Philip Lindner


View page in English
Arbetar vid Psykologiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 39 23
Besöksadress Frescati hagväg 8
Rum C 413
Postadress Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

Jag är leg. psykolog och med. dr. och arbetar halvtid som post-doktoral forskare i Per Carlbrings forskargrupp. Övrig tid arbetar jag kliniskt och med forskning på eStödsenheten vid Stockholm Beroendecentrum

Min forskning täcker det mesta av det translationella spektrumet, från experimentella beteendestudier till hjärnavbildning av patientgrupper, behandlingsstudier (efficacy och effectiveness), medierande faktorer, med mera, med det övergripande syftet att förbättra KBT-interventioner för depression, ångest och beroendetillstånd, gärna med hjälp av ny teknik. Mycket av mitt arbete kretsar kring att bearbeta data och utvinna värdefull information ur stora dataset. På institutionen har jag två pågående, större forskningsprojekt:

  • Translationella experimentella studier kring inlärnings- och utsläckningsmekanismer vid spelberoende, finansierat av Svenska spels forskningsråd.
  • Experimentella och kliniska studier på nyskapande användning av modern Virtual Reality-konsumentteknik för psykisk ohälsa.

Jag undervisar på enskilda moment på psykologprogrammet, framför allt på NKL-kurserna och kliniska kurser, samt handleder många psykologuppsatser. (OBS! Vi har ett ständigt behov av uppsatsskrivande studenter för olika projekt -- kontakta mig ifall du är intresserad)

Jag är bi-handledare åt två nuvarande doktorander:

  • Ekaterina Ivanova (Stockholm universitet), "Prevention of problem gambling".
  • Smiti Kahlon (Universitetet i Bergen), "Virtual Reality treatment of social anxiety in adolescents"

Se nedan för ett urval av publikationer och konferenspresentationer. Se min ResearchGate-profil för fullständig publikationslista.



I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2018. Philip Lindner (et al.). Scientific Reports 8

    Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

  • 2017. Philip Lindner (et al.). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 46 (5), 404-420

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic “Big Data” that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  • 2017. Philip Lindner (et al.).

    Introduction: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment of public speaking anxiety (PSA), yet inherent logistic challenges prevent widespread dissemination. Previous research has revealed that Virtual Reality (VR) may be effectively used for realistic stimuli presentation, but past generations of VR hardware have been inaccessible and expensive. We reasoned that VR stimuli, delivered using modern consumer hardware and software, would enable one-session treatment of PSA, both in the form of traditional therapist-led treatment and as an internet intervention.

    Methods: N=50 adult participants from the general public with clinically significant PSA were recruited and randomized to either therapist-led one-session treatment followed by online maintenance promoting in-vivo exposure, or waiting-list. The three-hour exposure session included psychoeducation and had participants conducting speech exercises, framed as behavioral experiments targeting idiosyncratic catastrophic beliefs, in front of virtual audiences, and listening to audio recording afterwards. Primary outcome measure was selfreported PSA, assessed using a validated instrument, measured before and after the treatment session, weekly during the four-week maintenance period, and at the end. After the first phase of the study, the waiting-list group received a simple VR headset by post and were given access to an online version of the same treatment (including the maintenance program), conducted their own one-session treatment followed by the same maintenance program, and reported PSA using the same intervals as before. Data were analyzed using mixed effects modeling.

    Results: A significant time*group effect was found such that the treatment group reported a 6.92-point larger decrease in PSA symptoms per treatment step than the waiting-list, corresponding to a between-group d=0.84 after the one-session treatment, growing to d=1.56 after the maintenance period. Piece-wise modeling of the waiting-list group’s PSA scores before and after they received their at-home equivalent treatment revealed a 6.39-point difference in decrease (per step) after receiving treatment compared to before, corresponding to a within-group d=1.22 after the at-home one-session treatment, growing to d=1.78 after the maintenance period.

    Conclusions: This trial demonstrates that simple, consumer VR hardware and software can be used to treat PSA using a one-session format, with large effect sizes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the potential of internet-administered, at-home VR treatment, the results of which are promising.

  • 2017. Simon Fagernäs (et al.).

    Introduction: Previous research has revealed that Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is an effective method for reducing symptoms of public speaking anxiety (PSA). Research about presence in the virtual environment indicates a moderating effect on physiological arousal, but more ambiguous effect on treatment effects where some research indicates a small effect while other indicate no effect. Furthermore, previous research has found adherence to home work assignments to moderate treatment outcome. In this treatment study which aimed for treating public speaking anxiety with VRET and a internetbased CBT-program, we investigated whether presence in the virtual environment and adherence to home work moderated treatment effects.

    Methods: N=25 adult participants from the general public with clinically significant PSA were recruited to a wait-list to another study. After five weeks on waitlist, they started the treatment with a self-guided in virtuo exposure session followed by a four week online maintenance promoting in-vivo exposure. Participants got a simple VR headset by post. The three-hour exposure session included psychoeducation in text, and the participants conducted speech exercises, framed as behavioral experiments targeting idiosyncratic catastrophic beliefs, in front of virtual audiences, and listening to audio recording afterwards. Primary outcome measure was self-reported PSA. To measure moderating effects of presence on the primary outcome measure a self-reported validated scale with subscales for presence (iGroup Presence Questionnaire, IPQ) were used, and for adherence a score were manually calculated based on the number of completed home-work assignments in both a linear model and a binary model dividing participants in two groups: one with at least one completed home work assignment and one with no completed home work assignment. The analysis on presence included both the effects of the VRET-session alone and in combination with the internetbased CBT-program. Data were analyzed using mixed effects modeling.

    Results: No significant results were found in moderating effects of presence with its subscales on the primary outcome measure for either the VRET-session (p = .375-.616) nor in combination with the internetbased CBT-program (p = .454 - .877). Moderating effects of adherence on primary outcome measure neither revealed no significant results in the linear model (p = .368) nor the binary model (p = .113).

    Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate, in line with some previous research, that presence in the virtual environment has no significant moderating effect on treatment outcome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous research, this study found no significant moderating effect on adherence to home work assignments on primary treatment outcome. Internal- and external validity and other potential explanations are discussed in detail in the poster.

  • 2016. Philip Lindner (et al.). PeerJ 4

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments.

  • 2016. Ekaterina Ivanova (et al.). Journal of Anxiety Disorders 44, 27-35

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) can be effective in treating anxiety disorders, yet there has been no study on Internet-delivered ACT for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD), nor any study investigating whether therapist guidance is superior to unguided self-help when supplemented with a smartphone application. In the current trial, n = 152 participants diagnosed with SAD and/or PD were randomized to therapist-guided or unguided treatment, or a waiting-list control group. Both treatment groups used an Internet-delivered ACT-based treatment program and a smartphone application. Outcome measures were self-rated general and social anxiety and panic symptoms. Treatment groups saw reduced general (d = 0.39) and social anxiety (d = 0.70), but not panic symptoms (d = 0.05) compared to the waiting-list group, yet no differences in outcomes were observed between guided and unguided interventions. We conclude that Internet-delivered ACT is appropriate for treating SAD and potentially PD. Smartphone applications may partially compensate for lack of therapist support.

  • 2016. C. J. Boraxbekk, Filip Hagkvist, Philip Lindner. Neuropsychologia 89, 371-377

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 2016. Philip Lindner (et al.). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 45 (3), 182-195

    Measurements of subjective quality of life (QoL) are an important complement to symptom ratings in clinical research and practice. Despite there being several established QoL self-rating scales, we identified a need for a freely accessible, easy-to-use inventory, validated for use with both clinical and non-clinical samples, based on the overall life satisfaction conceptualization of QoL. The Brunnsviken Brief Quality of life scale (BBQ) was designed to meet these requirements. Items were selected by performing a factor analysis on a large data-set of QoL ratings collected previously. Six life areas (Leisure time, View on life, Creativity, Learning, Friends and Friendship, and View of self) were identified as important for overall QoL and were included in the BBQ. A psychometric evaluation was performed using two independent samples: healthy undergraduate students (n = 163), and a sample seeking treatment for social anxiety disorder (n = 568). Results suggested a unifactorial structure, with good concurrent and convergent validity, high internal and test-retest reliability, and accurate classification ability. We conclude that the BBQ is a valid and reliable measure of subjective QoL for use in clinical and research settings. The BBQ is presently available in 31 languages and can be freely downloaded from

  • 2015. Philip Lindner (et al.). Internet Interventions 2 (2), 221-225

    Studies on internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) frequently use several different sources of recruitment, yet no study has investigated whether different recruitment sources produce different clinical and demographic profiles among participants. Using data from a large sample (n = 982) seeking ICBT for depression, we compared these characteristics on the basis of self-reported recruitment source. Recruitment sources that imply more active treatment-seeking behaviors (Google searches, viewing postings on mental health websites) presented more severe depression and anxiety than those recruited through more passive sources of information (newspaper advertisements, referrals by friends and family). In addition, a number of demographic differences between groups were found. These findings have important implications for ICBT research projects and clinical programs who employ open recruitment procedures and multi-modal recruitment strategies, and who wish to recruit representative samples or target specific subgroups. Replications in other countries will however be required to establish cross-cultural patterns.

  • 2017. Alexander Rozental (et al.).

    Introduction: Procrastination is a common problem among university students, with at least half of the population reporting great difficulties initiating or completing certain tasks and assignments. Procrastination can have a negative impact on course grades and the ability to achieve a university degree, but can also lead to psychological distress, such as, stress and anxiety. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is often considered treatment of choice, but few studies have investigated its effectiveness in regular clinical settings. The current study explored its treatment effects using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered during eight weeks as unguided self-help via the Internet (ICBT) or as group CBT. Methods: In total, 92 university students with severe procrastination were included in the study (registered as a clinical trial on NCT02112383). Outcome measures included self-reported procrastination, depression, anxiety, and physical and psychological well-being, which were distributed at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six-month follow-up. An outcome measure of procrastination was also administered weekly. Results: Linear mixed and fixed effects models were calculated, along with improvement and deterioration rates. The results showed that both unguided ICBT and group CBT yielded large within-group effect sizes on procrastination, Cohen’s d = 1.24-1.29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.76-1.74], and small to moderate benefits for depression, anxiety, and well-being, d = 0.37-0.68, 95% CI [-0.06-1.12]. In total, 32.6% were improved at post-treatment and 45.6% at follow-up. No differences between conditions were observed directly after the treatment period, however, participants in group CBT continued or maintained their improvement at follow-up, while participants in unguided ICBT showed signs of deterioration. Discussion: The findings from the current study suggest that CBT might be an effective treatment for students with problems of procrastination, but that a group format may be better for some in order to sustain their benefits over time.

  • 2015. Per Carlbring (et al.).

    Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioral activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study has examined the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. In this randomized controlled trial a total of 312 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomized to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four active treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear psychological treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with a psychological treatment rationale; (3)behavioral activation a la Lewinsohn; or (4) behavioral activation a la Martel. A total of 72% were women and the average age of the participants were M=42.3 years (SD=13,5). More than half (53,9%) had a history of previous psychological treatment. Primary outcome measure was the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Assessments were made on a weekly basis for the full duration of the acute treatment which was 12 weeks. The preliminary results are in line with previous online studies showing that all active treatment groups were superior to the waitlist (large effect sizes) and that only minor differences could be identified between the four active groups (large within effect sizes). At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 2016. Philip Lindner (et al.). EABCT 2016 Abstract Book, 748-748

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), that indexes anxious distress and avoidance related to social situations. The DSM-5 features a specifier to delineate those with only performance-related social anxiety, yet little is known whether performance- and interaction-related anxieties have a differential impact on total QoL and on different QoL domains. To investigate this, we pooled screening data from eight intervention studies for SAD (n = 2017). Total sample mean age was 35.28 (SD = 12.26) and 69% were female. SAD symptoms were measured using the self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale with items classified as measuring either performance or interaction anxiety. QoL, both total and across four domains, was measured using the Quality of Life Inventory. Data was analyzed using multiple regression models featuring the two anxiety scores as predictors, and by simulating the Performance-only specifier through 2˙2 median-split subgrouping and standard ANOVAs. Both interaction and performance anxieties were independently associated with lower QoL in general and across domains. Interaction anxiety had a larger negative impact on Personal Growth- and Achievement-related QoL than performance anxiety. The High-Performance/Low-Interaction-group rated higher Achievement-related QoL compared to the Low-Performance/High-Interaction-group (p = .012), yet groups were matched on total QoL and on other domains. Other group differences were in the expected direction.

    QoL impairments in SAD is primarily driven by number of feared social situations, and only secondarily by types of fear social situations, with interaction anxiety having a larger, negative impact on some QoL domains.

  • 2016. Alexander Miloff (et al.). EABCT 2016 Abstract Book, 753-753

    This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study is to compare gold-standard One Session Treatment (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behaviour using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Subjects (N = 100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power). 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time (p < .001) and time x group effect (p < .05). Both OST and VR participants experienced large BAT within-group effect sizes (d = 2.28 and d = 1.45, respectively). OST is the superior treatment option for spider phobia. VRET is an effective alternative if OST cannot be provided, as pure self-help, as the initial intervention in a stepped-care model, or as a possible post-OST booster. Future studies will benefit from evaluating effectiveness of VRET when conducted at home.

Visa alla publikationer av Philip Lindner vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 15 november 2018

Bokmärk och dela Tipsa