I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
Accretion-driven Sources in Spatially Resolved Lyα Emitters
2020. Benjamin Dittenber (et al.). Astrophysical Journal Letters 890 (1)Artikel
Lyα emission is a standard tracer of starburst galaxies at high redshift. However, a number of local Lyα emitters (LAEs) are X-ray sources, suggesting a possible origin of Lyα photons other than young, hot stars, and which may be active at much later ages relative to the parent starburst. Resolved, nearby LAEs offer the opportunity to discriminate between diffuse X-ray emission arising from supernova-heated gas, high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), or low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). We examine archival X-ray imaging from Chandra and XMM-Newton for 11 galaxies with spatially resolved Lyα imaging to determine the luminosity, morphology, and spectral hardness of the X-ray sources. The data are consistent with 9 of the 12, bright Lyα sources being driven by luminous, >10(40) erg s(-1) X-ray sources. Half of the eight Chandra sources are unresolved. The data suggest that nuclear activity, whether from LLAGN or nuclear starbursts, may play an important role in Lyα emission. Our results also suggest a significant link between Lyα emission and HMXBs, ultraluminous X-ray sources, and/or LLAGN, which would imply that Lyα may be generated over timescales 1-2 orders of magnitude longer than produced by photoionization from OB stars. This highlights a critical need to quantify the relative contributions of different sources across cosmic time, to interpret Lyα observations and the resulting properties of distant galaxies.
The Lyman Alpha Reference Sample. X. Predicting Ly alpha Output from Star-forming Galaxies Using Multivariate Regression*
2020. Axel Runnholm (et al.). Astrophysical Journal 892 (1)Artikel
Understanding the production and escape of Ly alpha radiation from star-forming galaxies is a long-standing problem in astrophysics. The ability to predict the Ly alpha luminosity of galaxies would open up new ways of exploring the epoch of reionization (EOR) and estimating Ly alpha emission from galaxies in cosmological simulations where radiative transfer calculations cannot be done. We apply multivariate regression methods to the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample data set to obtain a relation between the galaxy properties and the emitted Ly alpha. The derived relation predicts the Ly alpha luminosity of our galaxy sample to good accuracy, regardless of whether we consider only direct observables (rms dispersion around the relation of similar to 0.19 dex) or derived physical quantities (rms similar to 0.27 dex). We confirm the predictive ability on a separate sample of compact star-forming galaxies and find that the prediction works well, but that aperture effects on measured Ly alpha luminosity may be important, depending on the redshift of the galaxy. We apply statistical feature selection techniques to determine an order of importance of the variables in our data set, enabling future observations to be optimized for predictive ability. When using physical variables, we are able to determine that the most important predictive parameters are, in order, star formation rate, dust extinction, compactness, and the gas covering fraction. We discuss the application of our results in terms of studying the EOR and intensity mapping experiments.
A high dust emissivity index beta for a CO-faint galaxy in a filamentary Ly alpha nebula at z=3.1
2018. Yuta Kato (et al.). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 70 (5)Artikel
We present CO J = 4-3 line and 3 mm dust continuum observations of a 100 kpc-scale filamentary Ly alpha nebula (SSA22 LAB18) at z = 3.1 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detected the CO J = 4-3 line at a systemic z(CO) = 3.093 +/- 0.001 at 11 sigma from one of the ALMA continuum sources associated with the Ly alpha filament. We estimated the CO J = 4-3 luminosity of L'(CO(4-3)) = (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) Kkms(-1) pc(2) for this CO source, which is one order of magnitude smaller than those of typical z > 1 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) of similar far-infrared luminosity L-IR similar to 10(12) L-circle dot. We derived a molecular gas mass of M-gas = (4.4(-0.6)(+0.9)) x 10(9) M-circle dot and a star-formation rate of SFR = 270 +/- 160M(circle dot) yr(-1). We also estimated a gas depletion time of tau(dep) = 17 +/- 10 Myr, which is shorter than those of typical DSFGs. It is suggested that this source is in the transition phase from DSFG to a gas-poor, early-type galaxy. From ALMA to Herschel multi-band dust continuum observations, we measured a dust emissivity index beta = 2.3 +/- 0.2, which is similar to those of local gas-poor, early-type galaxies. From recent laboratory experiments, the specific chemical compositions needed to reproduce such a high beta for interstellar dust at the submillimeter wavelengths. ALMA CO and multi-band dust continuum observations can constrain the evolutionary stage of high-redshift galaxies through tau(dep) and beta, and thus we can investigate the chemical composition of dust even in the early Universe.
Super star cluster feedback driving ionization, shocks and outflows in the halo of the nearby starburst ESO 338-IG04
2018. Adrianus Bik (et al.). Astronomy and Astrophysics 619Artikel
Context. Stellar feedback strongly affects the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. Stellar feedback in the first galaxies likely plays a major role in enabling the escape of LyC photons, which contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe. Nearby starburst galaxies serve as local analogues allowing for a spatially resolved assessment of the feedback processes in these galaxies. Aims. We aim to characterize the feedback effects from the star clusters in the local high-redshift analogue ESO 338-IG04 on the ISM and compare the results with the properties of the most massive clusters. Methods. We used high quality VLT/MUSE optical integral field data to derive the physical properties of the ISM such as ionization, density, shocks, and performed new fitting of the spectral energy distributions of the brightest clusters in ESO 338-IG04 from HST imaging. Results. We find that ESO 338-IG04 has a large ionized halo which we detect to a distance of 9 kpc. We identify four Wolf-Rayet (WR) clusters based on the blue and red WR bump. We follow previously identified ionization cones and find that the ionization of the halo increases with distance. Analysis of the galaxy kinematics shows two complex outflows driven by the numerous young clusters in the galaxy. We find a ring of shocked emission traced by an enhanced [O-I]/H alpha ratio surrounding the starburst and at the end of the outflow. Finally we detect nitrogen enriched gas associated with the outflow, likely caused by the WR stars in the massive star clusters. Conclusions. Photoionization dominates the central starburst and sets the ionization structure of the entire halo, resulting in a density bounded halo, facilitating the escape of LyC photons. Outside the central starburst, shocks triggered by an expanding super bubble become important. The shocks at the end of the outflow suggest interaction between the hot outflowing material and the more quiescent halo gas.
ALMA Reveals Strong [C II] Emission in a Galaxy Embedded in a Giant Ly alpha Blob at z=3.1
2017. Hideki Umehata (et al.). Astrophysical Journal Letters 834 (2)Artikel
We report the result from observations conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to detect [C II] 158 mu m fine structure line emission from galaxies embedded in one of the most spectacular Ly alpha blobs (LABs) at z = 3.1, SSA22-LAB1. Of three dusty star-forming galaxies previously discovered by ALMA 860 mu m dust continuum survey toward SSA22-LAB1, we detected the [C II] line from one, LAB1-ALMA3 at z = 3.0993 +/- 0.0004. No line emission was detected, associated with the other ALMA continuum sources or from three rest-frame UV/optical selected z(spec) similar or equal to 3.1 galaxies within the field of view. For LAB1-ALMA3, we find relatively bright [C II] emission compared to the infrared luminosity (L-[C II]/LIR approximate to 0.01) and an extremely high [C II] 158 mu m and [N II] 205 mu m emission line ratio (L[C II]/L[N II] > 55). The relatively strong [C II] emission may be caused by abundant photodissociation regions and sub-solar metallicity, or by shock heating. The origin of the unusually strong [C II] emission could be causally related to the location within the giant LAB, although the relationship between extended Ly alpha emission and interstellar medium conditions of associated galaxies is yet to be understand.
Unlocking the Full Potential of Extragalactic Ly alpha through Its Polarization Properties
2018. Marius B. Eide (et al.). Astrophysical Journal 856 (2)Artikel
Ly alpha is a powerful astrophysical probe. Not only is it ubiquitous at high redshifts, it is also a resonant line, making Ly alpha photons scatter. This scattering process depends on the physical conditions of the gas through which Ly alpha propagates, and these conditions are imprinted on observables such as the Ly alpha spectrum and its surface brightness profile. In this work, we focus on a less-used observable capable of probing any scattering process: polarization. We implement the density matrix formalism of polarization into the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code tlac. This allows us to treat it as a quantum mechanical process where single photons develop and lose polarization from scatterings in arbitrary gas geometries. We explore static and expanding ellipsoids, biconical outflows, and clumpy multiphase media. We find that photons become increasingly polarized as they scatter and diffuse into the wings of the line profiles, making scattered Ly alpha polarized in general. The degree and orientation of Ly alpha polarization depends on the kinematics and distribution of the scattering H I gas. We find that it generally probes spatial or velocity space asymmetries and aligns itself tangentially to the emission source. We show that the mentioned observables, when studied separately, can leave similar signatures for different source models. We conclude by revealing how a joint analysis of the Ly alpha spectra, surface brightness profiles, and polarization can break these degeneracies and help us extract unique physical information on galaxies and their environments from their strongest, most prominent emission line.
Deep Submillimeter and Radio Observations in the SSA22 Field. I. Powering Sources and the Ly alpha Escape Fraction of Ly alpha Blobs
2017. Y. Ao (et al.). Astrophysical Journal 850 (2)Artikel
We study the heating mechanisms and Ly alpha escape fractions of 35 Ly alpha blobs (LABs) at z approximate to 3.1 in the SSA22 field. Dust continuum sources have been identified in 11 of the 35 LABs, all with star formation rates (SFRs) above 100M(circle dot) yr(-1). Likely radio counterparts are detected in 9 out of 29 investigated LABs. The detection of submillimeter dust emission is more linked to the physical size of the Ly alpha emission than to the Ly alpha luminosities of the LABs. A radio excess in the submillimeter/ radio-detected LABs is common, hinting at the presence of active galactic nuclei. Most radio sources without X-ray counterparts are located at the centers of the LABs. However, all X-ray counterparts avoid the central regions. This may be explained by absorption due to exceptionally large column densities along the line-of-sight or by LAB morphologies, which are highly orientation dependent. The median Lya escape fraction is about 3% among the submillimeter-detected LABs, which is lower than a lower limit of 11% for the submillimeter-undetected LABs. We suspect that the large difference is due to the high dust attenuation supported by the large SFRs, the dense large-scale environment as well as large uncertainties in the extinction corrections required to apply when interpreting optical data.
The Lyman continuum escape and ISM properties in Tololo 1247-232-new insights from HST and VLA
2017. Johannes Puschnig (et al.). Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 469 (3), 3252-3269Artikel
Low- and intermediate-mass galaxies are widely discussed as cause of reionization at redshift z similar to 10-6. However, observational proof of galaxies that are leaking ionizing radiation (Lyman continuum; LyC) is a currently ongoing challenge and the list of LyC emitting candidates is still short. Tololo 1247-232 is among those very few galaxies with recently reported leakage. We performed intermediate resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm ionizing radiation emerging from Tololo 1247-232. Adopting an improved data reduction procedure, we find that LyC escapes from the central stellar clusters, with an escape fraction of 1.5 +/- 0.5 per cent only, i.e. the lowest value reported for the galaxy so far. We further make use of far-ultraviolet absorption lines of Si II and Si IV as a probe of the neutral and ionized interstellar medium ( ISM). We find that most of the ISM gas is ionized, likely facilitating LyC escape from density bounded regions. Neutral gas covering as a function of line-of-sight velocity is derived using the apparent optical depth method. The ISM is found to be sufficiently clumpy, supporting the direct escape of LyC photons. We further report on broad-band UV and optical continuum imaging as well as narrow-band imaging of Lya, Ha and H beta. Using stellar population synthesis, an Lya escape fraction of 8 per cent was derived. We also performed Very Large Array 21cm imaging. The hydrogen hyperfine transition was not detected, but a deep upper limit atomic gas mass of less than or similar to 10(9) M-circle dot could be derived. The upper limit gas fraction defined as M-HI/M-* is only 20 per cent. Evidence is found that the HI gas halo is relatively small compared to the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (Hayes et al. 2013, 2014; Ostlin et al. 2014).
The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z similar to 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%
2017. Michael J. Rutkowski (et al.). Astrophysical Journal Letters 841 (2)Artikel
Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z similar to 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O II] nebular emission (N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O III]/[O II]. We measure 1 sigma upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O II] emitters, f(esc) less than or similar to 5.6%, and strong [O III]/[O II] > 5 ELGs, f(esc) less than or similar to 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f(esc) similar to 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z similar to 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z greater than or similar to 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.
Neutral ISM, Ly alpha, and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11
2017. T. Emil Rivera-Thorsen (et al.). Astrophysical Journal 837 (1)Artikel
Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly alpha line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly alpha, but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si II. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.