Mikael Kalm

Mikael Kalm


Visa sidan på svenska
Works at The Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism
Visiting address Universitetsvägen 10 D
Room D534
Postal address Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet 106 91 Stockholm


A selection from Stockholm University publication database
  • 2020. Mikael Kalm. Studier i svensk språkhistoria 15, 107-119

    The aim of this article is to give an account of prepositional adverbial infini- tives in the history of Swedish. Present Day Swedish shows a range of such adverbial infinitives, including purposive, abessive, substitutive, temporal, and instrumental infinitives. With the exception of purposive infinitives, such adverbial infinitives are not attested in Old Swedish (1225–1526). The earliest examples of other adverbial infinitives are abessive and substitutive, from the second half of the 17th century. Temporal infinitives are first attested in the late 18th century and instrumental infinitives in the first half of the 19th century. This order of appearance is strikingly similar to the order in which adverbial infinitives emerge in Romance (cf. Schulte 2007a). One way to understand this is that the spread of adverbial infinitives in Swedish follows a general, cross- linguistic pattern of the evolution of adverbial categories. In an attempt to understand how these adverbial notions were expressed before the adverbial infinitives are attested, I also conduct a contrastive study of Övdalian transla- tions of Swedish texts. The results show that an adverbial infinitive in Swedish is often translated with another construction in Övdalian. It is possible that the same linguistic resources were used in earlier stages of Swedish.

  • 2019. Mikael Kalm. A Copenhagen Miscellany, 127-143

    Infinitive clauses show substantial variation across Scandinavian languages, not least with regard to the distribution and syntactical status of the infinitive marker at. Although etymologically identical, this variation in use and status of at suggests that infinitive markers are relatively late innovations in Scandinavian and that they, to a certain extent, have emerged independently. The aim of this article is to give an account of the infinitive marker in early East Scandinavian texts in order to detect variation regarding its use at early stages of the languages. Previous studies have pointed out that the distribution of at is less regular in Old Swedish than in Old Icelandic, which suggests possible regional differences. The empirical study is based on eight Old Danish, Old Swedish and Old Gutnish texts, mostly laws. Verb complements excluded, all infinitive clauses in the texts are considered. These contexts would, if applied in the modern languages, trigger the use of the infinitive marke. The result shows major differences between the texts. Whereas at is regularly used in all of the Old Danish, its use is much less regular in the Old Swedish and the Old Gutnish texts, with the exception of the only West Swedish text. In this text, at has a distribution very similar to that of Modern Swedish. The investigation thus supports the assumption that the infinitive marker at has emerged independently across Scandinavian and that there are regional differences to be considered. 

  • 2020. Mikael Kalm, Anna Sahlée. Studier i svenska språkets historia 15, 254-267

    This article is an investigation of teachers’ corrections and comments on gra- duation essays from the 1870s. Our aim is to learn more about the linguistic norms in Swedish secondary schools at the time, such as they appear in this specific context. The study is based on 13 graduation essays (in total 7,184 words) from one secondary school (Högre Allmänna Läroverket i Falun). There are 532 corrections and comments in the texts, corresponding to an average of 7.4 corrections/comments per 100 words. Corrections and comments are thus very common in the texts that we have investigated. Many of the cor- rections focus on textual details, such as the choice of words and sentence structure, but by no means are all of the corrections due to incorrect language use. Rather, it seems that many of the corrections target the style of essays. Corrections or comments concerning the structure of the texts are very rare. Most of the comments made by teachers are in the category called focusing, i.e. co-appearing with a correction in the text. None of the essays contain positive feedback from the teacher, which we believe could be significant for the cor- rection norm at the time.

Show all publications by Mikael Kalm at Stockholm University

Last updated: August 13, 2020

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