Profiles

PLindner

Philip Lindner

Forskare

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Arbetar vid Psykologiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 39 23
E-post philip.lindner@psychology.su.se
Besöksadress Frescati hagväg 8
Rum C 413
Postadress Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

Jag är leg. psykolog och med. dr. och arbetar deltid som adjungerad lärare på psykologprogrammet, samt har ett antal forskningsprojekt knutna till institutionen. Övrig tid arbetar jag som forsknings- och utvecklingsansvarig för Maria Ungdom, samt kliniskt och med forsknings och verksamhetsutveckling på eStödsenheten vid Beroendecentrum Stockholm. 

Vid institutionen har jag två pågående större forskningsprojekt, tillsammans med Per Carlbring.

  • Experimentella modellering av hasardsspelsbeteenden, finansierat av Svenska spels forskningsråd.
  • Experimentella och kliniska studier på nyskapande användning av modern Virtual Reality-konsumentteknik för psykisk ohälsa.

Jag är kursansvarig för psykopatologi-kursen (T4) på psykologprogrammet, har delat kursansvar för NKL3, samt undervisar på enskilda moment på andra NKL-kurser samt senare kliniska kurser. Jag handleder även många psykologuppsatser. (OBS! Vi har ett ständigt behov av uppsatsskrivande studenter för olika projekt -- kontakta mig ifall du är intresserad)

Jag är bi-handledare åt två nuvarande doktorander:

  • Ekaterina Ivanova (Stockholm universitet), "Prevention of problem gambling".
  • Smiti Kahlon (Universitetet i Bergen), "Virtual Reality treatment of social anxiety in adolescents"

Se nedan för ett urval av publikationer och konferenspresentationer. Se min ResearchGate-profil för fullständig publikationslista.

 

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2019. Per Carlbring (et al.).

    Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider-fearful individuals (n=194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self-reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text-mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free-text responses to the question: "What is it about spiders that you find frightening?". Both analysis types suggested that movement-related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics. There were, however, no linear associations with degree of phobia symptoms. Our findings reveal the importance of targeting movement-related fears in in-vivo exposure therapy for spider phobia and using realistically animated spider stimuli in computer-based experimental paradigms and clinical interventions such as Virtual Reality exposure therapy.

  • 2019. Philip Lindner (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 60 (1), 1-6

    Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider‐fearful individuals (n = 194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self‐reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text‐mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free‐text responses to the question: “What is it about spiders that you find frightening?” Both analysis types suggested that movement‐related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics. There were, however, no linear associations with degree of phobia symptoms. Our findings reveal the importance of targeting movement‐related fears in in‐vivo exposure therapy for spider phobia and using realistically animated spider stimuli in computer‐based experimental paradigms and clinical interventions such as Virtual Reality exposure therapy.

  • 2019. Per Carlbring (et al.).

    Context: Depression can be effectively treated using internet interventions. However, the relapse rate is non-ignorable. Methods: 286 participants were randomized to an additional relapse prevention program or a control group. Monthly telephone calls using the MINI diagnostic interview as well as online assessments were carried out for 24 months. Intervention: Standard cognitive behaviour therapy via the internet without guidance. Results: Relapse rates of 27.1% and 22.0% were reported in the relapse prevention program group and the control group respectively. A log-rank test of the Kaplan-Meier model did not show any significant difference between the prevention program group and the control group (χ2(1) = 0.87; p = .352) in terms of relapse rates. At the one-year follow-up, 79.2% in the prevention program group and 82.9% of the participants in the control group had PHQ-9 scores indicating them to be in remission. By the second-year follow-up the rate of remission was 75.8% in the relapse prevention program group and 81.2% in the control group. No significant differences could be seen neither at the one-year follow-up (χ2(1) = 0.36; p = .552) nor the two-year follow-up (χ2(1) = 0.53; p = .467). Conclusions: Don’t do it!

  • 2019. Jonas Ramnerö (et al.). Nordic Psychology

    Gambling is a field that harbors both harmless recreational activities and pathological varieties that may be considered an addictive disorder. It is also a field that deserves special interest from a learning theoretical perspective, since pathological gambling represents both a pure behavioral addiction involving no ingestion of substances and behavior that exhibits extreme resistance to extinction. As the field of applied psychology of learning, or behavior analysis, espouses a bottom-up approach, the basis of understanding begins in basic research on behavioral principles. This article provides a narrative review of the field of laboratory experiments conducted to disentangle the learning processes of gambling behavior. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of learning principles in gambling that has been demonstrated under lab conditions and that may be of importance in the development of clinical applications when gambling has become a problem. Several processes, like the importance of delay and probability discounting, reinforcement without actual winning, and rule governed behavior have been experimentally verified. The common denominator appears to be that they impede extinction. Other areas, especially Pavlovian conditioning, are scarce in the literature. Our recommendations for the future would be to study Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning in interaction. Treatment programs should profit from strategies that serve to enhance extinction learning. We also conclude that online gambling should provide a promising environment for controlled research on how to limit excessive gambling, provided that the gambling companies are interested in that.

  • 2019. Philip Lindner (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 10

    Virtual Reality (VR) technology can be used to create immersive environments that promote relaxation and distraction, yet it is only with the recent advent of consumer VR platforms that such applications have the potential for widespread dissemination, particularly in the form of consumer-targeted self-help applications available at regular digital marketplaces. If widely distributed and used as intended, such applications have the potential to make a much-needed impact on public mental health. In this study, we report real-world aggregated uptake, usage and application performance statistics from a first-generation consumer-targeted VR relaxation application which has been publicly available for almost 2 years. While a total of 40,000 unique users signals an impressive dissemination potential, average session duration was lower than expected, and the data suggests a low number of recurrent users. Usage of headphones and auxiliary input devices was relatively low, and some application performance issues were evident (e.g., lower than intended framerate and occurrence of overheating). These findings have important implications for the design of the future VR relaxation applications, revealing primarily that user engagement needs to be addressed in the early stage of development by including features that promote prolonged and recurrent use (e.g., gamification elements).

  • 2019. Alexander Miloff (et al.). Behaviour Research and Therapy 118, 130-140

    This study compared the efficacy of a technician-assisted single-session virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for the treatment of spider phobia featuring low-cost consumer-available hardware and novel automated software to gold-standard in-vivo one-session treatment (OST), using a parallel group randomized non-inferiority design. Method Participants (N = 100) were randomized to VRET and OST arms. Assessors blinded to treatment allocation evaluated participants at pre- and post-treatment as well follow-up (3 and 12 months) using a behavioral approach test (BAT) and self-rated fear of spider, anxiety, depression and quality-of-life scales. A maximum post-treatment difference of 2-points on the BAT qualified as non-inferiority margin. Results Linear mixed models noted large, significant reductions in behavioral avoidance and self-reported fear in both groups at post-treatment, with VRET approaching the strong treatment benefits of OST over time. Non-inferiority was identified at 3- and 12- months follow-up but was significantly worse until 12-months. There was no significant difference on a questionnaire measuring negative effects. Conclusions Automated VRET efficaciously reduced spider phobia symptoms in the short-term and was non-inferior to in-vivo exposure therapy in the long-term. VRET effectiveness trials are warranted to evaluate real-world benefits and non-specific therapeutic factors accruing from the presence of a technician during treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02533310).

  • 2019. Philip Lindner (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 10

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an efficacious treatment for fear and anxiety and has the potential to solve both logistic issues for therapists and be used for scalable self-help interventions. However, VRET has yet to see large-scale implementation in clinical settings or as a consumer product, and past research suggests that while therapists may acknowledge the many advantages of VRET, they view the technology as technically inaccessible and expensive. We reasoned that after the 2016 release of several consumer virtual reality (VR) platforms and associated public acquaintance with VR, therapists' concerns about VRET may have evolved. The present study surveyed attitudes toward and familiarity with VR and VRET among practicing cognitive behavior therapists (n = 185) attending a conference. Results showed that therapists had an overall positive attitude toward VRET (pros rated higher than cons) and viewed VR as applicable to conditions other than anxiety. Unlike in earlier research, high financial costs and technical difficulties were no longer top-rated negative aspects. Average negative attitude was a larger negative predictor of self-rated likelihood of future use than positive attitude was a positive predictor and partially mediated the positive association between VRET knowledge and likelihood of future use, suggesting that promotional efforts should focus on addressing concerns. We conclude that therapist's attitudes toward VRET appear to have evolved in recent years, and no longer appear to constitute a major barrier to implementing the next generation of VR technology in regular clinical practice.

  • 2019. Philip Lindner (et al.). Journal of Anxiety Disorders 61, 45-54

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common condition which can be treated effectively with exposure therapy. However, inherent difficulties in stimuli presentation and control limits dissemination and the therapeutic potential. Virtual Reality (VR) technology has the potential to resolve these issues and provide a scalable platform for self-help interventions. No previous study has examined whether this can be achieved using the first generation of consumer VR hardware and software. In the current trial, n = 25 + 25 participants were randomized to either one-session therapist-led VR exposure therapy for PSA followed by a four-week internet-administered VR to in-vivo transition program, or a waiting-list. Linear mixed effects modeling revealed significant, large (within Cohen’s d = 1.67) decreases in self-reported PSA. The waiting-list was then given access to an internet-administered, self-led version of the same VR exposure therapy to be conducted at home, followed by the same transition program. Dual-slope mixed effects modeling revealed significant, large (d = 1.35) decreases in self-reported PSA. Results were maintained or improved at six- and twelve-month follow-ups. We show for the first time that low-cost, off-the-shelf consumer VR hardware and software can be used to conduct exposure therapy for PSA, both in the traditional, previously impractical one-session format, and in a novel self-led, at-home format.

  • 2018. Philip Lindner (et al.). Scientific Reports 8

    Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

  • 2018. Philip Lindner (et al.). BMJ Open 8 (8)

    Introduction: Partners and children of individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) present with impaired quality of life and mental health, yet seldom seek or participate in traditional supportive interventions. Engaging the parent/partner without AUD in treatment is a promising way of supporting behavioural change in both the child and the parent with AUD. Universal parent-training (PT) programmes are effective in increasing children’s well-being and decreasing problem behaviours, but have yet to be tailored for children with a parent with AUD. Community Reinforcement Approach And Family Training (CRAFT) programmes are conceptually similar, and aim to promote behavioural change in individuals with AUD by having a concerned significant other change environmental contingencies. There has been no study on whether these two interventions can be combined and tailored for partners of individuals with AUD with common children, and delivered as accessible, online self-help.

    Methods and analysis: n=300 participants with a child showing mental health problems and partner (co-parent) with AUD, but who do not themselves present with AUD, will be recruited from the general public and randomised 1:1 to either a four-module, online combined PT and CRAFT programme or a psychoeducation-only comparison intervention. Primary outcome will be the child’s mental health. Additional outcomes will cover the partner’s drinking, the participants own mental health and drinking, the child’s social adjustment, treatment seeking in all three parties and parental self-efficacy. Measures will be collected preintervention, mid-intervention and postintervention, and three times during a 2-year follow-up period. Data will be analysed using mixed-effects modelling.

    Ethics and dissemination: This study has been approved by the Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board (2016/2179-31). The results will be presented at conferences and published as peer-reviewed publications.

    Trial registration number: ISRCTN38702517; Pre-results.

  • 2017. Philip Lindner (et al.). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 46 (5), 404-420

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic “Big Data” that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  • 2017. Alexander Rozental (et al.).

    Introduction: Procrastination is a common problem among university students, with at least half of the population reporting great difficulties initiating or completing certain tasks and assignments. Procrastination can have a negative impact on course grades and the ability to achieve a university degree, but can also lead to psychological distress, such as, stress and anxiety. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is often considered treatment of choice, but few studies have investigated its effectiveness in regular clinical settings. The current study explored its treatment effects using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered during eight weeks as unguided self-help via the Internet (ICBT) or as group CBT. Methods: In total, 92 university students with severe procrastination were included in the study (registered as a clinical trial on Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02112383). Outcome measures included self-reported procrastination, depression, anxiety, and physical and psychological well-being, which were distributed at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six-month follow-up. An outcome measure of procrastination was also administered weekly. Results: Linear mixed and fixed effects models were calculated, along with improvement and deterioration rates. The results showed that both unguided ICBT and group CBT yielded large within-group effect sizes on procrastination, Cohen’s d = 1.24-1.29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.76-1.74], and small to moderate benefits for depression, anxiety, and well-being, d = 0.37-0.68, 95% CI [-0.06-1.12]. In total, 32.6% were improved at post-treatment and 45.6% at follow-up. No differences between conditions were observed directly after the treatment period, however, participants in group CBT continued or maintained their improvement at follow-up, while participants in unguided ICBT showed signs of deterioration. Discussion: The findings from the current study suggest that CBT might be an effective treatment for students with problems of procrastination, but that a group format may be better for some in order to sustain their benefits over time.

  • 2019. Olof Molander (et al.).

    Context: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended to address the high prevalence of co-occurring mental ill health in problem gamblers, there are, to our knowledge, no specific treatment protocols available targeting psychiatric co-morbidities. Furthermore, psychiatric co-morbidities are seldom addressed in gambling treatment studies.

    Intervention: We are currently developing a new internet-based CBT protocol based on the Pathways model [1]. Briefly, this etiological model states that there are distinct pathways for development and maintenance of gambling problem in conjunction with psychiatric co-morbidities. Our treatment will offer tailored behavioral interventions targeting the specific maintenance processes for each gambling pathway proposed by the Pathway model.

    Methods: Treatment-seeking participants (N=20) with Gambling Disorder and psychiatric co-morbidities will be recruited in a first pilot study delivered via the internet. In addition to evaluating feasibility and potential efficacy, we will examine moderators according to the proposed maintenance processes in the Pathways model.

    Results: The pilot study is planned to commence spring 2019.

    Conclusion: The results of the pilot study will hopefully contribute to specific knowledge regarding treatment interventions for gamblers with psychiatric co-morbidities, as well as to the research field as a whole.

Visa alla publikationer av Philip Lindner vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 2 augusti 2019

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