Jens Christian Moesgaard

Jens Christian Moesgaard


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Works at Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies
Telephone 08-674 76 80
Visiting address Wallenberglaboratoriet, Lilla Frescativägen 7
Room 313
Postal address Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur 106 91 Stockholm

About me

Born 1963 in Aarhus, Denmark. MA University of Copenhagen 1992. PhD-level recognized by jury at the National Museum of Denmark, 1997. Curator, Musée des Antiquités, Rouen, France 1992-1995. Determination of coin finds from archaeological excavations, Normandy 1996. Research Associate, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 1997. Curator/researcher at the National Museum of Denmark 1997-2001, senior researcher 2001-2019. Invited professor Ecole pratique des hautes études, Paris 2015. Invited scholar IRAMAT, Orléans, France 2017/2018 & 2019. Since February 2020 Professor at Stockholm Numismatic Institute (The Gunnar Ekström Chair of Numismatics and Monetary History), University of Stockholm. Permanent member of Centre Michel de Boüard – Centre de recherches archéologiques et historiques anciennes et médiévales UMR 6273 (CNRS/Université de Caen Normandie).


Coins are issued by official decision. This implies that their date and place of production can be determined more precisely than those of most other archaeological artefacts. Millions of coins were struck and hundreds of thousands survive until today. They were used in everyday life by large portions of the population. The motives and inscriptions of the coins were an important way for the issuing power to disseminate political or religious messages.

Thus coins constitute a mass material at the focal point between the power and the people. Their potential as evidence for the social, political, cultural, administrative and economic history is huge, especially concerning periods with few written sources, such as the Viking Age and the Early Middle Ages.

From this starting point, I investigate coins and coin use in the Viking Age and the Middle Ages in France, England and Scandinavia. I have particularly focussed on the methodological aspects of coin finds as evidence for coin use and coin production, as well as the position of numismatics in relation to history and archaeology.

Ongoing projects

The CNS-project (Corpus Nummorum Saeculorum IX-XI qui in Suecia reperti sunt) aims at publishing all Viking Age coin finds from Sweden. This unique find material is one of the largest and best documented in the world and constitutes extraordinary detailed evidence for social and economic life in the Viking Age.

In collaboration with IRAMAT, Orléans, France, I prepare a monograph on the coinage of Normandy in the 10th century. It is the time when the Viking chieftain Rollo received Normandy from the Frankish king Charles the Simple. The subsequent Norman coinage is, however, purely Frankish and not Scandinavian. It is well-organized and must have required an efficient administrative system. The purpose of the coinage seems to have been to provide maximum income for the issuing power.

In collaboration with the National Museum of Denmark and Museum Vestsjælland, I investigate rural coin use in the Middle Ages. Denmark has had 40 years of close collaboration between archaeologists and metal detectorists. The result is thousands of well-documented finds. In this way, finds of coins in rural contexts have come to light in such numbers, that by now, one must conclude that peasants used coins currently from the 13th century on.

Selected publications


With Helle Horsnæs and Michael Märcher, Denar til daler. Danmarks mønthistorie indtil 1550, Copenhagen, National Bank of Denmark, 2018. 518 pages. ISBN 87-92933-07-6

King Harold’s Cross Coinage. Christian Coins for the Merchants of Haithabu and the King’s Soldiers (with contributions from Maria Filomena Guerra, Gitte Tarnow Ingvardson, Lutz Ilisch, Peter Ilisch, Peter Pentz, Hans Skov), (Publications of the National Museum 20:2, Jelling Series, peer-reviewed), University Press of Southern Denmark, Odense 2015. 287 pages, 30 plates. ISBN 978-87-7602-323-2 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

Les trésors monétaires médiévaux découverts en Haute-Normandie (754-1514), Moneta 183, Wetteren 2015. 308 pages. ISBN 978-94-91384-51-6.

Peer-reviewed articles in conference proceedings and books

“L’apport des contexts archéologiques à la comprehension des monnaies de fouille”, IN Suzanne Frey-Kupper, Clive Stannard & Nathalie Wolfe-Jacot (ed.), Contexts and the Contextualization of Coin Finds, Lausanne 2019, p. 59-92, plate 2.

“Chiffrer la production monétaire au haut Moyen Age en Asie centrale et en Europe de l’Ouest. Le potential et les limites du témoignage des découvertes de la région baltique”, IN M. Bompaire & G. Sarah (ed.), Mine, métal, monnaie, Melle, Genève, Librairie Droz, 2017, p. 383-392 (Level 2 in the Nordic List).

With Volker Hilberg and Michaela Schimmer, ”Münzen aus Schleswigs Frühphase und Blütezeit 1070-1150 – Zur Interpretation des Fundkomplexes der Ausgrabung Hafengang 11”, IN Arkæologi i Slesvig/Archäologie in Schleswig, 16, 2016 (2017), p. 49-68 (expanded version of bibl. 25).

”Charlemagne’s and Louis the Pious’ portrait coinage: a special ceremonial or an ordinary currency issue?” IN M. Bogucki, W. Garbaczewski, G. Śnieźko (ed.), Nummi et Humanitas. Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Stanisławowi Suchodolskiemu w 80 rocznicę urodzin, Institute of Archaeology of the Polish Science Academy, Warsaw, 2017, p. 113-130.

“Saints, Dukes and Bishops: Coinage in Ducal Normandy, c. 930-c. 1150”, IN Giles E.M. Gasper & Svein H Gullbekk (ed.), Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000-1200 – Practice, Morality and Thought, Ashgate, Farnham 2015, p. 197-207 (Level 2 in the Nordic List).

”Les monnaies”, Forges médiévales et écurie de la renaissance au Château de Caen, Caen, Presses Universitaires de Caen, 2015, p. 250-258 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”The earliest coin hoard of Lund”, Small Things, Wide Horizons. Studies in honour of Birgitta Hårdh, Archeopress, Oxford 2015, p. 58-63 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”The Viking Invasions 885-889 and the Activity of the Mint of Rouen”, IN Early Medieval Monetary History. Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, Ashgate, Farnham, 2014, p. 427-457 (Level 2 in the Nordic List).

“Les échanges entre la Normandie et la Baltique aux Xe-XIe siècles – La documentation numismatique et ses limites“, IN P. Bauduin, A. Musin (ed.), Vers l’Orient et vers l’Occident, Proceedings of the Caen symposium, Caen, Presses universitaires de Caen, 2014, p. 177-188 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

With Jørgen Steen Jensen, ”Coins”, IN E. Roesdahl, S. Sindbæk & A. Pedersen (ed.), Aggersborg, Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter, Copenhagen-Højbjerg, 2014. p. 348-351 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Les ateliers monétaires normands dans la tourmente viking”, IN Circulations monétaires et réseaux d’échanges en Normandie et dans le Nord-Ouest européen (Antiquités-Moyen Age), Caen, Publications du CRAHM, 2012, p. 155-172 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

“The Grisebjerggård Hoard and the Beginning of Pecking in Scandinavia”, IN J. Graham-Campbell, S. Sindbæk and G. Williams (ed.), Silver Economies, Monetisation and Society in Scandinavia AD 800-1100, Proceedings of the Aarhus symposium 5-6 December 2008, Aarhus, Aarhus University Press, 2011, p. 297-308 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Vikings on the Continent. The numismatic evidence”, IN I. Skibsted Klæsøe (ed.), Viking Trade and Settlement in Continental Western Europe, Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen, 2010, p. 123-144 (Level 1 on the Nordic List).

”Udbredelsen af reguleret møntøkonomi i geografisk perspektiv ca. 600-ca. 1150”, [The introduction of a regulated coin economy in a geographical perspective], IN P. Gammeltoft & S. Sindbæk, Regionalitet i Danmark i vikingetid og middelalder, (hikuin 35), 2008, p. 133-150 (English summary p. 164-165) (Level 1 in the Danish BFI list).

”A Survey of Coin Production and Currency in Normandy, 864-945”, IN J. Graham Campbell & G. Williams (ed.), Silver Economy in the Viking Age, Proceedings of the London symposium 26-27 May 2000 (Publications of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London), Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek (California) 2007, p. 99-121 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”The import of English coins to the Northern Lands: Some remarks on coin circulation in the Viking age based on new evidence from Denmark”, IN B. Cook & G. Williams (ed.), Coinage and History in the North Sea World c. 500-1250. Essays in honour of Marion Archibald, Brill, Leiden, 2006, p. 389-433 (level 2 in the Nordic List).

Peer-reviewed articles in journals

With Peter Ilisch, ”Small hoard of silver English and German pennies from the late tenth century” (Coin hoards 1), Numismatic Chronicle 179, 2019, p. 381-386, pl. 49 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

 “Reconstructing the context of metal detector finds from top soil. A case study of the redundant/abandoned churches of Oldrup and Uld, Jutland, Denmark”, The Journal of Archæological Numismatics, 8, 2018, p. 175-206.

”A Tenth-century Hoard of Coins Mostly in the Name of St Ouen of Rouen” (Coin Hoards 5), Numismatic Chronicle 178, 2018, p. 322-326, pl. 34-35 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

“Den fremadskuende hjort – en hidtil uerkendt face i Ribes udmøntning i 800-tallet?” By, Marsk, Geest, Ribe, 2018, p. 17-27, and appendix with Claus Feveile, ”Damhus-skatten – et fantastisk indspark til den tidlige mønthistorie”, p. 28-30 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

With Alexandre Musin, «МОНЕТА-ПРИЗРАК»: К ИСТОРИИ «НАХОДКИ» НОРМАНДСКОГО ДЕНАРИЯ В ЗВЕНИГОРОДЕ (A «Phantom-Coin»: On the History of the «Find» of a Norman Penny in the Coin Hoard from Zvenigorod), Numismatics & Epigraphy XX, Essays in memory of Nina A. Frolova and Gennadii A. Koshelenko, Moscow 2018, p. 174-183, pl. XXXIX

”Kongemagt og samfund belyst ved møntvæsenet i anden halvdel af 1000-tallet. Nogle kommentarer til Gitte Ingvardsons syntese om Svend Estridsens mønter”, Historisk Tidsskrift 117-1, 2017, p. 97-118 (Level 1 in the Nordic List; Level 2 in the Danish BFI-list).

”Mønter fra middelalderlige landbebyggelser. Et overset kildemateriale til belysning af bønders møntbrug” [Coins from Medieval rural settlements. An overlooked record of peasant coin use], Kuml 2016, p. 153-194 (English summary p. 193-194) (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Monnaies romaines au Moyen Age : l’apport des contextes archéologiques”, The Journal of Archaeological Numismatics 5/6, 2016, p. 269-274.

With Volker Hilberg and Michaela Schimmer, ”Mønter fra Slesvigs blomstringstid 1070-1150” [Coins from the heyday of Schleswig, 1070-1150], Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 2016, p. 182-195 (English summary p. 195) (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

”Dateringen af mønterne fra voldstedet Kjærsgård ved Odder – og en vurdering af tre nylige værker om ’borgerkrigsmønter’ ”, Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift, new series, 1, 2015, p. 95-107 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Freerslevskatten. Nogle betragtninger over møntomløbet på Sjælland o. 1065/1070” [The Freerslev hoard. Some thoughts about the coin circulation in Zealand, c. 1065/70], Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift, new series, 1, 2015, p. 13-40 (English summary p. 30-31) (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

"Fabrication et circulation monétaires en Flandre, Artois et Tournaisis 864-vers 940”, Revue Belge de Numismatique CLX, 2014, p. 43-66 (Level 1 in the Nordic List since 2018).

With Megan Gooch, “Anglo-Viking Coins in France”, Studies in Early Medieval Coinage 3, 2014, p. 141-152.

”Le trésor de Labastide-en-Val (Aude), hameau de Trébet”, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p. 370-377, pl. 64 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

”Hedeby og den danske kongemagt i 900-tallet – mønternes udsagn” [Haithabu and the Danish monarchy in the 10th century – Numismatic evidence], Kuml 2012, p. 111-136 (English summary p. 135-136) (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

With Svend Åge Tornbjerg, ”Møntbrug på landet i middelalderen. De enkeltfundne mønter fra middelaldergården i Bjæverskov” [The use of coins in the countryside during the Middle Ages. Single-coin finds from the medieval farm at Bjæverskov], Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 2008 (2011), p. 195-212 (English summary p. 211-212) (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

"Deux bijoux vikings découverts en Haute-Normandie", Annales de Normandie, 59-2, July-December 2009 (2011), p. 133-140.

”La circulation des monnaies noires en Haute-Normandie, 1337-1577”, Revue Numismatique, 2009, p. 221-305 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

With Thibault Cardon, Richard Prot & Philippe Schiesser, ”Le premier trésor monétaire de type Viking en France. Denier inédit d’Eudes pour Beauvais”, Revue Numismatique 164, 2008, p. 21-40 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Møntskatten fra Danelund og møntvæsenet i Sydvestjylland i vikingtid og tidlig middelalder” [The Danelund hoard and the currency of South Western Jutland during the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages], Aarbøger for nordisk oldkyndighed og historie 2004 (2007), p. 107-156 (English summary p. 142) (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

Nine contributions to Trésors Monétaires XXII, 2007, p. 269-324: “Le trésor de Gauciel (Eure) : 161 monnaies en billon blanc enfouies entre 1406 et 1411”; ”Le trésor de la forêt de Bord-Louviers (Eure) : la bourse d’un soldat anglais à la fin de la guerre de Cent Ans”; “Le trésor de l’abbaye Saint-Georges à Saint-Martin-de-Boscherville (Seine-Maritime) : monnaies en or et en argent du XVIe siècle” (with Nicolas Wasylyszyn); “Le trésor de Berville-la-Campagne (Eure) : monnaies d’or et d’argent du XVIe siècle”; “Le trésor de Montigny (Seine-Maritime) : monnaies d’argent et de billon du XVIe siècle”; “Le trésor de Radepont (Eure) : monnaies en or et en argent des XVe, XVIe et XVIIe siècles”; “Le trésor de Monchaux-Soreng (Seine-Maritime) : jetons du XVIe siècle” (with Etienne Mantel); “Le trésor de Bellencombre (Seine-Maritime) : écus d’argent du XVIIIe siècle”; “Le trésor d’Yvetot (Seine-Maritime) : monnaies en or de la guerre de 1870-1871” (with Gildas Salaün).

“Single Finds as Evidence for Coin Circulation in the Middle Ages – Status and Perspectives”, Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift / Nordic Numismatic Journal 2000-2002 (2006), p. 228-275 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

”Bønders møntbrug i middelalderen”, META, 2005, no 3, p. 53-67 (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

“Monnaies normandes dans les régions baltiques à l’époque viking“, Revue numismatique, 161, 2005, p. 123-144, pl. XI-XII (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

With Svend Åge Tornbjerg, “A Sixteenth Agnus Dei Penny of Æthelred II”, Numismatic Chronicle, 159, 1999, p. 327-332, pl. 34 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

“Les émissions monétaires de Charles dit le Mauvais à Evreux (1351-1361)”, Revue Numismatique, 1999, p. 231-265, pl. XXXVII-XXXIX (Level 1 in the Nordic List).

"A hoard from the Blois Region and the Proto-Feudal Coinage of Blois, c. 920/40", Numismatic Chronicle, 157, 1997, p. 196-205, pl. 44 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).

"Two Finds from Normandy of English Coins of the Norman Kings (1066-1154)", Numismatic Chronicle, 154, 1994, p. 209-213, pl. 29 (Level 1 in the Danish BFI-list).


Last updated: May 20, 2020

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