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Jonas Rafi

About me

My main work concerns prevention of problem gambling in the workplace, evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative methods.

  • Current teaching is mainly related to using statistical methods to evaluate clinical interventions.
  • I run the site and its english counterpart
  • Additional interests concern anxiety disorders and data science.


A selection from Stockholm University publication database

  • Automated virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. in-vivo one-session treatment

    2019. Alexander Miloff (et al.). Behaviour Research and Therapy 118, 130-140


    This study compared the efficacy of a technician-assisted single-session virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for the treatment of spider phobia featuring low-cost consumer-available hardware and novel automated software to gold-standard in-vivo one-session treatment (OST), using a parallel group randomized non-inferiority design. Method Participants (N = 100) were randomized to VRET and OST arms. Assessors blinded to treatment allocation evaluated participants at pre- and post-treatment as well follow-up (3 and 12 months) using a behavioral approach test (BAT) and self-rated fear of spider, anxiety, depression and quality-of-life scales. A maximum post-treatment difference of 2-points on the BAT qualified as non-inferiority margin. Results Linear mixed models noted large, significant reductions in behavioral avoidance and self-reported fear in both groups at post-treatment, with VRET approaching the strong treatment benefits of OST over time. Non-inferiority was identified at 3- and 12- months follow-up but was significantly worse until 12-months. There was no significant difference on a questionnaire measuring negative effects. Conclusions Automated VRET efficaciously reduced spider phobia symptoms in the short-term and was non-inferior to in-vivo exposure therapy in the long-term. VRET effectiveness trials are warranted to evaluate real-world benefits and non-specific therapeutic factors accruing from the presence of a technician during treatment. (NCT02533310).

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  • What Did You Do Yesterday? A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Episodic Memory

    2019. Martin Asperholm (et al.). Psychological bulletin 145 (8)


    To remember what one did yesterday is an example of an everyday episodic memory task, in which a female advantage has sometimes been reported. Here, we quantify the impact of sex on episodic memory performance and investigate whether the magnitude of the sex difference is modified by study-, task-, and sample-specific moderators. Analyses were based on 617 studies conducted between 1973 and 2013 with 1,233,921 participants. A 5-level random-effects meta-analysis showed an overall female advantage in episodic memory (g = 0.19, 95% CI [0.17, 0.21]). The material to be remembered affected the magnitude of this advantage, with a female advantage for more verbal tasks, such as words, sentences, and prose (g = 0.28, 95% CI [0.25, 0.30]), nameable images (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.22]), and locations (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.21]). and a male advantage in more spatial tasks, such as abstract images (g = -0.20, 95% CI [-0.35, -0.05]) and routes (g = -0.24, 95% CI (-0.35, -0.12]). Furthermore, there was a female advantage for materials that cannot easily be placed along the verbal-spatial continuum, such as faces (g = 0.26, 95% CI [0.20, 0.33]), and odor, taste, and color (g = 0.37, 95% CI [0.18, 0.55]). These differences have remained stable since 1973. For verbal episodic memory tasks, differences were larger in Europe, North America, Oceania. and South America than in Asia, and smaller in childhood and old age than for other ages. Taken together. results suggest that men may use their spatial advantage in spatially demanding episodic memory tasks, whereas women do well in episodic memory tasks that are verbalizable and tasks that are neither verbal nor spatial, such as remembering faces and odors/tastes/colors.

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Show all publications by Jonas Rafi at Stockholm University