Stockholm university

Frida BenderAssociate professor

About me

I work as associate professor at the Department of Meteorology at Stockholm University. I am interested in the large-scale effects of clouds and aerosols - their representation in climate models, their impact on the radiation budget and their influence on, and interaction with climate. A better understanding of the role of clouds and aerosols in the climate system is crucial for further constraint of climate sensitivity and improved projections of future climate.


I am also

-member of the Young Academy of Sweden (SUA)

-affiliated with the Institute for Future Studies (IFFS)


Currenlty visting faculty at the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington.


Research interests

  • Aerosol-cloud-climate interactions: how do small-scale aerosol-cloud interaction processes play out on large scale; how can we make observations of these relations and effects; and how can we represent them in models?
  • Albedo: how can planetary albedo and cloud albedo be estimated; what are their determining factors; how do they vary over time?
  • Cloud feedback: how can natural variability, and relations like the inter-hemispheric albedo symmetry be used to understand cloud feedback, and climate sensitivity?
  • Aerosol forcing: how can the present day aerosol distribution, and its difference from the pre-industrial state, be characterised, and what are the effects on radiative forcing?
  • Values in Science: how do values enter in the scientific process; how do we deal with them; how do they influence the way uncertainty is estimated, presented, and communicated within climate science?




Undergraduate courses

Lecturer for university-wide, web-based Climate Change Solutions, 2019-2022

Lecturer for Climate and general circulation, 2019-2023

Lecturer for web-based Meteorology and climate for teachers-to-be, 2017-2022

Lecturer for Dynamic Meteorology I, 2012-2014, 2017-2018, 2022; Atmospheric chemistry and its impact on climate, 2011

Teaching-assistant for Atmospheric chemistry and its impact on climate, Atmospheric radiation, Earth's climate and climate change, 2005-2008

Undergraduate student supervision

Anna Staffansdotter, MSc (2023); Katrín Agla Tómasdottír, MSc (2023); Hao Zhang, MSc (2022); Tobias Larsson, BSc (2021); Onni Mikkola, BSc (2021); Johanna Svensson, BSc (2020); Aiden Jönsson, MSc (2018); Greta De Ridder, BSc (2018); Joakim Borgemo & Richard Roth, MSE (2017); Malin Boman, BSc (2017); Caroline Karlsson, BSc (2014); Lisa Nyberg, BSc (2014); Sara Berglund, BSc (2013); Jennie Hurkmans, BSc (2013); Rickard Lindqvist, BSc (2012); Sophia Nilsson, MSc (2006)

Graduate students

Hao Ding 2022-present (with main supervisor Annica Ekman, and assistant supervisor Ilona Riipinen)

Aiden Jönsson 2019-present (with assistant supervisor Thorsten Mauritsen)

Alejandro Uribe Cortes PhD 2023 (with main supervisor Thorsten Mauritsen)

Alejandro Baró Pérez PhD 2023 (with main supervisor Annica Ekman, and assistant supervisor Abhay Devasthale)

Friederike Höpner PhD 2019 (with assistant supervisor Annica Ekman)

Lena Frey PhD 2019 (with assistant supervisor Gunilla Svensson)

Wing Leung licenciate 2015 (with main supervisor Annica Ekman)








Peer-reviewed publications

Bender, F. A.-M., Jung, V., Staffansdotter, A., Lord, T., and Undorf, S. (2024) Machine learning approach to investigating the relative importance of meteorological and aerosol-related parameters in determining cloud microphysical properties, Tellus B, 76 (1) 1-18,

Kuma, P., Bender, F. A.-M., Jönsson, A.R. (2023) Climate Model Code Genealogy and its Relation to Climate Feedbacks and Sensitivity, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 15, 7, e2022MS003588

McCoy, I. L., McCoy, D. T., Wood, R., Zuidema, P., Bender, F. A.-M. (2023) The role of mesoscale cloud morphology in the shortwave cloud feedback, Geophys. Res. Lett., 50, 2

Jönsson, A. R., and Bender, F. A.-M. (2023) The implications of maintaining Earth's hemispheric albedo symmetry for shortwave radiative feedbacks, Earth Syst. Dyn., 14, 2

Kuma, P., Bender, F. A.-M., Shuddeboom, A., McDonald, A. J., Seland, Ø. (2023) Machine learning of cloud types in satellite observations and climate models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 523-549

Uribe, A., Bender, F. A.-M., and Mauritsen, T. (2022). Observed and CMIP6 modeled internal variability feedbacks and their relation to forced climate feedbacks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 49, e2022GL100075

Pulkkinen, K., Undorf, S., Bender, F. A.-M. (2022) Values in climate modelling: testing the practical applicability of the Moral Imagination ideal, Euro. Jnl. Phil. Sci., 12, 68,

Undorf, S., Pulkkinen, K., Wikman-Svahn, P., Bender, F. A.-M. (2022) How do value judgements enter model-based assessments of climate sensitivity?, Clim. Change, 174, 19,

Pulkkinen, K., Undorf, S., Bender, F. A.-M., Wikman-Svahn, P., Doblas-Reyes, F., Flynn, C., Hegerl, G. C., Jönsson, A., Leung, G.-K., Roussos, J., Shepherd, T. G., Thompson, E. (2022) The value of values in climate science, Nat. Clim. Chang., 12, 4-6,

Artaxo, P., Hansson, H.-C., Andreae, M. O., Bäck, J., Alves, E. G., Barbosa, H. M. J., Bender, F. A.-M. et al. (2022) Tropical and Boreal Forest – Atmosphere Interactions: A Review, Tellus B,

Jönsson, A. R. and Bender, F. A.-M. (2022) Persistence and Variability of Earth's Interhemispheric Albedo Symmetry in 19 Years of CERES EBAF Observations, J. Clim., 35, 1.

Huusko, L. L., Bender, F. A.-M., Ekman, A. M. L., and Storelvmo, T. (2021) Climate sensitivity indices and their relation with projected temperature change in CMIP6 models, Environ. Res. Lett.,

Frey, L., Höpner, F., Kirkevåg, A., and Bender, F. A.-M. (2021) Absorbing Aerosols over Asia - An inter-model and model-observation Comparison Study using CAM5.3-Oslo, Tellus B,

Baró Pérez, A., Devasthale, A., Bender, F. A.-M., and Ekman, A. M. L. (2021) Impact of smoke and non-smoke aerosols on radiation and low-level clouds over the Southeast Atlantic from co-located satellite observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6053-6077

Dellmuth, L. M., Bender, F. A.-M., Jönsson, A. R., Rosvold, E. L. and von Uexkull, N. (2021) Humanitarian need drives multilateral disaster aid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 118 (4) e2018293118; DOI:10.1073/pnas.2018293118

Frey, L., Bender, F. A.-M. and Svensson, G. (2020) Processes controlling the vertical aerosol distribution in marine stratocumulus regions – a sensitivity study using the climate model NorESM1-M, Atmos. Chem. Phys., acp-2019-846

Bender, F. A.-M. (2020) Aerosol forcing - still uncertain, still relevant, AGU Advances, 1 (3), e2019AV000128

McCoy, I. L., McCoy, D. T., Wood, R., Regayre, L., Watson-Parris, D., Grosvenor, D. P, Mulchay, J. P., Hu, Y., Bender, F. A.-M., Field, P. R., Carslaw, K., Gordon, H. (2020) The hemispheric contrast in cloud microphysical properties constrains aerosol forcing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 117 (32) 18998-19006

Possner, A., Eastman, R., Bender, F. A.-M. and Glassmeier, F. (2020) Deconvolution of boundary layer depth and aerosol constraints on cloud water path in subtropical stratocumulus decks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3609-3621

Höpner, F., Bender, F. A.-M., Ekman, A. M. L., Andersson, A., Gustafsson, Ö., and Leck, C.. (2019) Investigation of two optical methods for aerosol type classification extended to a northern Indian Ocean site, J. Geophys. Res., 124 (15), 8743-8763

Bender, F. A.-M., Frey, L., McCoy, D. T., D. P. Grosvenor, J. K. Mohrmann (2018) Assessment of aerosol-cloud-radiation correlations in satellite observations, climate models and reanalysis, Clim. Dynam., 52, 4371

Bourgeois, Q., Ekman, A. M. L., Renard, J. -B., Krejci, R., Devasthale, A., Bender, F. A.-M., Riipinen, I. Berthet, G. and Tackett, J. L. (2018) How much of the global aerosol optical depth is found in the boundary layer and free troposphere? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7709-7720

McCoy, D. T., Field, P.R., Schmidt, A., Grosvenor, D. P., Bender, F. A.-M., Shipway, B. J., Hill, A. A., Wilkinson, J. M. and Elsaesser, G. S. (2018) Aerosol-mid-latitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and highresolution simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5821-5846

McCoy, D. T., Bender, F. A.-M., Grosvenor, D. P., Mohrmann, J. K., Hartmann, D. L., Wood, R. and Field, P. R. (2018) Predicting decadal trends in cloud droplet number concentration using reanalysis and satellite data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2035--2047

Frey, L., Bender, F. A.-M. and Svensson, G. (2017) Cloud albedo changes in response to anthropogenic sulfate and non-sulfate aerosol forcings in CMIP5 models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9145--9162

Bender, F. A.-M., Engström, A., Charlson, R. J. and Wood, R. (2017) Evaluation of hemispheric asymmetries in marine cloud radiative properties, J. Clim., 30, 4131--4147

McCoy, D. T., Bender, F. A.-M., Mohrmann, J. K., Hartmann, D. L., Wood, R. and Grosvenor, D. P. (2017) The global aerosol-cloud first indirect effect estimated using MODIS, MERRA and AeroCom, J. Geophys. Res., 122, 3, 1779-1796

Wilcox E. M., Thomas, R. M, Praveen, P. S., Pistone, K., Bender, F. A.-M. and Ramanathan, V. (2016) Black carbon solar absorption suppresses turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 11794-11799

Leung, W.-Y- H, Savre, J., Bender, F. A.-M., Komppula, M., Portin, H., Romakkaniemi, S., Sedlar, J., Noone, K. J. and Ekman, A. M. L. (2016) Sensitivity of a continental nighttime stratocumulus-topped boundary layer to varying environmental conditions, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 142, 2911-2924

Pistone, K., Praveen, P. S., Thomas, R. M., Ramanathan, V., Wilcox, E., and Bender, F. A.-M. (2016) Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5203-5227

Höpner, F., Bender, F. A.-M., Ekman, A. M. L., Praveen, P. S., Bosch, C., Ogren, J. A., Andersson, A., Gustafsson, Ö., and Ramanathan, V. (2016) Vertical profiles of optical and microphysical particle properties above the northern Indian Ocean during CARDEX 2012, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1045-1064

Bender, F. A.-M., Engström, A. and Karlsson, J. (2016) Factors controlling cloud albedo in marine subtropical stratocumulus regions in climate models and satellite observations, J. Clim., 29, 10

Engström, A., Bender, F. A.-M., Charlson, R. J. and Wood, R. (2015) The non-linear relationship between albedo and cloud fraction on near-global, monthly mean scale in observations and in the CMIP5 model ensemble, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 21,  9571-9578

Engström, A., Bender, F. A.-M., Charlson, R. J. and Wood, R. (2015) Geographically coherent patterns of albedo enhancement and suppression associated with aerosol sources and sinks, Tellus B, 67, 26442

Engström, A., Bender, F. A.-M. and Karlsson, J. (2014) Improved representation of marine stratocumulus cloud short-wave radiative properties in the CMIP5 climate models, J. Clim., 27, 6175-6188

Bender, F. A.-M., Ramanathan, V. and Tselioudis, G. (2012) Changes in extratropical storm track cloudiness 1983-2008: Observational support for a poleward shift, Clim. Dynam., 38, 2037-2053

Bender, F. A.-M. (2011) Aerosol forcing: Rapporteur's report and summary, Surv. Geophys., DOI: 10.1007/s10712-011-9160-0

Bender, F. A.-M., Charlson, R. J., Ekman, A M-L. and Leahy, L. (2011) Quantification of monthly mean regional scale albedo of marine stratiform clouds in satellite observations and GCMs, J. Appl. Meteor. Clim., DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-049.1

Bender, F. A.-M. (2011) Planetary albedo in strongly forced climate, as simulated by the CMIP3 models, Theor. Appl. Climatol., DOI: 10.1007/s00704-011-0411-2

Bender, F. A.-M., Ekman, A. M-L. and Rodhe, H. (2010) Response to the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in relation to climate sensitivity in the CMIP3 models, Clim. Dynam., 35, 875-886

Bender, F. A.-M. (2008) A note on the effect of GCM tuning on climate sensitivity, Environ. Res. Lett., 3, 1

Charlson, R. J., Ackerman, A. S., Bender, F. A.-M., Anderson, T.L. and Liu, Z. (2007) On the climate forcing consequences of the albedo continuum between cloudy and clear air, Tellus B, 59B, 4

Bender, F. A.-M. (2006) Comment on "A multi-data comparison of shortwave climate forcing changes" by Pallé et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15812

Bender, F. A.-M., Rodhe, H., Charlson, R. J., Ekman, A M-L. and Loeb, N. (2006) 22 views of the global albedo - comparison between 20 GCMs and two satellites, Tellus A, 58A, 3


Research projects