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Torun Lindholm, porträtt.

Torun Lindholm

Professor, stf prefekt

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Arbetar vid Psykologiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 40 72
E-post tlm@psychology.su.se
Besöksadress Frescati hagväg 14
Rum 220
Postadress Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

Jag är professor i psykologi, särskilt socialpsykologi och sedan HT 2015 ställföreträdande prefekt på Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet. Jag har tidigare varit verksam på  Mälardalens högskola,vid Institutet för Psykosocial Medicin på KI (numera Stressforskningsinstitutet) och vid Uppsala universitet.

 Jag disputerade vid Stockholms universitet 1999 med en avhandling kring hur minnesbilder hos vittnen till våldsbrott påverkas av grupptillhörighet (etnicitet, kön) hos förövare och offer. Min forskning rör olika teman inom social- och kognitionspsykologi; hur en individs ingrupp/utgrupp status (baserat på etnicitet och kön) påverkar bedömningar av individen i olika sammanhang, minnesförvrängningar i samband medicinska och rättsliga beslut,  verbala uttryck för minnens tillförlitlighet, barns minnen, mäns och kvinnors strategiska självpresentation, fördomar och äckel.  Hösten 2018 erhåll jag tillsammans med professor Åsa Wikforss (huvudsökande), professor Henrik Ekengren Oscarsson och professor Jesper Strömbäck ett stort anslag från Riksbanken för ett program kring kunskapsresistens.

Jag är ledamot i styrelsen för European Association of Social Psychology (EASP), ledamot i Svenska Nationalkommittén för psykologi, samt arbetande ledamot i Kungliga vitterhets-, historie- och antikvitetsakademin.

Undervisning

Jag har undervisat i en rad ämnen inom social- och kognitionspsykologi på grundutbildning och avancerad/forskarnivå. Jag är för närvarande kursansvarig för en kurs på avancerad nivå kring evolutionära perspektiv på socialt beteende, och har ströföreläsningar på flera andra kurser. Jag handleder sex doktorander, varav fem som huvudhandledare.

Forskning

Min forskning har berört en rad olika fenomen framförallt inom det social- och kognitionspsykologiska fältet. Mina aktuella projekt beskrivs nedan.

1) Kompensation mellan värme och kompetens i strategisk självpresentation

De intryck andra människor får av oss har stora konsekvenser på livets alla områden, och behovet att ge andra en positiv bild av oss själva styr vårt beteende i princip i alla situationer. Processen genom vilken vi försöker kontrollera den bild andra får av oss kallas själv-presentation (self-presentation eller impression management på engelska). Det här projektet undersöker hur människor använder två centrala dimensioner i person perception, värme och kompetens, i sin självpresentation. I projektet studerar vi särskilt den kompensatoriska relationen mellan värme och kompetens i olika situationer. Om man t ex vill framstå som särskilt kompetent, försöker man då inte bara visa hur kompetent man är, utan också att man inte är särskilt varm? Och i situationer där det är viktigt att framstå som en varm person, drar vi då ned på hur kompetenta vi framstår? Vi undersöker också om dimensionerna värme och kompetens i vittnens utsagor kan användas för at särskilja korrekta och felaktiga minnen.,

Samarbetspartners inkluderar Prof. Vincent Yzerbyt, Anna Blomkvist, Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos och Marco Tullio Liuzza.

2) Vittnens utsagor: Verbala och paraverbala markörer för tillförlitlighet.

I den vittnespsykologiska forskningen har man länge varit intresserad av att hitta objektiva kriterier som är relaterade till vittnens tillförlitlighet. Fokus har hittills särskilt har legat på kvaliteter som särskiljer lögner från minnen av verkliga händelser. Även ärliga vittnen som gör sitt bästa för att minnas så korrekt som möjligt gör dock också ofta misstag, och lämnar uppgifter om händelsen som är felaktiga och missvisande.  En fråga av praktisk och teoretisk betydelse är därför om det finns kvaliteter som särskiljer korrekta från felaktiga utsagor hos vittnen som uppriktigt försöker beskriva en brottshändelse. Huvudfokus för detta projekt är att undersöka egenskaper som är relaterade till tillförlitligheten i vittnesutsagor av denna typ, dvs från vittnen som inte ljuger. I projektet undersöks specifikt verbala och paraverbala markörer för hur lätt ett vittne har att plocka fram sitt minne. I projektet undersöks följande specifika frågeställningar undersöks i projektet två specifika frågeställningar: 1) Finns det objektiva kvaliteter som särskiljer korrekta från felaktiga vittnesutsagor? 2) Kan information om objektiva kvaliteter som skiljer korrekta från felaktiga utsagor, samt övning i att använda dessa förbättra validiteten i bedömningar av vittnen? 3) Hur tillförlitliga är sådana objektiva kvaliteter över längre tidsintervall), 4) Hur påverkas tillförlitligheten av vittnets beteende mellan bevittnande och framplockning.

Samarbetspartners inkluderar Philip Gustafsson, Fredrik Jönsson och Marco Tullio Liuzza.

3) Beslutsfattande och minne: Hur påverkas våra minnen av vilket beslut vi och andra fattar?

När vi fattar ett beslut t ex i ett val mellan två alternativ, vill vi gärna efteråt känna att vi valde rätt. Denna motivation kan leda till att man i efterhand förvränger den information man hade om alternativen så att man minns det man valde som bättre och det man inte valde som sämre än vad som faktiskt var fallet. I det här projektet undersöker vi hur våra minnen kan påverkas inte bara av våra egna, utan också av andras beslut.

Samarbetspartners är Ola Svenson, Philip Gustafsson, Sebastian Cancino och Amina Memon.

5) Kunskapsresistens: Orsaker, konsekvenser och motmedel

Vi lever i en tid där vi har större tillgång till och möjligheter att kommunicera kunskap än någonsin tidigare. Samtidigt stöter försöken att nå ut med kunskap också på ett allt mer utbrett hinder; kunskapsresistens. Detta program är ett samarbete mellan Åsa Wikforss (Filosofiska institutionen SU), Jesper Strömbäck (Mediavetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborg), Henrik Ekengren Oskarsson (Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborg) och Torun Lindholm (Psykologiska inst. SU). Syftet är att inom ett enhetligt ramverk undersöka kunskapsresistensens orsaker, dess konsekvenser och hur sådan resistens kan motverkas.

4) Body odor disgust sensitivity- BODS, sociala och politiska attityder

Äckel är en universell emotion som antas ha utvecklats för att skydda kroppen från potentiellt skadliga ämnen, och som spelar en central roll i vårt beteendebaserade immunsystem. Äckel har också betydelse för vårt sociala beteende, och ingår som en komponent i negativa attityder till utgrupper, i synnerhet extrema attityder som avhumanisering och stigmatisering. Forskning har under senare tid visat att individuella skillnader i hur lätt man äcklas är kopplat till social konservatism och främlingsfientliga attityder. Kroppslukter hör till de stimuli som mest kraftfullt aktiverar äckel, och både människor och andra däggdjur använder kroppslukter för att reglera socialt beteende. I föreliggande projekt har vi utvecklat ett nytt instrument för att mäta känslighet för äckel baserat på kroppslukt (the body odor disgust scale, BODS), och undersökt dess betydelse för sociala attityder och beteenden.

Samarbetspartners är Jonas Olofsson, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Marta Zakrewska, Maria Larsson; Sebastian Cancino Montecinos och Anna Blomkvist.

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2019. Marta Zakrzewska (et al.). Physiology and Behavior 201, 221-227

    Why are certain individuals persistent in opposing immigration? The behavioral immune system framework implies that a psychological mechanism, which adapted to detect and avoid pathogen threats, is also reflected in contemporary social attitudes. Moreover, prejudice towards outgroups might be partially driven by implicit pathogen concerns related to the perceived dissimilarity with these groups' hygiene and food preparation practices. Disgust, a universal core emotion supposedly evolved to avoid pathogen threats, as well as olfaction, both play a pivotal role in evoking disgust. In an online study (N = 800), we investigated whether individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity (BODS) correlate with negative attitudes towards a fictive refugee group. The data analysis plan and hypotheses were preregistered. Results show that body odor disgust sensitivity is associated with xenophobia: BODS was positively associated with negative attitudes towards the fictive group. This relationship was partially mediated by perceived dissimilarities of the group in terms of hygiene and food preparation. Our finding suggests prejudice might be rooted in sensory mechanisms.

  • 2019. Marco Tullio Liuzza (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 10

    Detecting pathogen threats and avoiding disease is fundamental to human survival. The behavioral immune system (BIS) framework outlines a set of psychological functions that may have evolved for this purpose. Disgust is a core emotion that plays a pivotal role in the BIS, as it activates the behavioral avoidance motives that prevent people from being in contact with pathogens. To date, there has been little agreement on how disgust sensitivity might underlie moral judgments. Here, we investigated moral violations of “purity” (assumed to elicit disgust) and violations of “harm” (assumed to elicit anger). We hypothesized that individual differences in BIS-related traits would be associated with greater disgust (vs. anger) reactivity to, and greater condemnation of Purity (vs. Harm) violations. The study was pre-registered (https://osf.io/57nm8/). Participants (N = 632) rated scenarios concerning moral wrongness or inappropriateness and regarding disgust and anger. To measure individual differences in the activation of the BIS, we used our recently developed Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a BIS-related trait measure that assesses individual differences in feeling disgusted by body odors. In line with our predictions, we found that scores on the BODS relate more strongly to affective reactions to Purity, as compared to Harm, violations. In addition, BODS relates more strongly to Moral condemnation than to perceived Inappropriateness of an action, and to the condemnation of Purity violations as compared to Harm violations. These results suggest that the BIS is involved in moral judgment, although to some extent this role seems to be specific for violations of “moral purity,” a response that might be rooted in disease avoidance. Data and scripts to analyze the data are available on the Open Science Framework (OSF) repository: https://osf.io/tk4x5/. Planned analyses are available at https://osf.io/x6g3u/.

  • 2019. Torun Lindholm, Fredrik Jönsson, Marco Tullio Liuzza.

    We investigate whether retrieval effort cues are related to eyewitness accuracy, and the relative role of effort cues and witnesses’ confidence in predicting memory. The results demonstrate that verbal and paraverbal retrieval effort cues are strongly related to witnesses’ accuracy. Moreover, subjective confidence in memory rests on these cues.

  • 2019. Philip Gustafsson, Torun Lindholm, Fredrik U. Jönsson.

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 2019. Peter Esaiasson (et al.). British Journal of Political Science 49 (1), 291-314

    Procedural fairness theory posits that the way in which authoritative decisions are made strongly impacts people's willingness to accept them. This article challenges this claim by contending that democratic governments can achieve little in terms of acceptance of policy decisions by the procedural means at their disposal. Instead, outcome favorability is the dominant determinant of decision acceptance. The article explicates that while central parts of procedural fairness theory are true, outcome favorability is still overwhelmingly the strongest determinant of individuals' willingness to accept authoritative decisions. It improves on previous research by locating all key variables into one causal model and testing this model using appropriate data. Findings from a large number of experiments (both vignette and field) reproduce the expected relationships from previous research and support the additional predictions.

  • 2019. Marco Tullio Liuzza (et al.).

    In this preregistered study, we investigated how different types of moral violations elicit disgust vs. anger, and the role of disgust sensitivity in responding to moral violations. Our results show that purity violations primarily elicit disgust reactions, and individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity moderates reactions to purity violations.

  • 2019. Torun Lindholm (et al.).

    We examined how men’s and women’s self-presentational choices influenced perceived suitability for a senior position. We confronted applicants to job interview questions preferred by men or women. Regardless of their gender, applicants received better evaluations when they received questions initially selected by men than questions initially selected by women.

  • 2019. Philip U. Gustafsson, Torun Lindholm, Fredrik U. Jönsson. Frontiers in Psychology 10

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

  • 2018. Marco Tullio Liuzza (et al.). Royal Society Open Science 5 (2)

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  • 2018. Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos, Fredrik Björklund, Torun Lindholm. European Journal of Social Psychology 48 (1), 100-107

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 2018. Ola Svenson (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 59 (2), 127-134

    Cognitive representations of decision problems are dynamic. During and after a decision, evaluations and representations of facts change to support the decision made by a decision maker her- or himself (Svenson, 2003). We investigated post-decision distortion of facts (consolidation). Participants were given vignettes with facts about two terminally ill patients, only one of whom could be given lifesaving surgery. In Study 1, contrary to the prediction, the results showed that facts were distorted after a decision both by participants who were responsible for the decisions themselves and when doctors had made the decision. In Study 2 we investigated the influence of knowledge about expert decisions on a participant's own decision and post-decisional distortion of facts. Facts were significantly more distorted when the participant's decision agreed with an expert's decision than when the participant and expert decisions disagreed. The findings imply that knowledge about experts' decisions can distort memories of facts and therefore may obstruct rational analyses of earlier decisions. This is particularly important when a decision made by a person, who is assumed to be an expert, makes a decision that is biased or wrong.

  • 2018. Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos, Fredrik Björklund, Torun Lindholm. PLoS ONE 13 (12)

    The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change in the induced compliance paradigm. In two studies, participants (N = 44; N = 106) wrote a counter-attitudinal essay under the perception of high choice, and were later asked to state their emotions in relation to writing this essay, as well as to state their attitude. Results confirmed the predictions, even when controlling for baseline emotions. These findings untangled a previously unresolved issue in dissonance research, which in turn shows how important emotion theories are for the understanding of cognitive dissonance processes.

  • 2018. Torun Lindholm, Fredrik U. Jönsson, Marco Tullio Liuzza. Journal of experimental psychology. Applied 24 (4), 534-542

    Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses’ subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy. The results of 2 studies demonstrate that objectively verifiable verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort are strongly related to honest witnesses’ memory accuracy and that several of these cues contribute uniquely to predict accuracy. Moreover, we show that subjective confidence in a memory rests on these effort cues and that the cues mediate the confidence−accuracy relation. Given research showing that most people have vast difficulties in judging the quality of others’ memories, combined with the scarcity of research on predictors of genuinely reported memories, these initial findings suggest unexplored alternatives that may prove highly useful for improving accuracy judgments, with potentially far-reaching significance not the least in the legal context.

  • 2018. Torun Lindholm, Vincent Yzerbyt.

    Research shows that the two fundamental dimensions of social perception, warmth and competence, are often negatively related in our perceptions of others, the so-called compensation effect. The current experiments investigate people’s use of such compensation when self-presenting strategically to reach a desired goal. In Experiment 1, participants applying for a qualified job emphasized their competence while downplaying their warmth. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants role-playing as crime witnesses similarly attenuated their warmth relative to their competence. In contrast, in Experiment 3, participants in the role of suspects of a severe crime chose to downplay their competence. Results suggest that self-presenters are sensitive to warmth-competence dynamics in social perception as a means to promote the optimal self-image given their specific goals.

  • 2017. Kimmo Eriksson (et al.). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 69, 59-64

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

  • 2017. Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos, Torun Lindholm.

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstraction. Results revealed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated when participants experienced cognitive conflict. This suggest that cognitive conflicts are closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 2017. Marco Tullio Liuzza (et al.). Chemical Senses 42 (6), 499-508

    Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors. Collected data from 3 studies (total n = 528) show that the scale can be used either as a unidimensional scale or as a scale that reflects two hypothesized factors: sensitivity to one's own body odors versus those of others. Guided by our results, we reduced the scale to 12 items that capture the essence of these 2 factors. The final version of the BODS shows an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha s > 0.9). The BODS subscales show convergent validity with other general disgust scales, as well as with other olfactory functions measures and with aspects of personality that are related to pathogen avoidance. A fourth study confirmed the construct validity of the BODS and its measurement invariance to gender. Moreover, we found that, compared with other general disgust scales, the BODS is more strongly related to perceived vulnerability to disease. The BODS is a brief and valid assessment of trait body odor disgust sensitivity.

Visa alla publikationer av Torun Lindholm vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 22 augusti 2019

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