Profiles

Brita Bohman

Brita Bohman

Universitetslektor

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Arbetar vid Juridiska institutionen
Telefon 08-16 31 54
E-post brita.bohman@juridicum.su.se
Besöksadress Universitetsvägen 10 C
Rum C 930
Postadress Juridiska institutionen 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

 

Jag är universitetslektor i miljörätt och undervisar i svensk och internationell miljörätt, inkluderat EU-rätten. Min forskning rör i stor utsträckning frågor relaterade till havsmiljörätt och jag samarbetar ofta både tvärvetenskapligt och internationellt.

Sedan december 2019 är jag verksam på heltid vid Juridiska institution på Stockholms universitet, där jag också disputerade i februari 2017. Jag har även varit verksam som forskare vid Juridiska fakulteten vid Åbo Akademi i Finland (2017) och från november 2017 till december 2019 tjänstgjorde jag som postdoktor i havsförvaltningsrätt vid Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.

Forskning och forskningsfinansiering  

Min forskning rör huvudsakligen internationell rätt och EU-rätt med fokus på rättslig styrning av komplexa miljöproblem och utformning av miljörättsliga strukturer/system. Utgångspunkterna för min forskning rör ofta sambandet mellan rättslig styrning och ’social-ekologisk resiliens’, adaptivitet och ekosystemansats. Havsförvaltning och Östersjöjuridik är framträdande områden inom min forskning. Min senaste forskning undersöker rättsliga frågor som ingår i den internationella forskningsagenda som kallas Earth system governance.

Min avhandling undersökte hur rätten kan svara mot den typ av styrning som förespråkas inom teorier och forskning om ’social-ekologisk resiliens’, en teoribildning som fokuserar på strategier för att uppnå hållbarhet trots miljöproblemens alltmer komplexa och globala samband. Mina slutsatser om hur den rättsliga styrningen och de rättsliga instrumenten borde vara utformade enligt dessa teorier tillämpades på den rättsliga situationen i Östersjön och de internationella och EU-rättsliga regelverken för att begränsa problemet med övergödning. Mitt avhandlingsprojekt var en del av ett universitetsövergripande tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprogram, ’Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management’ (BEAM), som finansierades av regeringens särskilda satsning på strategiska forskningsområden. https://www.su.se/ostersjocentrum/english/beam/about-beam/svensk-sammanfattning Forskningen utfördes i samarbete med forskare från Östersjöcentrum och Resilience Centre vid Stockholms universitet.

Som forskare vid Åbo Akademi var jag verksam inom projekt ’BaltReg’, ett samverkansprojekt mellan juridik och statsvetenskap om relationen mellan de olika nivåerna av reglering som verkar parallellt i Östersjöregionen. Projektet finansierades av Finlands akademi. Under 2018 utförde jag också tillsammans med kollegor vid Åbo Akademi en studie om rättsliga förutsättningar för havsbaserade åtgärder mot övergödning som finansierades av Centrum Balticum/Baltic Area Legal Studies – BALEX, Åbo, Finland.

Undervisning  

Jag undervisar i svensk och internationell miljörätt på olika nivåer och flertalet olika institutioner. Dessutom är jag handledare och examinator för examensarbeten och masteruppsatser. För närvarande har jag kursansvar för specialkursen Miljörätt och den fristående kursen Miljöskyddsjuridik.

Akademisk bakgrund  

Jag disputerade vid Stockholms universitet i februari 2017 med avhandlingen Transboundary Law for Social-Ecological Resilience? A Study on Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Professorerna Jonas Ebbesson och David Langlet var mina handledare. Jag tjänstgjorde som gästlärare vid Juridiska institutionen i Stockholm både under avhandlingstiden och direkt efter, år 2017. Jag har även varit verksam som forskare vid Juridiska fakulteten vid Åbo Akademi i Finland (2017) och från november 2017 till december 2019 tjänstgjorde jag som postdoktor i havsförvaltningsrätt vid Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.

Forskningsvistelser/gästforskare  

Projektforskare vid Åbo Akademi, Finland, 2017.

Medverkan vid konferenser och seminarier (de tre senaste)   

“The problem of eutrophication and perspectives on compliance in the Baltic Sea area”, presentation vid Östersjöcentrums webinarium på temat Law and governance in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay med mig själv och Lara Fowler, Senior Lecturer, Penn State Law, 28 Maj, 2020, Stockholms universitet.

”Geo-engineering measures to boost ocean ecosystems in the Baltic Sea - a study in how environmental law operates in the absence of specific rules”, presentation tillsammans med Professor Henrik Ringbom vid Rule of law for Oceans Conference, november 2019, Oslo universitet, Norge.

“Legal Design and Effectiveness for Complex Environmental problems - the Role of Social-Ecological Resilience” presentation vid Tendencies in Legal Approaches and Instruments for the Protection of Ecological Systems, INTRAlaw (International and Transnational Tendencies in Law) Center workshop, oktober 2018, Århus universitet, Danmark.

Samverkan  

Jag har en regelbunden samverkan med olika myndigheter och organisationer, etc., bland annat genom att åta mig olika typer av expertuppdrag och genom att delta i olika lagstiftningsprocesser.

Media

Altinget, 11 maj 2021, "Forskare om PFAS-skandalen: Kemiindustrin har hamnat i skuggan" https://www.altinget.se/miljo/artikel/forskare-om-pfas-skandalen-kemiindustrin-har-hamnat-i-skuggan

BRE Review, Baltic Rim Economies 1/2021, special issue on the Baltic Sea protection, "Updating the Baltic Sea Action Plan" https://sites.utu.fi/bre/updating-the-baltic-sea-action-plan/ 

Altinget, 21 november 2019, ”Slutreplik: Östersjöns problem kommer inte att fångas upp av ett handelssystem” https://www.altinget.se/miljo/artikel/slutreplik-ostersjons-problem-kommer-inte-att-faangas-upp-av-ett-handelssystem

Altinget, 3 oktober 2019, “Forskare: Förslaget om utsläppsrätter i Östersjön bygger på okunskap”, https://www.altinget.se/miljo/artikel/forskare-forslaget-om-utslappsratter-i-ostersjon-bygger-paa-okunskap

Ocean Governance Podcast, 2019: Episode 7 - Well Informed, Adaptive And Legitimate Governance – A Pie In The Sky? https://poddtoppen.se/podcast/1397753413/ocean-governance-podcast/episode-7-well-informed-adaptive-and-legitimate-governance-a-pie-in-the-sky

Tidskriften Havsutsikt 1/2017, ”Ett rättssytem som hjälper Östersjön” https://www.havet.nu/havsutsikt/artikel/ett-rattsystem-som-hjalper-ostersjon

Länkar och filer

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Publikationer (de senaste)

Bohman, B., Legal Design for Social-Ecological Resilience, Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Bohman, B., “Regulatory control of adaptive fisheries: Reflections on the implementation of the landing obligation in the EU common fisheries policy”, Marine Policy, Vol 110, 2019.

Ringbom, H., Bohman, B. and Ilvessalo, S., “Combatting Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: Legal Aspects of Sea-Based Engineering Measures”, Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea, Vol 4(2), 2019, pp. 1-96.

Bohman, B., ”Om EUs gemensamma fiskepolitik: Kan utkastförbudet landa ett hållbart fiske?” i Darpö J, Forsberg M, Pettersson M och Zetterberg C (red), Miljörätten och den förhandlingsovilliga naturen - Vänbok till Gabriel Michanek, Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, 2019.

Bohman, B., “The Ecosystem Approach as a Basis for Managerial Compliance: An Example from the Regulatory Development in the Baltic Sea Region”, pp. 80-116 in Langlet, D. and Rayfuse, R. (eds), The Ecosystem Approach in Ocean Planning and Governance: Perspectives from Europe and Beyond, Series: Publications on Ocean Development, Volume: 87., Brill/Nijhoff, 2018.

Bohman, B., Ringbom, H. and Illvessalo, S., ”Chapter 5, Policy, legal and institutional framework and procedures regarding sea-based measures” in Report: Speeding up the ecological recovery of the Baltic Sea (EUTROPH 6), for the Ministry of Environment, Finland, 2018.

Bohman, B., "Lessons from the regulatory approaches to combat eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region”, Marine Policy, Vol 98, 2018, pp. 227-236.

Bohman, B., “Regulating eutrophication – Flexible legal approaches and environmental governance in the Baltic Sea area”, in: Ringbom, H. (ed.), Regulatory Gaps in Baltic Sea Governance – Selected Issues, MARE Publications Series, Springer, Cham, 2018.

 

 

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2021. Brita Bohman.

    Theories of social-ecological resilience have developed over the past decades and rapidly become an important framework for governance of complex non-linear environmental problems. This book explores the resilience theories and their compatibility with law, it identifies corresponding legal features. The legal features identified, including legal measures, mechanisms, principles and approaches, form a legal design for social-ecological resilience. A legal design that can be applied to different governance situations. It can be a tool both for designing new laws, as well as for assessing the effectiveness of current laws and legal systems. In many ways environmental law has adjusted and developed new approaches to meet complex environmental problems, but law is still challenged by the complexity that characterize environmental problems and the environmental change connected with the Anthropocene. This book provides a comprehensive review of the most fundamental components of the governance framework for social-ecological resilience and the role of law.

  • 2015. Annika K. Nilsson, Brita Bohman. Ambio 44 (3 suppl.), 370-380

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of law in the management of the Baltic Sea, with focus on eutrophication. It aims to identify legal instruments or structures realizing an ecosystem approach. This also includes a discussion of the prerequisites of law as contributor to ecosystem-based management (EBM), as well as evaluation of current legal instruments. While ecosystem approach to environmental management is central to contemporary environmental management policy, it is still unclear what such an approach entails in concrete legal terms. The scope of the analysis stretches from international and EU legal regimes, to implementation and regulation within the national legal systems. A conclusion is that the management structures need further development to properly realize EBM, for example, through concretization of management measures, and clarification of duties and responsibilities for their realization.

  • 2015. Brita Bohman, David Langlet. Governing Europe's Marine Environment, 53-73
  • 2017. Brita Bohman, Jonas Ebbesson, Lena Gipperth.

    This dissertation evaluates the role and effectiveness of law in the transboundary environmental governance of the Baltic Sea with regard to eutrophication. To this end, it reviews the applicable international agreements with their related instruments, as well as the EU legal frameworks, for the protection of the Baltic Sea environment on the basis of theories on resilience in social-ecological systems. The scientific discourse on resilience in social-ecological systems provides theories on effective governance of complex environmental problems with nonlinear causal connections. The governance features identified in resilience governance also show significant similarities with characteristic features of the concept of ecosystem approach. The resilience features can thus provide guidance to the operationalization of this concept, which lacks a distinct meaning in the legal context.

    Eutrophication is one of the main environmental problems in the Baltic Sea. Despite the fact that this problem has been acknowledged since the 1970s, only little progress has been visible in the attempts to limit the problem. Environmental governance in the form of cooperation and common action has, however, been established by the coastal states of the Baltic Sea to reduce the discharges to their common resource. This was originally coordinated through the Helsinki Convention and its administrative organization HELCOM in the 1970s. Since the year 2000 a new set of legal instruments and approaches have developed, emphasizing also the ecosystem approach. These instruments have a basis both in HELCOM and in EU environmental law, most significantly represented by the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. They establish a unique regulatory structure, with new approaches to regulation, which also give rise to questions regarding interpretation and effectiveness that have not previously been analyzed.

    It is concluded that applicable law in the Baltic Sea area reflects resilience features such as adaptability, flexibility and redundancy within the legal structure. The legal structure for the Baltic Sea is dynamic and stretches over many levels of governance. The applicable legal instruments are constructed so as to be adaptable and flexible. The legal instruments moreover include significant elements that provide for participation at different levels and in different forms, which contribute to enabling the mentioned resilience features. However, the Baltic Sea legal structure – as law in general – has different core functions than just providing for effective environmental governance. Law is based in a number of general principles connected to the rule of law and the function of law as a foundation for stability in the society and in human interactions. These principles are also important since they are directly linked to enforcement, monitoring and control. While the legal structure in the Baltic Sea may provide for effective governance and social-ecological resilience, the resilience features reflected in law do not always appear as far-reaching as suggested by resilience theories, much due to the legal principles. It is however because of these principles and the base for binding requirements they enable, that law can push for governance measures and features that might not have been accomplished otherwise. This, in the larger perspective, includes creating requirements that steer human activities away from critical thresholds.

  • 2018. Brita Bohman. Marine Policy 98, 227-236

    Ever since the problem of eutrophication emerged, many approaches have been tested within the Helsinki Convention regime to reduce the discharges of nutrients to the sea. Despite important reductions in the levels of discharge since the 1970s, the nutrient loads to the sea are still significant and need to be further reduced. At the same time, it has become increasingly difficult to reduce the pollution that causes eutrophication. This difficulty is due to the complex nature of most pollution sources currently and the diffuse releases mainly related to agricultural activities and animal production. The regulatory structure for eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region has, however, adjusted rather well to these circumstances. The development over the past decade, since the introduction of the MSFD and the BSAP, progressed in adjusting the whole HELCOM regime to an ecosystem approach. Structures were created that embrace the new demands on the regulation through this approach. These structures put additional challenges on the perception of law, the general functions of the legal system, and how to assess and enforce compliance. The new structures not only create a kind of flexibility and openness to new regulatory approaches and soft law measures, but also combine law with governance and bridge the area of strict legal regulation with voluntary measures and projects. This combination of law with governance completes the overall picture of measures and approaches, but makes the line between law, extra-legal measures and non-governmental actors or organizations difficult to detect.

Visa alla publikationer av Brita Bohman vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 1 juni 2021

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