Azade Azad


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Works at Department of Psychology
Telephone 08-16 20 17
Visiting address Frescati hagväg 14
Room 224
Postal address Psykologiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm


A selection from Stockholm University publication database
  • 2015. Azade Azad, Lina Leander. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 22 (6), 890-902

    This study analysed the reporting patterns of 22 sexually abused children and 23 physically abused children (all cases had been verified). Police interviews with the children were analysed in relation to the amount and type of information reported, as well as the frequency of denial and avoidance of critical information. Physically and sexually abused children reported more neutral information from the abusive acts per se than information regarding sexual or physically violent acts. The children were also high in avoidance and denial regarding information about the abuse. The physically abused children reported more severe information about physically abusive acts compared with the amount of information the sexually abused children reported about severe sexual acts. An explanation for this may have been the shameful and taboo nature of sexual abuse. It is important to undertake further investigation of how the nature and type of abuse, to which child witnesses have been exposed, may affect the reporting pattern. Such information may broaden our knowledge about how to conduct and evaluate child interviews.

  • 2014. Azade Azad, Sven-Åke Christianson, Heidi Selenius. Psychology, Crime and Law 20 (5), 407-429

    For both legal and clinical purposes, it is of importance to study children's memories and reports of stressful events. The present study investigated the reporting patterns of 83 children who had witnessed homicidal violence, which is considered to be a highly stressful experience. More specifically, we explored the possible effects of prior violence exposure and of repeated questioning on the amount of details reported. Results showed that the majority of children provided detailed reports about the homicidal violence they had witnessed, including details concerning what happened before, during, and after the violent act. The children provided detailed and vivid testimonies from their experiences, whether they witnessed the event for the first time or had prior experience of witnessing severe violence against the victim by the perpetrator. Children with no prior experience of repeated violence who underwent repeated interviews provided more details than those interviewed once. The present data indicate that children are competent witnesses when questioned in legal contexts after having been exposed to extremely stressful events. These findings have implications for research related to children's memories and reporting of traumatic experiences, as well as practical implications for future treatment and evaluation of children's testimonies.

  • 2013. Sven å. Christianson (et al.). Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 20 (3), 366-383

    The present study investigated how 96 children who have witnessed homicidal violence remember and report their experiences. The aims of the study were to describe the children's reporting pattern and to investigate background factors that could affect the children's reporting. Police interviews with the children were analysed regarding the amount and type of information reported, as well as frequency of denial, withholding and claims of memory loss. Results showed that the majority of children provided detailed reports about the homicidal violence they had witnessed, including critical details about the abuse. Results also revealed that the child's relationship to the perpetrator or the victim did not affect the children's reporting pattern, indicating that the children's willingness to report exceeds strong impact factors such as loyalty conflicts. These findings are applicable in different legal contexts dealing with child witnesses and can be used as guidance when interviewing children and evaluating their testimony.

  • 2012. Azade Azad, Lina Leander. Nordic Psychology 64 (4), 258-271

    The present study examines prosecutors', child investigators', and plaintiff aids' (i.e., important actors during alleged child sexual abuse [CSA] investigations) beliefs about children's testimonies. More specifically, the aim was to examine whether these experts agree (a) with praxis from, for example, the Supreme Court regarding the use of certain credibility criteria when evaluating the reliability of CSA reports; and/or (b) with findings from research on issues of child testimony. The participants (n = 206) were asked to rate how detailed, consistent, and spontaneous they believe children are in their CSA reports; the effects of exposure to repeated abuse; and to indicate their opinion on the optimal number of child interviews. Due to the low response rate, results can only be discussed in terms of possible indications, however, it is interesting to note that the experts had similar opinions on the issues investigated, opinions that were also rather in line with research findings on children's testimony. Although they receive support from the research, some of these opinions are not in line with recommendations made by the Supreme Court or the Pre-trial Order. More research is needed to further examine: (a) the reliability of the credibility criteria recommended by the Swedish Supreme Court; (b) how frequently the Swedish courts actually refer to these credibility criteria; and (c) different experts' (with different functions in the legal process) opinions on these criteria.

Show all publications by Azade Azad at Stockholm University

Last updated: February 22, 2018

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