Lars ErikssonAssociate Professor
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I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
A Record Chromophore Density in High-Entropy Liquids of Two Low-Melting Perylenes
2019. Khushbu Kushwaha (et al.).Artikel
Liquid chromophores constitute a rare but intriguing class of molecules that are in high demand for the design of luminescent inks, liquid semiconductors, and solar energy storage materials. The most common way to achieve liquid chromophores involves the introduction of long alkyl chains, which, however, significantly reduces the chromophore density. Here, strategy is presented that allows for the preparation of liquid chromophores with a minimal increase in molecular weight, using the important class of perylenes as an example. Two synergistic effects are harnessed: (1) the judicious positioning of short alkyl substituents, and (2) equimolar mixing, which in unison results in a liquid material. A series of 1-alkyl perylene derivatives is synthesized and it is found that short ethyl or butyl chains reduce the melting temperature from 278 degrees C to as little as 70 degrees C. Then, two low-melting derivatives are mixed, which results in materials that do not crystallize due to the increased configurational entropy of the system. As a result, liquid chromophores with the lowest reported molecular weight increase compared to the neat chromophore are obtained. The mixing strategy is readily applicable to other pi-conjugated systems and, hence, promises to yield a wide range of low molecular weight liquid chromophores.
Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Succinate, Butyrolactone, and Trifluoromethyl Derivatives by Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Tetrasubstituted Olefins
2019. Sutthichat Kerdphon (et al.). ACS Catalysis 9 (7), 6169-6176Artikel
A highly efficient iridium N,P-ligand-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of functionalized tetrasubstituted olefins lacking a directing group has been developed. Various structural diverse chiral succinate derivatives were obtained in high yields and excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities (up to 99% ee) using 0.5-1.0 mol % catalyst loadings. This stereoselective reaction is applicable for the synthesis of chiral acyclic molecules (up to >99% ee) having two contiguous stereogenic centers and is compatible with various aromatic, aliphatic, and heterocyclic systems, a variety of functional groups of different electronic nature. Furthermore, this asymmetric protocol allows a short enantioselective route to the butyrolactone building block, an intermediate in the synthesis of anticancer agent BMS-871 and pharmaceuticals (2S)-(-)-Verapamil and (2S)-(-)-Gallopamil.
Multiplicity conversion based on intramolecular triplet-to-singlet energy transfer
2019. A. Cravcenco (et al.). Science Advances 5 (9)Artikel
The ability to convert between molecular spin states is of utmost importance in materials chemistry. Forster-type energy transfer is based on dipole-dipole interactions and can therefore theoretically be used to convert between molecular spin states. Here, a molecular dyad that is capable of transferring energy from an excited triplet state to an excited singlet state is presented. The rate of conversion between these states was shown to be 36 times faster than the rate of emission from the isolated triplet state. This dyad provides the first solid proof that Forster-type triplet-to-singlet energy transfer is possible, revealing a method to increase the rate of light extraction from excited triplet states.
The role of anthropomorphisms in students’ reasoning about chemical structure and bonding
2018. Ilana A. Manneh (et al.). Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching 19 (2)Artikel
Anthropomorphisms are widespread at all levels of the educational system even among science experts. This has led to a shift in how anthropomorphisms are viewed in science education, from a discussion of whether they should be allowed or avoided towards an interest in their role in supporting students’ understanding of science. In this study we examine the role of anthropomorphisms in supporting students’ understanding of chemistry. We analyze examples from undergraduate students’ discussions during problem-solving classes through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Findings suggest that students invoked anthropomorphisms alongside technical relations which together produced more or less chemically appropriate explanations. Also, anthropomorphisms constitute potentially productive points of departure for rendering students’ explanations more chemically appropriate. The implications of this study refer to the need to deal with anthropomorphisms explicitly and repeatedly as well as to encourage explicit connections between different parts of the explanation - teleological as well as causal.
Tutor-student interaction in undergraduate chemistry
2018. Ilana A. Manneh (et al.). International Journal of Science Education 40 (16), 2023-2043Artikel
In this study, we explore the issues and challenges involved in supporting students’ learning to discern relevant and critical aspects of determining oxidation states of atoms in complex molecules. We present a detailed case of an interaction between three students and a tutor during a problem-solving class, using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). The results show that the ability to make relevant distinctions between the different parts of a molecule for solving the problem, even with the guidance of the tutor, seemed to be challenging for students. These shifts were connected to both purposes that were specific for solving the problem at hand, and additional purposes for general learning of the subject matter, in this case how to assign oxidation states in molecules. The students sometimes could not follow the additional purposes introduced by the tutor, which made the related distinctions more confusing. Our results indicate that in order to provide adequate support and guidance for students the tutor needs to consider how to sequence, move between, and productively connect the different purposes introduced in a tutor-student interaction. One way of doing that is by first pursuing the purposes for solving the problem and then successively introduce additional, more general purposes for developing students’ learning of the subject matter studied. Further recommendations drawn from this study are discussed as well.
Developing an approach for teaching and learning about Lewis structures
2017. Ilana Kaufmann (et al.). International Journal of Science Education 39 (12), 1601-1624Artikel
This study explores first-year university students' reasoning as they learn to draw Lewis structures. We also present a theoretical account of the formal procedure commonly taught for drawing these structures. Students' discussions during problem-solving activities were video recorded and detailed analyses of the discussions were made through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Our results show that the formal procedure was central for drawing Lewis structures, but its use varied depending on situational aspects. Commonly, the use of individual steps of the formal procedure was contingent on experiences of chemical structures, and other information such as the characteristics of the problem given. The analysis revealed a number of patterns in how students constructed, checked and modified the structure in relation to the formal procedure and the situational aspects. We suggest that explicitly teaching the formal procedure as a process of constructing, checking and modifying might be helpful for students learning to draw Lewis structures. By doing so, the students may learn to check the accuracy of the generated structure not only in relation to the octet rule and formal charge, but also to other experiences that are not explicitly included in the formal procedure.