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Jonas HedinResearcher

About me

Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography 

Researcher, Work Environment Representative, Manager for flammable goods, Fire safety inspector and Radiation safety coordinator at MISU.


Aeronomy (Middle atmosphere physics and chemistry)

  • Airglow
  • Mesospheric aerosols (Noctiluscent clouds, Meteoric smoke particles)
  •  Rocket-borne measurement techniques


A selection from Stockholm University publication database

  • Nighttime O(1D) and corresponding Atmospheric Band emission (762 nm) derived from rocket-borne experiment

    2021. Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly (et al.). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 213


    Based on common volume rocket-borne measurements of temperature, densities of atomic oxygen and neutral air, we derived O(D-1) nighttime concentrations and corresponding Atmospheric band emission (762 nm). This is one of the first retrievals of the nighttime O(D-1) concentration. Recently, Kalogerakis, Sharma and co-workers have suggested a new production path of O(D-1) based on the reaction of vibrationally excited OH and O. We calculate Atmospheric band volume emission related to the population of O-2(b(1)Sigma(+)(g)) from O(D-1) and compare with total Atmospheric band emissions observed during the same rocket launch. This allows an estimation of the relative contribution of the new Kalogerakis-Sharma mechanism (KSM) to the total Atmospheric band emission. The concentration of O(D-1) due to KSM amounts to several tens cm(-3) with a peak around 95 km. The KSM gives an essential contribution to the total Atmospheric band volume emission (762 nm). Additionally, we illustrate analytically that the expressions for volume emission by the new KSM and the traditional two-step mechanism have similar functional dependences on the atmospheric concentrations of O and O-2. This causes an ambiguity, when interpreting Atmospheric band observations in terms of the one mechanism or the other.

    Read more about Nighttime O(1D) and corresponding Atmospheric Band emission (762 nm) derived from rocket-borne experiment
  • The MATS satellite mission - gravity wave studies by Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy

    2020. Jörg Gumbel (et al.). Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics 20 (1), 431-455


    Global three-dimensional data are a key to understanding gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) is a new Swedish satellite mission that addresses this need. It applies space-borne limb imaging in combination with tomographic and spectroscopic analysis to obtain gravity wave data on relevant spatial scales. Primary measurement targets are O-2 atmospheric band dayglow and nightglow in the near infrared, and sunlight scattered from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet. While tomography provides horizontally and vertically resolved data, spectroscopy allows analysis in terms of mesospheric temperature, composition, and cloud properties. Based on these dynamical tracers, MATS will produce a climatology on wave spectra during a 2-year mission. Major scientific objectives include a characterization of gravity waves and their interaction with larger-scale waves and mean flow in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, as well as their relationship to dynamical conditions in the lower and upper atmosphere. MATS is currently being prepared to be ready for a launch in 2020. This paper provides an overview of scientific goals, measurement concepts, instruments, and analysis ideas.

    Read more about The MATS satellite mission - gravity wave studies by Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy
  • A new method of inferring the size, number density, and charge of mesospheric dust from its in situ collection by the DUSTY probe

    2019. Ove Havnes (et al.). Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (3), 1673-1683


    We present a new method of analyzing measurements of mesospheric dust made with DUSTY rocket-borne Faraday cup probes. It can yield the variation in fundamental dust parameters through a mesospheric cloud with an altitude resolution down to 10 cm or less if plasma probes give the plasma density variations with similar height resolution. A DUSTY probe was the first probe that unambiguously detected charged dust and aerosol particles in the Earth's mesosphere. DUSTY excluded the ambient plasma by various biased grids, which however allowed dust particles with radii above a few nanometers to enter, and it measured the flux of charged dust particles. The flux measurements directly yielded the total ambient dust charge density. We extend the analysis of DUSTY data by using the impact currents on its main grid and the bottom plate as before, together with a dust charging model and a secondary charge production model, to allow the determination of fundamental parameters, such as dust radius, charge number, and total dust density. We demonstrate the utility of the new analysis technique by considering observations made with the DUSTY probes during the MAXIDUSTY rocket campaign in June-July 2016 and comparing the results with those of other instruments (lidar and photometer) also used in the campaign. In the present version we have used monodisperse dust size distributions.

    Read more about A new method of inferring the size, number density, and charge of mesospheric dust from its in situ collection by the DUSTY probe
  • Atmospheric band fitting coefficients derived from a self-consistent rocket-borne experiment

    2019. Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly (et al.). Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics 19 (2), 1207-1220


    Based on self-consistent rocket-borne measurements of temperature, the densities of atomic oxygen and neutral air, and the volume emission of the atmospheric band (762 nm), we examined the one-step and two-step excitation mechanism of O-2 (b(1)Sigma(+)(g)) for nighttime conditions. Following McDade et al. (1986), we derived the empirical fitting coefficients, which parameterize the atmospheric band emission O-2 (b(1)Sigma(+)(g) - X-3 Sigma(-)(g)) (0, 0). This allows us to derive the atomic oxygen concentration from nighttime observations of atmospheric band emission O-2 (b(1)Sigma(+)(g) - X-3 Sigma(-)(g)) (0, 0). The derived empirical parameters can also be utilized for atmospheric band modeling. Additionally, we derived the fit function and corresponding coefficients for the combined (one-and two-step) mechanism. The simultaneous common volume measurements of all the parameters involved in the theoretical calculation of the observed O-2 (b(1)Sigma(+)(g) - X-3 Sigma(-)(g)) (0, 0) emission, i.e., temperature and density of the background air, atomic oxygen density, and volume emission rate, is the novelty and the advantage of this work.

    Read more about Atmospheric band fitting coefficients derived from a self-consistent rocket-borne experiment
  • The MAGIC meteoric smoke particle sampler

    2014. Jonas Hedin (et al.). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 118, 127-144


    Between a few tons to several hundred tons of meteoric material enters the Earth's atmosphere each day, and most of this material is ablated and vaporized in the 70-120 km altitude region. The subsequent chemical conversion, re-condensation and coagulation of this evaporated material are thought to form nanometre sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs). These smoke particles are then subject to further coagulation, sedimentation and global transport by the mesospheric circulation. MSPs have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of ice particle layers around the mesopause region, i.e. noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). MSPs have also been implicated in mesospheric heterogeneous chemistry to influence the mesospheric odd oxygen/odd hydrogen (O-x/HOx) chemistry, to play an important role in the mesospheric charge balance, and to be a significant component of stratospheric aerosol and enhance the depletion of O-3. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the properties of MSPs and none of the hypotheses can be verified without direct evidence of the existence, altitude and size distribution, shape and elemental composition. The aim of the MAGIC project (Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis, Interaction and Composition) was to develop an instrument and analysis techniques to sample for the first time MSPs in the mesosphere and return them to the ground for detailed analysis in the laboratory. MAGIC meteoric smoke particle samplers have been flown on several sounding rocket payloads between 2005 and 2011. Several of these flights concerned non-summer mesosphere conditions when pure MSP populations can be expected. Other flights concerned high latitude summer conditions when MSPs are expected to be contained in ice particles in the upper mesosphere. In this paper we present the MAGIC project and describe the MAGIC MSP sampler, the measurement procedure and laboratory analysis. We also present the attempts to retrieve MSPs from these flights, the challenges inherent to the sampling of nanometre sized particles and the subsequent analysis of the sampled material, and thoughts for the future. Despite substantial experimental efforts, the MAGIC project has so far failed to provide conclusive results. While particles with elemental composition similar to what is to be expected from MSPs have been found, the analysis has been compromised by challenges with different types of contamination and uncertainties in the sticking efficiency of the particles on the sampling surfaces.

    Read more about The MAGIC meteoric smoke particle sampler
  • The global mesospheric sodium layer observed by Odin/OSIRIS in 2004-2009

    2011. Jonas Hedin, Jörg Gumbel. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73 (14-15), 2221-2227


    The source of the mesospheric sodium layer is the daily ablation of 10-100 tons of meteoric material in Earth's atmosphere. Global studies of this layer yield important information about the chemistry and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). For nine years the Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) on-board the Odin satellite has observed Earth's middle atmosphere by limb measurements of scattered sunlight from the ultraviolet to the infrared. In its aeronomy mode, Odin performs limb scans during 15 near-polar sun-synchronous orbits each day. The current measurement programme provides scans up to 110 km on about 300 days per year. Above 70 km, Na D resonance scattering at 589 nm results in a strong limb signal. Retrievals from this dayglow feature have provided a global database of the mesospheric sodium layer. We present an updated sodium climatology from the Odin mission, including latitudinal and seasonal dependence, and interannual variability. We find a weak seasonal variation at low latitudes and an annual variation at mid- and high-latitudes with a clear summer minimum. An interesting feature is an interhemispheric asymmetry in the global dataset with larger sodium abundances during fall in the northern hemisphere and during spring in the southern hemisphere.

    Read more about The global mesospheric sodium layer observed by Odin/OSIRIS in 2004-2009
  • Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets

    2009. Jonas Hedin (et al.). Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2, 801-812


    Accurate knowledge about the distribution of atomic oxygen is crucial for many studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Direct measurements of atomic oxygen by the resonance fluorescence technique at 130 nm have been made from many sounding rocket payloads in the past. This measurement technique yields atomic oxygen profiles with good sensitivity and altitude resolution. However, accuracy is a problem as calibration and aerodynamics make the quantitative analysis challenging. Most often, accuracies better than a factor 2 are not to be expected from direct atomic oxygen measurements. As an example, we present results from the NLTE (Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) sounding rocket campaign at Esrange, Sweden, in 1998, with simultaneous O2 airglow and O resonance fluorescence measurements. O number densities are found to be consistent with the nightglow analysis, but only within the uncertainty limits of the resonance fluorescence technique. Based on these results, we here describe how better atomic oxygen number densities can be obtained by calibrating direct techniques with complementary airglow photometer measurements and detailed aerodynamic analysis. Night-time direct O measurements can be complemented by photometric detection of the O2 (b1g+X3g-) Atmospheric Band at 762 nm, while during daytime the O2 (a1ΔgX3g-) Infrared Atmospheric Band at 1.27 μm can be used. The combination of a photometer and a rather simple resonance fluorescence probe can provide atomic oxygen profiles with both good accuracy and good height resolution.

    Read more about Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets
  • On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere

    2007. Jonas Hedin, Jörg Gumbel, Markus Rapp. Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics 7 (14), 3701-3711


    Meteoric smoke particles have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of mesospheric phenomena. Despite their apparent importance still very little is known about these particles. Important questions concern the smoke number density and size distribution as a function of altitude as well as the fraction of charged particles. Sounding rockets are used to measure smoke in situ, but aerodynamics has remained a major challenge. Basically, the small smoke particles tend to follow the gas flow around the payload rather than reaching the detector if aerodynamics is not considered carefully in the detector design. So far only indirect evidence for the existence of meteoric smoke has been available from measurements of heavy charge carriers. Quantitative ways are needed that relate these measured particle population to the atmospheric particle population. This requires in particular knowledge about the size-dependent, altitude-dependent and charge-dependent detection efficiency for a given instrument. In this paper, we investigate the aerodynamics for a typical electrostatic detector design. We first quantify the flow field of the background gas, then introduce particles in the flow field and determine their trajectories around the payload structure. We use two different models to trace particles in the flow field, a Continuous motion model and a Brownian motion model. Brownian motion is shown to be of basic importance for the smallest particles. Detection efficiencies are determined for three detector designs, including two with ventilation holes to allow airflow through the detector. Results from this investigation show that rocket-borne smoke detection with conventional detectors is largely limited to altitudes above 75 km. The flow through a ventilated detector has to be relatively large in order to significantly improve the detection efficiency.

    Read more about On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere

Show all publications by Jonas Hedin at Stockholm University