for having had a lifetime psychiatric condition was double or more than double compared to the controls. Having experienced anxiety or depression before gambling onset, constituted a risk for developing problem gambling for the women but not for the men. Further, the female cases initiated gambling after their first period of anxiety, depression and problems with substances, and problem gambling was the last condition to evolve. Opposite this, the male cases initiated gambling before any condition evolved, and depression and suicidal events emerged after problem gambling onset. There were large differences in mean age of onset between the female cases and their controls, this was not the case for the males. Gender specific patterns in the association between problem gambling and psychiatric comorbidity, as well as in the development of problem gambling needs to be considered in treatment planning as well as by the industry in their advertising.

  • 2018. Eva Samuelsson, Kristina Sundqvist, Per Binde. Addiction Research and Theory 26 (6), 514-524

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling.Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linkage typology.Results: Our analyses revealed four configurations of gambling: (a) stable low frequency with no or minor harm, (b) decreasing high frequency with occasional harm, (c) fluctuating with moderate harm, and (d) increasing high frequency with substantial harm. Natural recovery and return to previous levels of gambling intensity were common. Change occurred either gradually, as a result of adjustment to altered personal circumstances, or drastically as a consequence of determined decisions to change. Personal and contextual factors such as psychological well-being, supportive relationships, and meaningful leisure activities played a part in overcoming harmful gambling and keeping gambling on a non-problematic level. Gambling advertising was commonly perceived as aggressive and triggering.Conclusions: The experience of harm is highly subjective, which should be taken into account when developing preventive measures. Considering the fluid character of gambling problems, help and support should be easily accessible and diversified. To repeatedly be interviewed about gambling and its consequences can contribute to increased reflection on, and awareness of, one’s own behaviours and the societal impacts of gambling.

  • Avhandling (Dok) Beyond Recreational Gambling
    2016. Kristina Sundqvist (et al.).

    The general aim of this thesis was to examine risk gambling in the general population from a psychological perspective. This was done in three studies targeting personality, risky alcohol habits and gambling motives, respectively. Initially, 19 530 randomly assigned Swedish citizens were screened for problem gambling via telephone using the two questions in the Lie/Bet questionnaire. This sample constitutes the basis for one of the studies in the thesis. For the other studies, individuals answering yes to one of the questions in the Lie/Bet questionnaire and agreeing to participate further were sent a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about gambling, personality and gambling motives.


    Some of the main results showed that:

    • Negative consequences of gambling were associated with higher levels of impulsivity and negative affectivity.
    • Risk gamblers reported lower levels of negative affectivity compared to the general population.
    • Compared to non-risk gamblers, twice as many of the risk gamblers reported weekly binge drinking during the past 12 months. This association, however, seemed to be explained by shared demographic characteristics, rather than by the risk gambling causing binge drinking.
    • High risk gamblers more often reported that they gambled for the challenge and for coping reasons, compared to low risk gamblers.
    • High risk gamblers had overall stronger motives for gambling.
    • The results also indicated that the level of risk gambling was highly intertwined with gambling motives and could explain some differences in gambling motives between, for example, women/men and younger/older gamblers.

    One of the focal points in the discussion was that higher levels of negative affectivity may be a cause of elevated problems rather than a cause of risk gambling. Another issue discussed was that the level of risk- /problem gambling may be important to consider when comparing gambling motives across subgroups of gamblers.

  • 2016. Kristina Sundqvist, Jakob Jonsson, Peter Wennberg. Journal of Gambling Studies 32 (4), 1231-1241

    Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

  • 2015. Kristina Sundqvist, Peter Wennberg. Journal of Gambling Studies 31 (4), 1287-1295

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  • 2015. Kristina Sundqvist, Ingvar Rosendahl, Peter Wennberg. Addictive Behaviors Reports 2, 49-54

    While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530) were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking), at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire) and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking). There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months) weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35) and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90). After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR = 1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women). Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

Visa alla publikationer av Kristina Sundqvist vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 19 augusti 2019

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