About me
I started working in mathematics teacher education January 2003 after a long professional life as a teacher in compulsory school. With my teacher degree from 1985, I continued developing my professional skills. Alongside my teacher work, I studied for a master degree in intercultural education. I graduated in 2001. I finished my PhD 2010 and are today associate professor (docent) in mathematics education.
Another research area of mine is computer programming in mathematics education. From 2017 until 2020 I was one of the researchers in a project, Programming in subject didactics, with IFOUS.
I have supervised PhD Jöran Petersson (defence 2017) and PhD Petra Svensson Källberg (defence 2018), both within the same research field as myself, multilingual issues in mathematics classrooms. Since 2015, I have also been interested in how newly arrived students are constructed in the teaching of mathematics, and what opportunities for meaning making are offered to them. I'm also supervising:
PhDstudent Gosia Marschall, who does a study on mathematics teacher education.
I'm a second supervisor to PhDstudent Anna Wallin, since autumn 2016. Anna does a study on mathematics learning in 'Fritidshem' [an after school concept in school].
I was head supervisor to PhD student Laura Caligari, from autumn 2018, and second supervisor since autimn 2020. Laura studies multilingaul students and word problems in mathematics.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Eva_Noren2
Teaching
I lecture on multilingualism and mathematics teaching in courses on undergraduate, master's and postgraduate education, as well as teacher in special needs education and tutor training. I also lecture on computer programming in mathematics classrooms (compulsory school).
Research
My research focuses on mathematics education in multilingual mathematics classrooms. One premise is that students are used to learn in their mother tongue and that mother tongue will be a resource in their continuing mathematical learning. Another starting point is language development work in mathematics. My research interests concern multilingual students' opportunities to position themselves within discourses and how multilingual students take space and agency in the mathematics classroom. In the research I combine Foucault's discourse theory with Skovsmose’s critical mathematics education in order to analyze practices in the classroom. My project "Multilingual mathematics classrooms" is still running, and 2017 2019 I have been involved in etnographic classroom studies in one grade level 23, and two grade level 45, learning mathematics on their second language. Another interest of research is mathematics learning, digital tools and programming. The third interest is gender issues in mathematics education.
In the research on pupils learning in mathematics and ICT, a minor ethnographic study has been conducted in a preschool class with access to iPads (onetoone). A book chapter has been published (2018). Since fall 2017, I have participated in a research and development project: Programming in subject teaching (IFOUS), together with colleagues at MND and DSV. Several conference papers have been presented.
I am involved in an ERASMUS+ project, LaMaVoC which means "Language for Mathematics in Vocational Contexts". From 2017 to 2020 we develop and test an educational concept that prepare students for vocational training in commercial and technical professions. The main partners is Technical University of Dortmund (Germany) and the other partner is Freudentahl Insitute, Utrecht University (the Netherlands).
Since I have been involved in developing a systematic review of research on Dialouge in mathematics classroom at the School Research Institute, I have learned how teachers can work with classroom dialogs in mathematics classrooms.
Projects
NORMA 17: The 8th Nordic Conference on Research in Mathematics Education
01/11/2016  30/11/2016
The Eighth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education, NORMA 17 took place in Stockholm, Sweden, the 30 May – 2 June 2017. The theme for the conference was Nordic research in mathematics education. 
Groups
SOCAME (Social and citical aspects of mathematics education)
Publications
Peer reviewed journal articles

Nouri, J., Zhang, L., Mannila, L., & Norén, E. (2019). Development of computational thinking, digital competence and 21st century skills when learning programming in K9. Education Inquiry, 117.
 Norén, E., & Svensson Källberg, P. (2018). Fabrication of newlyarrived students as mathematical learners. Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD:[Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], 23(34), 1537.
 Bagger, A., Björklund Boistrup, L., & Noren, E. (2018). The governing of three researchers' technologies of the self. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, 15(12), 278302.
 Hajer, M., & Norén, E. (2017). Teachers’ knowledge about language in mathematics professional development courses: From an intended curriculum to a curriculum in action. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education; 7b, 13.

Petersson, J., & Norén, E. (2017). To halve a fraction: An issue for second language learners. Education Inquiry, 8(3), 173191.
 Norén, E. (2015). Agency and positioning in a multilingual mathematics classroom. Educational Studies in Mathematics 89, 167184.
 Svensson, P., Meaney, T., & Norén, E. (2014). Immigrant students’ perceptions of their possibilities to learn mathematics: The case of homework. For the Learning of Mathematics 34, 3, 3237.
 Norén, E. (2011b). Students’ mathematical identity formation in a Swedish multilingual mathematics classroom. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 16(12), s. 95113.
 Norén, E. (2010b). An immigrant student’s identity formation in a Swedish bilingual mathematics classroom. In C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T Wedege (Eds.), Mathematics and Mathematics education: Cultural and Social Dimensions, (pp.179188). Linköping: Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education.
 Norén, E. (2010c). Discourses and agency in a multilingual mathematics classroom. In Nordic Educational Research Workingpaper series, 1, 116. Stockholm University.
 Norén, E. (2008a). Bilingual students' mother tongue: a resource for teaching and learning mathematics. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 13(4), s 2950.
Disseration
 Norén, E. (2010a). Flerspråkiga matematikklassrum. Diskurser i grundskolans matematikundervisning. Doktorsavhandling framlagd vid Stockholms universitet, institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik. (180 sidor)
Peer reviewed conference papers
 Bagger, A., Norén, E., Björklund Boistrup, L., & Lundahl, C. (2019). DIGITIZED NATIONAL TESTS IN MATHEMATICS: A WAY OF INCREASING AND SECURING EQUITY?. In The 10th International Mathematics Education and Society Conference (Vol. 10).
 Wallin, A., Norén, E., & Valero, P. (2019). Tensions in the Swedish Fritidshem Mathematics Curriculum: a Policy Enactment Perspective. In The 10th International Mathematics Education and Society Conference (Vol. 10).
 Sjöberg, C., Risberg, T., Nouri, J., Norén, E., & Zhang, L. (2019). A lesson study on programming as an instrument to learn mathematics and social science in primary school. The 13th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED, 11th – 13th of March, Valencia, Spain. DOI: 10.21125/inted.2019.0622
 Zhang, L., Nouri, J., & Norén, E. (2018). Reviewing teaching approaches for programming through Scratch in compulsory school. International Conference on Technology In Education: San Francisco.
 Sjöberg, C., Nouri, J., Sjöberg, R., Norén, E., & Zhang L. (2018). Teaching and learning mathematics in primary school through scratch. EDULEARN18 Proceedings, s. 56255632.

Chibas, Å., Nouri, J., Norén, E., & Zhang, L. (2018). Didactical strategies and challenges when teaching programming in preschool.

Nouri, J., Norén, E., & Skog, K. (2018). Didactical strategies employed by teachers when teaching programming in K9 education. INTED2018: Proceedings, s. 79837989.
 Nouri, J., Norén, E., & Skog, K. (2018). Learning programming by playing and coding games in K9. The 12th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. 5 – 7 april.
 Norén, E., & Björklund Boistrup, L. (2016). Gender Stereotypes in Mathematics Textbooks. 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education – ICME 13, Hamburg, 24–31 July 2016
 Björklund Boistrup, L., & Norén, E. (2015). A school for all? Political and social issues regarding second language learners in mathematics education. Accepted for presentation, and publication in proceedings of CIEAEM 67.
 Norén, E., Petersson, J., Sträng, C., & Svensson, P. (2015). Newly arrived students in mathematics classrooms in Sweden. 9th Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, CERME – 9, Prague, full paper presentation.
 Norén, E., & Björklund Boistrup, L. (2015). A multilingual mathematics classroom: Various realitites. In G. Aldon, B. Di Paola, & C. Fazio, C. (Eds.), Mathematics and reality, Proceedings of CIEAEM 66, Quaderni di Ricerca in didattica, 24(1), p.388, ISSN 15924424.
 Norén, E. (2014). Positioning of girls and boys in a primary mathematics classroom. Proceedings of the Seventh Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education – NORMA 2014, Åbo, Finland.
 Norén, E. & Björklund Boistrup, L. (2013). What is a group? Theoretical considerations when researching affordances for multilingual students' mathematical learning. Proceedings Mathematics Education and Society 7th International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 27 April 2013. http://www.mes7.uct.ac.za/Noren%20_%20Bjorklund%20Boistrup_Paper.pdf hämtat 140318
 Björklund Boistrup, L. Norén, E. (2013) Power relations in mathematics education: Researching assessment discourses in daytoday communication in mathematics classrooms. Proceedings Mathematics Education and Society 7th International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 27 April 2013. http://www.mes7.uct.ac.za/Bjorklund%20Boistrup%20_%20Noren_Paper.pdf hämtat 140318
 Björklund Boistrup, L. & Norén, E. (2012). Equity in mathematics classrooms: Assessment discourses in daytoday communication. 12th International Congress of Mathematical Education, TSG 28, (pp. abcdefghij), 8th of July – 15th of July 2012, COEX, Seoul, Korea.
 Norén, E. (2011a). 30 Grade – eight students: Discourse switch and bilingual students solving text problems in mathematics. In M. Setati, T. Nkambule & L. Goosen (Eds.), Proceedings of the ICMI Study 21 Conference: Mathematics Education and Language Diversity 1620 September 2011, (pp. 292300). Sao Paulo, Brazil.
 Andersson, A., & Norén, E. (2011c). Agency in mathematics education. In Proceedings from 7th conference for European research in mathematics education (pp. 13891398).
 Norén, E. (2010). Identity in a bilingual mathematics classroom – a Swedish example. In U. Gellert, E. Jablonka & C. Morgan (Eds.), Mathematics Education and Society. Proceedings of the Sixth International Mathematics Education and Society Conference. 20th – 25th of March 2010, Berlin, Germany.
 Norén, E. (2008). Mothertongue of teaching mathematics project. Proceedings´of the 11th International Congress on Mathematical Education, ICME – 11, Mexico, Topic Study Group 33, full paper presentation
Peer reviewed book chapters
 Norén, E. (2018). Agency, Materiality, and Mathematics Learning in a Preschool Classroom. In Inside the Mathematics Class (pp. 145164). Springer, Cham.
 Norén, E., & Andersson, A. (2016). Multilingual students’ agency in mathematics classrooms. In A. Halai, & P. Clarkson (Eds.), Teaching & Learning Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms Issues for policy, practice and teacher education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
 Meyer, M., César, M., Norén, E. & Prediger. S. (2015) Making use of multiple (nonshared) first languages: State and need of research and development in the European language context. In R. Barwell, P. Clarkson, A. Halai, M. Kazima, J. Moschkovich, N. Planas, M. Setati Pakeng, P. Valero, & M. S. Villavicencio (Eds.), Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI study. London: Springer.
 LangerOsuna, J. M., Moschkovich, J., Norén, E., Powell, A. B. & Vazquez, S. (2015) Student agency and counternarratives in diverse multilingual mathematics classrooms: Challenging deficit perspectives. In R. Barwell, P. Clarkson, A. Halai, M. Kazima, J. Moschkovich, N. Planas, M. Setati Pakeng, P. Valero, & M. S. Villavicencio (Eds.), Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI study. London: Springer.
 Grevholm, B., Björklund, P., Häggström, J., Kjellström, K., Löfwall, S., Norén, E., Olofsson, G., Persson, E., Persson, P.E., Persson, L.E., Riesbeck, E. & Taflin, E. (2012). Lära och undervisa matematik – Från förskoleklass till åk 6. Stockholm: Norstedts.
 Norén, E. (2008b). Bilingual Mathematics Classrooms in Sweden. In I. Dirim, K. Hauenschild, B. LutjeKlose, J. M. Löser & I. Sievers (Eds), Ethnische Vielfalt und Mehrsprachigkeit an Schulen. Beispiele aus verschiedenen nationalen Kontexten. Bildung in der Weltgesellschaft 1, (pp. 95106). Frankfurt a M: Brandes och Apsel.
Populärvetenskapliga artiklar/bokkapitel/rapporter
 Norén, E. (2017). En skola för alla. I (red), L. Björklund Boistrup, M. Nordlund & E. Norén " Alla människors möte borde vara så": texter om bedömning: vänbok till Astrid Pettersson. Stockholm: Inst för MND.
 Norén, E. (2011). Flerspråkiga matematikklassrum. I B. Bergius, G. Emanuelsson, L. Emanuelsson & R. Ryding (red.), Matematik – ett grundämne. Nämnaren TEMA 8 (s. 279284). Göteborg. Nationellt Centrum för Matematikutbildning.
 Norén, E. & Ramsfeldt, S. (2010). Tvåspråkig matematikundervisning – nya organisationsformer och undervisningsmetoder i matematikklassrummet. I N. Musk & Å. Wedin (red.), Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande, (s. 215244). Lund: Studentlitteratur.
 Norén, E. & ter Vehn, M. (2007) Matematikundervisning och flerspråkiga elever. I Matematikdidaktiska texter. Beprövad erfarenhet och vetenskaplig grund. Del I (s. 6680). Stockholm: Avdelningen för matematikens didaktik och PRIMgruppen vid Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm.
 Norén, E. (2007). Min väg till forskarutbildningen. I M. Andrée, L. Borgström & B. HammarströmLewenhagen (red) En klass för sig – om forskning och forskarutbildning vid Lärarhögskolan I Stockholm. Stockholm: HLS Förlag.
 Norén, E. (2007). Det går att lära sig mer. En utvärdering av tvåspråkig matematikundervisning. Kompetensfonden: Stockholm. Det går att lära sig mer (1661 Kb)
 Norén, E. (2006). Matematik, flerspråkiga elever och modersmål. I Lindberg, I., och Sandwall, K. (red), Språket och kunskapen: att lära på sitt andraspråk i skola och högskola: rapport från nordisk konferens den 78 oktober 2005 i Göteborg. Göteborgs Universitet: Göteborg
 Norén, E. (2006). Matematik på modersmål eller på två språk. I O. Eskilsson & A. Redfors (red), Ämnesdidaktik ur ett nationellt och internationellt perspektiv. Rikskonferens i ämnesdidaktik 2006. Kristianstad University Press: Kristianstad
 Norén, E. (2005). Traditioner i bedömning av kunskap och kompetens i matematik – ett jämlikhetsperspektiv. Didaktikens Forum, årgång 2, nr. 2. Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm: Stockholm
Publications
A selection from Stockholm University publication database
Eva Norén. Nordic Educational Research Working paper series
I challenge understandings of students with a foreign background in mathematics classrooms in Sweden as disadvantaged. Students are often predefined as unsuccessful and bilingualism is constructed as an obstacle in classrooms. I explore how discourses operate in a monolingually instructed mathematics classroom. Among various discourses mainly three are exercised, a reformoriented mathematics discourse, a language supportive discourse and a discourse excluding student’s linguistic and cultural experiences. A language supportive discourse promotes a reformoriented mathematics discourse, and occasionally operates towards normalization towards Swedishness. On the other hand a reformoriented discourse supports a language supportive discourse. Within these discourses there is space for students’ agency, and students position themselves as engaged mathematics learners.

Article To halve a fraction2017. Jöran Petersson, Eva Norén. Education Inquiry
The present study investigated test responses from 259 immigrant and nonimmigrant school year 9 students in Sweden with the focus on how they solved two problems on fractions, one of them halving a fraction, in a test. The authors report three observations. Newly arrived second language immigrants seemed less likely to have the word ‘half’ in their Swedish mathematical vocabulary. Moreover, second language learners with longer experience of the new language connected the word ‘half’ with a division by two, but showed mathematical difficulties in correctly applying it to a fraction. A third finding was that the longer the experiences with Swedish school mathematics, the more likely both first and second language learners were to erroneously omit the percentage symbol, when choosing to use percentage representation of the fraction given in the test problem. The authors suggest seeing newly and early arrived second language immigrants as meeting different challenges. The newly arrived second language immigrants may know some mathematical concepts better and Swedish language less. In contrast the opposite seems to hold for second language learners with longer experience of the language of instruction.

Conference Gender Stereotypes in Mathematics Textbooks2016. Eva Norén, Lisa Björklund Boistrup.
The aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent photographs in Swedish mathematics textbooks for grades 8 and 9 are gender stereotyped. Drawing on research in feminist studies we performed a thematic analysis. The total number of males in the photographs is higher than the total of females. One pattern found is that males more often are represented as being active or producing than females. There are more than twice as many passive females compared to males. Within the category caring/serving, females are more related to caring in the home and male images to serving in a job. These patterns are in the paper viewed as part of a structure where girls are under stereotyped threats with expectancy to be passive rather than engaging in mathematics intensive study programs, such as technology university studies.

2016. Michael Meyer (et al.). Mathematics Education and Language Diversity, 4766
Wide empirical evidence and theoretical explanations show that first languages are important resources for increasing access to mathematics for learners whose first language is not the language of instruction. Whereas including the first language is well established in many countries outside Europe, especially those with shared first languages, most European classrooms deal with five or more (nonshared) first languages without making use of them. This chapter explores the specific European language context and its cultural, political, and institutional dimensions. We report practices of including first languages and report on European research into its effects and conditions.

2016. Eva Norén, Annica Andersson. Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms, 109124

2016. Jennifer M. LangerOsuna (et al.). Mathematics Education and Language Diversity, 163173
Mathematics classrooms around the world serve students who are learning the dominant language of instruction. These students’ forms of participation in mathematical activity have often been examined from deficit perspectives. Mathematics education research is in great need of counternarratives to such prevailing deficit assumptions so that we can see how such learners productively use existing resources to engage in mathematics. In this chapter we examine potentially fruitful ways of framing identity and learning centered on student agency that can be brought to bear on the analysis of emergent multilinguals’ mathematical activity. We then illustrate the utility of agencycentered framings with vignettes of student interactions that focus on how emergent bilinguals used multiple linguistic resources in powerful ways. The vignettes are drawn from a variety of international mathematics classroom contexts and focus on students as creative users of linguistic resources in ways that serve a variety of functions during mathematical activity.

2015. Lisa Björklund Boistrup, Eva Norén. Teaching and Learning Mathematics: Resources and Obstacles, 567572
To investigate one equity aspect regarding mathematics learning in “a school for all” we have investigated how teachers comment on their arrangements for Swedish second language learners (SLL) to succeed on the National Test in mathematics in grade 5 (students are 11–12 years old). With data from a teacher survey and competency profiles for students in grade 5 we have performed a thematic analysis. The findings indicate that there were schools where the teachers worked in line with the instructions of the test and, therefore, adapted the administration of the test to enable SSL students better opportunities to display knowing in mathematics. This is coherent with a view expressed in policy documents. There were also schools where the teachers did not write about how to adapt the test administration but rather justified the exclusion of SLL students from the test or explained SSL students’ poor results due to language issues. In these schools the SSL students were not invited to display mathematics. We discuss these findings from an institutional perspective.

2015. Eva Norén. Educational Studies in Mathematics 89 (2), 167184
This paper draws on data from a first grade multilingual mathematics classroom in Sweden. I explore how students' agency is pronounced in the classroom that actually can be a site where mathematics reformoriented pedagogy thrives and how the emphasis on language support in such classrooms can support reformoriented pedagogy. I argue that the emphasis on reformoriented pedagogy can support the learning of mathematics and a second language, simultaneously. By analysing discursive practices, I show how this supportive relationship operates alongside the ongoing processes of normalisation whereby students' mother tongues continue to be erased or ignored.

2015. Eva Norén (et al.). Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Researchin Mathematics Education, 16301636
In this paper we discuss how newly arrived students experience, and perform in, school mathematics. There is little research on immigrant students' initial time in Swedish school, and it is methodologically underdeveloped. Our own research will be revisited, and we give an account of the methodologies we have developed. We look for analytical tools using both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, to interpret classroom interaction, social practises, individual performance and achievement. Our attention to diversity and equity issues includes avoiding deficit discourses explaining both success and failure in school mathematics, in relation to backgrounds, language and culture.

2015. Eva Norén. Nordic research in mathematics education, 361370
This paper deals with how various discourses impact on girls and boys positions asactive and engaged mathematics learners in a first grade classroom. Students andteachers may themselves adopt a position exercising a specific discourse, or theymay assign positions to others. The discursive practices in this classroomencouraged the boys’ positions as engaged mathematics learners more than the girlseven though girls’ experiences from out of school were valued as starting points forlearning mathematics

Conference A multilingual mathematics classroom2014. Eva Norén, Lisa Björklund Boistrup. Mathematics and reality, Proceedings of CIEAEM 66, Quaderni di Ricerca in didattica, 388
In this paper we give account for a study where various realities in a multilingual mathematics classroom are analysed through the concepts of discourse and agency. We draw on a previous ethnographic study, revisiting some data with a focus on how students’ earlier experiences are taken into account for their learning of mathematics. In the findings we describe how out of school experiences of students are taken into account in the learning of mathematics. Those experiences relate to Swedish teaching traditions in primary school, such as the use of fairy tales. Devoting time to communication and activities where there were opportunities for students to contribute to content matter and shared knowledge production seemed to make students maintain focus on mathematical ideas. The inclusion of students’ inquiries and students’ responses in the classroom practices supported students as active learners, at the same time as students’ enacted agency maintained a dialogic school mathematical discourse.

2014. Eva Norén, Jöran Petersson. Development of mathematics teaching: design, scale, effects
Many students see algebra as a difficult topic. For second language speakers there might also be difficulties comprehending an algebra task linguistically correct. The authors suggest studying how knowledge in algebra and linguistic registers in mathematics interplay for both newly early arrived immigrants compared to first language speakers. We suggest the tools for such a study to be measuring achievement and solution strategy while varying the text intensity and mathematics register in algebra problems for students with different length of experience of Swedish language in school year 9. We want to discuss design of test instrument and methods for background data collection.

2014. Petra Svensson, Tamsin Meaney, Eva Norén. For the Learning of Mathematics 34 (3), 3237
In Sweden often immigrant students’ failure in mathematics is explained by referring to deficit discourses. To critique that our aim have been to highlight the complexity of the situation in which immigrant students are positioned, by interrogating their perspectives on mathematics homework and the importance of parental support, as well as how their views seemed to have been shaped by wider Discourses. The students describe their parents’ background and education as inadequate, while “Swedish” parents’ backgrounds were considered desirable. With no hope of changing their parents, they seemed to have accepted that they have limited possibilities for achieving in mathematics.

Conference Power relations in mathematics education2013. Lisa Björklund Boistrup, Eva Norén. Proceedings of the seventh international mathematics international and society conference
In mathematics classrooms as well as in research in mathematics education it is possible to identify various power relations. Here we draw attention to power relations between researcher and teacher during classroom research and also power relations in implicit and explicit assessment acts in communications between teacher and student in the mathematics classroom. We describe a basis for a planned action research project within a critical mathematics education approach. We are drawing on a model by Skovsmose and Borba, and adding a Foucaultian concept of discourse. We include tentative analytical tools as well as methodological considerations.

2013. Eva Norén. Tangenten (3)

2013. Eva Norén, Lisa Björklund Boistrup. Proceedings of the Seventh International Mathematics Education and Society Conference, Vols 1 and 2, 431440
In this paper we outline theoretical and political considerations when researching affordances for multilingual students’ mathematics learning during classroom communication. On one hand we address the difficulties when categorising studentsinto groups in research and how this can be counteractive since it canreinforce stereotypes. On the other hand we address the significance of doing research also concerning groups of students since this can provide understandings that go beyond deficient models regarding students’ language backgrounds. We discussa basis for an analytical framework for a newly started project focusing on a specific aspect of communication between teacher and student, namely assessment (here taken in a broad sense) in mathematics.

Conference Equity in mathematics classrooms2012. Lisa Björklund Boistrup, Eva Norén.

Conference 30 GradeEight Students2011. Eva Norén. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ICMI STUDY 21 CONFERENCE: MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, 292300
In this paper, I investigate how discourse switch is influenced by agency as students orally solve a statistical problem. The linguistic and cultural backgrounds of bilingual students are often viewed as deficiencies that contribute to low performance in school. One example of a deficit explanation, in Sweden, is a student’s "lack of Swedishness". I use the notion of agency to avoid deficiency explanations of bilingual students’ performance in school mathematics. In this problem solving episode, Swedish serves as the main language of instruction. Discourse switches from a dominant discourse of "Swedish only" to a discourse of recognising bilingualism, as the teacher translates into Arabic and explains in Arabic.

Conference Agency in mathematics education2011. Annica Andersson, Eva Norén. Proceedings, the 7th Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, CERME – 7,, 13891398
In this paper we elaborate on the notion of agency. We relate agency to Skovsmose‘s and Biesta‘s frameworks respectively. Both Skovsmose and Biesta are concerned with citizenship education, mathematics education and the purpose of education from a critical position. We explore if and how Skovsmose‘s and Biesta ́s frameworks respectively relate to agency

2011. Eva Norén. Nordic Studies in Matematics Education NOMAD 16 (12), 95113
In this article I explore how students’ mathematical identities are formatted in a multilingualmathematics classroom. The study has been conducted in a group of ten multilingual Arabic and Swedish speaking students in grade eight and nine. In the articlethe focus is on two of the students. Students’ mathematical identity formations areeffects of exercise of a variety of discourses available in the mathematics classroom.In discourses promoting multilingualism and social relations students’ possibilities topositively build upon opportunities in the mathematics classroom seem to enhanceand identity formations as engaged mathematics learners is not an obstacle.

2010. Eva Norén. Mathematics and mathematics education, 179188
This paper challenges current understandings of multicultural and bilingual students in mathematics classrooms in Sweden. Bilingual students are often predefined as disadvantaged and bilingualism is constructed as an obstacle. But students’ identity formation can be effects of agency and of participation in a variety of competing discourses available in a classroom. In a discourse where bilingualism is encouraged an immigrant student’s ability to positively build upon opportunities in the mathematics classroom seems to enhance.

Thesis (Doc) Flerspråkiga matematikklassrum2010. Eva Norén (et al.).
The aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyze practices in multilingual mathematics classrooms in compulsory school in Sweden. By using ethnographic methods, mainly participant observation, data were collected in a number of multilingual mathematics classrooms in suburban areas of a major city. The data include field notes, interviews and informal conversations with students, teachers and school administrators. The analysis is based on a coordination of Foucault’s discourse theory and Skovsmose’s critical mathematics education. The sociopolitical viewpoint defines power as relational and as having an effect on school mathematics practices. Discourse, agency, foreground and identity are used as analytic tools. In five articles, the thesis investigates how the various discourses affect multilingual students’ agency, foreground and identity formation as engaged mathematics learners. The effects of students’ and teachers’ agency on discourse switching in multilingual mathematics classrooms are also investigated. The findings indicate that bilingual communication in the mathematics classroom enhances students’ identity formation as engaged mathematics learners. Language and contentbased instruction seems to do the same, though monolingual instruction may jeopardize students’ identities as bilinguals while the discourse may normalize Swedish and Swedishness exclusively. Focus on linguistic dimensions in mathematics build up a communicative reformoriented school mathematics discourse. The competing and intersecting discourses available in the multilingual mathematics classroom affect students’ agency, foreground and identity formation as engaged mathematics learners. For example, a reformoriented school mathematics discourse intersecting with a socialrelational discourse affects students’ active agency allowing power relations to be negotiated. A principal conclusion is that the success or failure of multilingual students in multilingual mathematics classrooms cannot be explained in terms of language and cultural factors alone, but only in relation discourse, and to social and political conditions in society at large.

2010. Eva Norén, Sara Ramsfeldt. Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande, 215243
I en alltmer diversifierad skola växer behovte av att pröva nya undervisningsmetoder. I det här kapitlet beskriver och redovisar vi projektet "matematik på modersmål" som vi kvalitativt utvärderat. Projektet bedrevs under två år i några Stockholmsskolor. Lärarna undervisade tvåspråkigt på svenska och arabiska respektive somali i matematik. De flerspråkiga elevernas modersmål sågs som en resurs i matematiklärandet.Eleverna intygar att deltagandet i projektet givit dem självförtroende och ökade möjligheter att lära matematik. Utvärderingen ger också en indikation om att matematikundervisning på två språk kan vara ett stöd för utveckling av båda språken.

2008. Eva Norén. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education 13 (4), 2950
This article presents some of the main results of a bilingual mathematics teaching project, which run in five multicultural schools in Sweden. The main research question was: How do mathematical practices emerge in bilingual mathematics classrooms? In the project bilingual mathematics teachers seemed to promote mathematical learning and engagement in the classroom by using two languages in mathematical discourses. Pupils and teachers communicated mathematically in different ways, and the interplay between mathematics and language often became obvious. Bilingual pupils participating in the project expressed that they were able to learn more and they felt secure with the ways of using languages and learning mathematics. Participating in the project gave many of the pupils’ confidence in their mathematics learning competence.

2017. Lisa Björklund Boistrup, Maria Nordlund, Eva Norén.

Chapter En skola för alla?2017. Eva Norén. "Alla människors möte borde vara så", 5261

2017. Maaike Hajer, Eva Norén. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education 17 (7b), 40874114
Explicit language objectives are included in the Swedish national curriculum for mathematics. The curriculum states that students should be given opportunities to develop the ability to formulate problems, use and analyse mathematical concepts and relationships between concepts, show and follow mathematical reasoning, and use mathematical expressions in discussions. Teachers’ competence forms a crucial link to bring an intended curriculum to a curriculum in action. This article investigates a professional development program, ‘Language in Mathematics’, within a national program for mathematics teachers in Sweden that aims at implementing the national curriculum into practice. Two specific aspects are examined: the selection of theoretical notions on language and mathematics and the choice of activities to relate selected theory to practice. From this examination, research on teacher learning in connection to professional development is proposed, which can contribute to a better understanding of teachers’ interpretation of integrated approaches to language and mathematics across national contexts.

2018. Åsa Chibas (et al.). EDULEARN18, 33453350
Many countries around the world have introduced programming curriculum at K9 level. For a number of years, a lot of studies have surfaced demonstrating enactments of programming education, for instance through the use of visual programming languages as Scratch in different contexts. However, these studies have had a dominating focus on students of age 7 and older and there are few studies reporting on implementation of programming activities for younger children at preschool. This gap is addressed by this study that focus exclusively on learning of programming in a preschool class of six year olds. We have followed one teacher during six months conducting both classroom observations and interviews. In this paper we report on the didactical methods the teacher used when teaching programming through unplugged (analogue) means, with BlueBot robots, and through Scratch Jr. We end the paper by a discussion reflecting on challenges and lessons learned in relation to introducing programming for young children.

2018. Jalal Nouri, Eva Norén, Kicki Skog. INTED2018, 79837989
The interest in programming education has been significantly strengthened recently, as a consequence of an increasingly digital world that demands development of digital skills. More and more countries have introduced programming in their K9 curricula. In 2017, Sweden joined these countries through the government's decision to make changes to the curriculum in terms of introducing programming in compulsory school. However, the path to successful programming education is associated with a number of challenges, of which the most crucial  on an international level  is related to lack of didactical research that sheds light on good teaching practices. In this study, we reached out to 19 teachers that by now considered themselves experienced in teaching programming for young children in K9 and conducted interviews with them. A large majority of these teachers, fifteen of them, participated in a national research project with focus on programming education. The remaining four teachers were identified in specialized social media groups with focus on programming education.In the paper, we report on an analysis of the 19 interviews conducted with K9 teachers that have experience in teaching programming asking the question: what didactical strategies are employed by experienced teachers when teaching programming in K9? As such, the paper reports on a number of strategies employed by teachers and contributes to our understanding of how programming education are enacted by experienced K9 teachers.

2018. Anette Bagger, Lisa Björklund Boistrup, Eva Norén. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast 15 (12), 278302
This article sheds light on a number of discursive conditions relating to being researchers in mathematics education and with an interest in diversity. The data derived from a selfreflective trialogue (dialogue of three people) between the three authors, three researchers. Two of Foucault's governing technologies were adopted: technologies of power and technologies of the self. By exploring regularities between these in our trialogue we construed formations of governing technologies in relation to subjectification and subjectivation. We uncovered five formations: "Tensions between mathematics education (ME) researchers from different traditions through processes of normalization and othering", "Limiting space between ME researchers within the sociopolitical through dismissal of knowledge", "The sociopolitical tradition of a need for theory connects theory and ME researcher's' selfcultivation", "The researchers' processes of selfcultivation connect theory and compassionate research practices". and "Research on policy statements as resistance towards technologies of domination in society".

2018. Lechen Zhang, Jalal Nouri, Eva Norén. Clute International Conferences
As the popularity of “Computational Thinking” expands in the education realm, more and more studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of using visual programming languages, such as Scratch, to teach computational thinking. This paper provides an overview of the teaching strategies that were implemented in research studies that aimed at fostering computational thinking through Scratch in compulsory education. To do this, we examined 46 empirical studies. The analysis of these studies has led to the identification of two approaches in teaching programming through Scratch: studentcentered and mixedinstruction teaching approaches. In the paper, we present different enactments of the two broad teaching strategies and discuss the implications of these.

2018. Anna Wallin, Eva Norén, Paola Valero. Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education

2018. Jalal Nouri, Eva Norén, Kicki Skog. INTED 2018, 79907995
For some years now many Swedish teachers in K9 education have explored programming with their pupils supported by a number of national and global initiatives, despite not having any formal education in programming or for teaching programming. However, with the advent of programming languages such as Scratch and various online resources tailored to younger learners, teachers have some extent been supported to teach programming. In this study, we reached out to 19 teachers that by now considered themselves experienced in teaching programming for young children in K9 and conducted interviews with them. A large majority of these teachers, fifteen of them, participated in a national research project with focus on programming education. The remaining four teachers were identified in specialized social media groups with focus on programming education. When doing the interviews with the teachers we soon found that games play a big role when teaching and learning programming in K9 education. This entails both playing games in order to learn programming concepts using game developed for this purpose, and coding games in order to learn programming concepts. In this paper, we report on this two approaches of relating to games in programming education in K9 and present the advantages teachers emphasize with these approaches in terms of how they are received by pupils and what the bring to school.

2018. Eva Norén. Inside the Mathematics Class, 145164
By taking a sociopolitical stance towards the positive adoption of iPadsto advance mathematical learning, this paper explores mathematical practices in aSwedish preschool class (children aged six to seven) where each young student wasprovided with a digital tablet. The focus is on how the students’ agency or boundariesemerge in the relational practices between the students and the materials: handsonmanipulativesas well as digital technology. The paper adopts a sociomaterialperspective for the analysis of the practices. Both digital technology and the moretraditional handsonmanipulatives are exemplifying materials in the intertwiningof human and nonhuman agency.

2018. Eva Norén, Petra Svensson Källberg. Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD 23 (34), 1537
As a response to recent laws on how to support newlyarrived students’ schooling, new policy texts have been released in Sweden. By analyzing policy texts we show how a particular kind of human, “the newlyarrived student as a mathematical learner” is fabricated through discursive processes. We show how the policy texts are framed within an including discourse that encourages multiculturalism, and views students’ mother tongue and backgrounds as resources. However, simultaneously the newlyarrived student is thought of, in a more excluding discourse, as being in need of rescue and as lacking the most valuable asset, the Swedish language.