Profiles

Ann-Sofie Jägerskog

Ann-Sofie Jägerskog

Doktorand

Visa sidan på svenska
Works at Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education
Telephone 08-16 41 29
Email ann-sofie.jagerskog@hsd.su.se
Visiting address Svante Arrhenius väg 20 A, plan 3,4,5
Room P 442
Postal address Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik 106 91 Stockholm

Publications

A selection from Stockholm University publication database
  • 2015. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog, Fredrik Jönsson, Staffan Selander.

    For teachers and students to be able to make informed decisions about how to best improve learning, it is important to compare learning strategies that are known to be effective. Both multimedia learning, based on the notion that individuals learn better from words and pictures presented together than from words alone, and retrieval practice, based on the idea that retrieving knowledge from the memory is an active process that has a beneficial impact on learning, have been found robust learning strategies in earlier research. However, the two strategies remain to be investigated in combination. The combination of the two seemingly robust strategies was investigated in Study I and results showed a modest effect of retrieval practice in terms of decreased forgetting and a strong effect of multimedia learning. Retrieval practice did not improve memory performance beyond the beneficial effect of using a visual illustration. Study II investigated the beneficial effects of the use of visual illustrations in more detail in terms of preferred learning style (visual, verbal or mixed), a notion that has reached wide popular ac- ceptance within the educational field. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis. Rather, results showed that the positive effects of learning with the aid of a visual illustration holds independently of preferred learning style, which renders strong support for multimedia learning in terms of its generalizability. Most interestingly, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style, which may imply that it is worthwhile to help students develop a preference for visual or multimodal aspects of information pro- cessing in order to further improve learning. The findings presented in this thesis provide new knowledge regarding the combination of learning strate- gies and contribute with important insights into the relation between learning style and the use of visual illustrations in psychology teaching. The findings also pose challenges for students and teachers, as well as people designing learning materials, concerning how to approach the use of visual illustrations and retrieval practice in teaching and learning. 

  • 2018. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog. Nationell ämnesdidaktisk konferens 2018: Översikt program

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur två olika visuella representationer av prisbildning kan möjliggöra lärandet av begreppet. Tidigare forskning har studerat om grafer underlättar lärandet (Cohn et al., 2001), kvalitativt skilda sätt att förstå pris (Pang & Marton, 2003) och vanliga problem när man lär om prisbildning (Strober & Cook, 1992). Hur lärande kring prisbildning påverkas av olika visuella representationer har ännu inte studerats. En lektionsserie på tre lektioner genomfördes med fyra gymnasieklasser, varav två hade lektioner baserade på den traditionella utbud-/efterfrågangrafen och två på ett loopdiagram (Wheat, 2007). Skrivna för- och eftertest, samt inspelade smågruppsdiskussioner, analyserades fenomenografiskt. Resultatet visar olika sätt att förstå prisbildning, kritiska aspekter för denna förståelse samt vilket lärande, i relation till de kritiska aspekterna, som verkar möjliggöras genom de två visuella representationerna.

  • 2016. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog. Program till nationell ämnesdidaktisk konferens, NÄD 2016: Ämnesdidaktiska broar

    Två lärstrategier som i tidigare forskning visat sig vara robusta är användandet av visuella illustrationer, baserat på idén att människor lär bättre från ord och bild kombinerat än från enbart ord, och användandet av minnestestning, baserat på idén att framplockning av kunskap från minnet är en aktiv process som gynnar lärandet. Dessa två lärstrategier har dock inte studerats i kombination tidigare. I detta paper presenteras resultat från en studie kring användandet av visuella illustrationer i psykologiundervisningen. Multimediaprincipens robusthet i jämförelse med minnes-testning studerades, liksom frågan om vem som gynnas av användandet av visuella illustrationer, i termer av lärstilspreferens. 12 gymnasieklasser deltog i en psykologi-lektion där innehållet presenterades verbalt eller med hjälp av en visuell illustration och/eller minnestestning. Eleverna genomförde ett lärandetest och resultatet analyserades i relation till elevernas självrapporterade lärstilspreferens. Resultatet visade att användandet av en visuell illustration hade en stark positiv effekt på lärandet, medan minnestestningen hade en viss positiv effekt. Minnestestning bidrog dock inte ytterligare till lärandet utöver den positiva effekten av en visuell illustration. Resultatet påvisade inget stöd för lärstilshypotesen. Elever med visuell eller mixad lärstil visade sig dock prestera generellt sett bättre på lärandetestet, oavsett presentationsformat, än elever med verbal lärstil. Detta skulle kunna betyda att det är värt att hjälpa elever att utveckla en preferens för visuella eller multimodala aspekter av lärande för att ytterligare förbättra förutsättningarna för lärande. Resultaten innebär utmaningar för lärare och elever, liksom för personer som arbetar med att ta fram läromedel, kring hur man kan använda både ord och bild i undervisning och lärande.

  • 2015. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog. Lärarnas forskningskonferens 2015

    Användandet av visuella illustrationer som ett sätt att förklara abstrakta begrepp, fenomen och samband har traditionellt sett förekommit i relativt stor utsträckning i undervisning inom de naturvetenskapliga ämnena (Kozma, 2003). Inom de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnena har dessa däremot inte använts i lika stor utsträckning, utan bilder tenderar i dessa sammanhang att snarare användas som dekoration eller motivation (Pauwels, 2000). Idén om att människor lär bättre med hjälp av ord och bild kombinerat än från enbart ord (multimediaprincipen) har studerats i flertalet studier, men nästan alltid med material från just de naturvetenskapliga ämnena och matematik (Johnson & Mayer, 2009; Seufert, Schutze & Brunken, 2009). Studier kring hur användandet av visuella illustrationer kan bidra i lärandeprocessen inom de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnena finns däremot inte i någon större omfattning. En av de studier som tittat närmare på just detta drar slutsatsen att det är tveksamt om visuella illustrationer har en positiv inverkan på lärandet inom de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnena, eftersom det bland eleverna tycks saknas ett gemensamt visuellt bildspråk i dessa ämnen och att illustrationerna därmed inte är intuitiva och inte heller bidragande i lärprocessen (Westelinck, Valcke, Craene & Kirshner, 2005).  Studier som fokuserar på lärstil menar dessutom att vissa elever gynnas mer än andra av användandet av visuella illustrationer och att undervisningen skulle individanpassas därefter (Riding & Cheema, 1991). Med utgångspunkt i avsaknaden av forskning kring användandet av visuella illustrationer i samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen undersöker jag i min studie effekten av användandet av visuella illustrationer i psykologiundervisningen. Jag ställer detta i relation till dels multimediaprincipen och dels lärstilshypotesen. Syftet med studien var att öka förståelsen för hur elever lär psykologi med hjälp av visuella illustrationer och vilka konsekvenser detta kan få för undervisningen.

     

    Sjuttiotvå elever från 12 olika klasser och tre olika gymnasieskolor i Stockholm deltog i studien. Samtliga klasser fick en lektion kring minnets struktur. Hälften av klasserna fick genomgången verbalt presenterad, d.v.s. enbart muntligt, medan den andra hälften fick samma genomgång visuoverbalt presenterad, d.v.s. med en visuell illustration ritad parallellt med den muntliga genomgången. Samtliga elever fick även fylla i ett lärstilstest (svensk version av Style of Processing; Childers, Houston & Heckler, 1985) som kategoriserade dem i en av tre lärstilar: visuell, verbal eller mixad.  Samtliga elever gjorde ett lärandetest i slutet av lektionen, där både rent innehållsliga frågor och mer förståelseorienterade frågor fanns inkluderade. Resultaten analyserades statistiskt med variansanalys och t-tester.

     

    Tre intressanta resultat framkom i analysen. För det första hittades starkt stöd för multimediaprincipen. Elever som fick en visuoverbal presentation av ämnesinnehållet presterade betydligt bättre på efterföljande lärandetest än elever som fick en verbal genomgång. Detta gällde oberoende av lärstil. För det andra hittades inget stöd för lärstilshypotesen. Samtliga lärstilsgrupper gynnades av användandet av en visuell illustration och elever med en verbal preferens gynnades inte mer än andra av den verbala presentationen. För det tredje visade sig elever med en visuell eller mixad lärstil prestera bättre på lärandetestet än elever med verbal lärstil, oavsett presentationsformat, d.v.s. oavsett om de fick presentationen kombinerad med bild eller ej. Utifrån dessa resultat kan man dra slutsatsen att visuella illustrationer bör användas i psykologiundervisningen och att dessa illustrationer, i motsats till vad som föreslagits av Westerlinck med kollegor (2005), kan bidra till lärande även inom de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnena. Man kan även dra slutsatsen att man, baserat på data i denna studie, inte bör anpassa undervisningen utifrån elevers individuella lärstilspreferens, utan att samtliga elever bör få möjligheten att lära med hjälp av visuella illustrationer. Resultaten väcker även frågor kring huruvida det är möjligt att guida elever till en mer visuellt/multimodalt orienterad preferens och därmed skapa förutsättningar för ännu bättre lärande.

     

    Childers, T. L., Houston, M. J., & Heckler, S. E. (1985). Measurement of individual differences in visual versus verbal information processing. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 125-134.

    Johnson, C. I. & Mayer, R. E. (2009). A testing effect with multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 621-629.

    Kozma, R. (2003). The material features of multiple representations and their cognitive and social affordances for science understanding. Learning and Instruction, 13, 205-226.

    Pauwels, L. (2000). Taking the visual turn in research and scholarly communication key issues in developing a more visually literate (social) science. Visual studies, 15, 7-14.

    Riding, R. J., & Cheema, I. (1991). Cognitive styles: An overview and integration. Educational Psychology, 11, 193-215.

    Seufert, T., Schutze, M., & Brunken, R. (2009). Memory characteristics and modality in multimedia learning: An aptitude-treatment-interaction study. Learning and Instruction, 19, 28-42.

    Westelinck, K., Valcke, M., Craene, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2005). Multimedia learning in social sciences: Limitations of external representations. Computers in Human Behaviour, 21, 555-573.

  • 2014. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog (et al.). Earli SIG 2 Comprehension of text and graphics

    Abstract. Previous research has shown that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning. Both are well-known learning strategies, but they have not previously been investigated in combination and rarely in the classroom. In this study, 133 upper secondary students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. The students processed the information again either by retrieval practice or by restudying it. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes, after a week and after 10 weeks. Visuoverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. Although a modest testing effect was found, this effect was considerably weaker than the multimedia effect. Retrieval practice did not improve the participants’ memory performance beyond the beneficial effect of visuoverbal learning. Presentation format proved to be a more important factor for learning than study strategy.

     

    Keywords: Multimedia learning; retrieval practice; testing effect; learning; visual illustration.

     

    Introduction

    Much teaching and learning research has focused on students’ cognitive activities when studying (Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). In the present work we compared two robust learning strategies in an applied setting, namely multimedia learning and retrieval practice (see Mayer, 2009; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006, for reviews). Many different teaching tools are used in combination in every day teaching. It is therefore worthwhile to study the two effects together, in particular in a classroom setting. This evidence-based education research is needed for several reasons.

    Many of the studies within the field of multimedia learning and the testing effect have been conducted in laboratories and/or with computers as the teaching tool (Seufert, Schutze, & Brunken, 2009). This research is obviously needed, yet an authentic learning situation in the classroom is an important aspect to study. With some exceptions, such studies are not easily found in previous multimedia learning research (but see Moreno & Valdez, 2007). Also, studies focusing on material from other school subjects than the natural sciences and mathematics are needed, since these two areas are overrepresented in previous research (Mayer, 2011; Westelinck, Valcke, Craene, & Kirschner, 2005; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). Further, since an aim of education is to learn and remember for longer periods of time, it is highly relevant to include longer retention intervals, something that has often not been the case in previous studies (McDaniel, Anderson, Derbish, & Morrisette, 2007).

    The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how students learn a verbal description with or without the help of visual illustration and/or testing. Further, secondary aims were to carry out the study in an authentic classroom environment, with a material based on content from the social sciences (psychology) and with a longer retention interval (one week and 10 weeks). More specifically we were interested in investigating (i) To what extent does multimedia learning have an influence on recall and transfer in learning psychology? (ii) To what extent does the testing effect have an influence on retention and transfer in learning psychology? (iii) Do the different effects enhance each other, that is, should the teacher combine the two techniques?

     

    Method

    One hundred and thirty-three students were recruited from three different upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden. The to-be-learned material consisted of an oral presentation of a memory model and the presentation was held live in the classroom. For one half of the groups, a visual illustration, including all different steps in the orally presented process, was drawn simultaneously on the white board. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two learning conditions (restudy vs. retrieval practice) and were asked to work with the material presented according to their learning condition. Finally, the students were asked to conduct a recall and transfer test. The same tests were completed again one and ten weeks later.

     

    Results

    Multimedia Learning

    A significant main effect of presentation format was found F(1, 84) = 12.47, MSE = 1.46 p = .001 (visuoverbal: M = .52, s = .14; verbal: M = .41, s = .14, d = 0.76). The combined presentation of visual and verbal information resulted in better learning compared to only verbal presentation.  Accordingly, the multimedia effect was replicated and was found stable over time and in terms of both recall (d = 0.73) and transfer (d = 0.64).

     

     

    Figure 1. Proportion correct answers across the three retention intervals for the the verbal presentation (VP) and visuoverbal presentation (VVP) groups respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors.

     

    The Testing Effect

    A testing effect was found in terms of a lower forgetting rate over time for the retrieval practice group compared to the restudy group. This can be seen in the significant study strategy by retention interval interaction, F(1, 84) = 3.04, MSE = 0.34, p = .05. Although we did see a positive benefit of retrieval practice in terms of less forgetting (i.e., the interaction effect), retrieval practice actually did not lead to better memory in the long term.

     

    Do the Multimedia and Testing Effects Enhance Each Other?

    There was no statistically significant interaction effect between study strategy and presentation format (F<1), nor an interaction between study strategy, presentation format and retention interval (F<1). This means that retrieval practice did not reliably improve the participants’ memory performance beyond the beneficial effect of visuoverbal learning. Indeed, in the present study presentation format proved to be a more important factor for learning (i.e. higher test scores) than study strategy.

     

    Discussion

    Consistent with previous multimedia learning research (Mayer, 2011), our study suggests that a visuoverbal presentation results in better learning than verbal presentation only in terms of both recall and transfer. A testing effect was found in terms of a lower forgetting rate over time for the retrieval practice group compared to the restudy group (i.e., the interaction effect), but retrieval practice did not lead to better memory in the long term.

    The results show that the multimedia effect holds in an authentic classroom setting, over a longer timespan, and with material from the social sciences. Westelinck and colleagues (2005) argued that the multimedia effect is not generally applicable in the social sciences as it is in the natural sciences. Our study contradicts these findings and show that the multimedia effect can hold even for graphical representations within the social sciences, in this case psychology. Nevertheless, it is possible that it is an even larger challenge to create good graphical representations in the social sciences than in the natural sciences, based on Westelinck’s (2005) argumentation.

    A testing effect was found for recall. However, in contrast to earlier research (Carpenter, 2012), we did not find a testing effect for the transfer test only. One possible reason for this could be the lack of feedback, which according to several studies seems to strengthen the testing effect (Pashler, Cepeda, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2005).

    In the light of the results showing a robust multimedia effect but only a rather modest testing effect, it may not be surprising that the two effects did not enhance each other. In this study, the use of a visual illustration seems to be an even more important factor for learning than is practice retrieval.

    Traditional school instruction tends to favour verbal (auditive or written) rather than visual modes of presentation (Mayer, 2011). Likewise, tests have tended to mainly be used as tools of summative assessment and evaluation of learning (Dunlosky et al., 2013). The findings of our and similar studies show that visual presentations, as well as tests, can be used in order to improve the learning process (Mayer, 2011; Dunlosky et al., 2013). It seems worthwhile to put effort into creating visual representations in order for students to even better learn and process new information. This should be the case in everyday classroom teaching as well as in textbooks used in schools.

     

    References

    Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Testing enhances the transfer of learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 279-283.

    Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan M. J., & Willingham, D.T. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 4-58.

    Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia Learning (2nd ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Mayer, R. E., (2011). Instruction based on visualizations. In R. E. Mayer, & P. A. Alexander  (Eds.), Handbook of Research on learning and Instruction. New York, NY: Routledge.

    McDaniel, M. A., Anderson, J. L., Derbish, M. H., & Morrisette, N. (2007). Testing the testing effect in the classroom. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 494-513.

    Moreno, R., & Valdez, A. (2007). Immediate and delayed effects of using classroom case exemplar in teacher education: The role of presentation format. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 194-206.

    Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2005). When does feedback facilitate learning of words? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 3-8.

    Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 181-210.

    Seufert, T., Schutze, M., & Brunken, R. (2009). Memory characteristics and modality in multimedia learning: An aptitude-treatment-interaction study. Learning and Instruction, 19, 28-42.

    Westelinck, K., Valcke, M., Craene, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2005). Multimedia learning in social sciences: Limitations of external representations. Computers in Human Behaviour, 21, 555-573.

     

     

  • 2015. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog, Fredrik Jönsson, Staffan Selander. 16th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction: Towards a reflective society – synergies between learning, teaching and research

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary school students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

     

    Aims

    The idea that individuals’ learning styles are important to take into account when adapting classroom methods has reached wide popular acceptance within the educational field and among the general public (Riding & Cheema, 1991). Also, multimedia learning has been proven a robust learning strategy, suggesting that instruction including a visual illustration improves learning more than purely verbal instruction (Paivio, 1986; Mayer, 2010). However, studies focusing on the effects of different presentation formats in teaching often do not take into account the role of individual instructional preference (Kollöffel, 2012). In the present study we investigated the learning styles hypothesis in terms of the verbaliser-visualiser dimension, and the multimedia instruction hypothesis. A key issue is whether teachers should adapt their teaching according to students’ preferred learning style, whether they instead should focus their efforts on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning) and independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve student learning. In previous multimedia research there is an overrepresentation of material from the natural sciences and it has been questioned if multimedia learning holds in the social sciences (Mayer, 2011; Westelinck, Valcke, Craene, & Kirschner, 2005). We investigated this further by using materials from a psychology course.

     

    Methodology

    72 students were recruited from three upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were tested in 12 already existing classes, randomly assigned to one of two presentation formats (verbal vs. visuoverbal). A psychology lecture was held in the classroom and the to-be-learned material consisted of a memory model. For one half of the groups, a visual illustration including all different steps in the orally presented process was drawn simultaneously on the white board. The Style of Processing questionnaire (SOP; Childers, Houston, & Heckler, 1985) was used to identify the students’ preferred way of processing new information. The results from the SOP scale place participants in one of three groups: visual, mixed or verbal. The students conducted a learning test, consisting of both recall and transfer questions.

     

    Findings

     The multimedia instruction hypothesis was supported in a significant main effect of presentation format F(1, 71) = 27.37, MSE = .55 p < .001. Students who received visuoverbal instruction scored significantly higher on the learning test compared to students who received a verbal presentation only (visuoverbal: M = .58, s = .16; verbal: M = .40, s = .16, d = 1.12). As shown in figure 1, this was the case independently of learning style (visual, d = 2.62; mixed, d = 0.98; verbal, d = 0.61).

    A significant main effect of learning style was found F(1, 71) = 5.79, MSE = .12, p = .005. Students with a visual or a mixed learning style performed better on the learning test compared to students with a verbal learning style (visual: M = .53, s = .18; mixed: M = .53, s = .16; verbal: M = .40, s = .19).

    A significant interaction between learning style and presentation format was found, F(2,71) = 3.12, MSE = .06, p = .051. As shown in figure 1, this interaction depends on participants with a visual learning style benefitting more from a visuoverbal presentation than participants with a mixed or verbal learning style.

    Figure 1. Proportion correct answers across the different learning style groups for the verbal and visuoverbal presentation formats respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors.

     

    Theoretical and educational significance

    Results from our study show that a visuoverbal presentation results in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of individual learning style. This suggests that a visuoverbal mode of instruction ought to be used in psychology teaching.

    An interaction between learning style and presentation format was found. However, as suggested by Pashler and colleagues (2008), convincing support for the learning styles hypothesis would require a crossover interaction, where visualisers perform better than verbalisers in a visuoverbal condition and verbalisers perform better than visualisers in a verbal condition. This was not the case and accordingly support for the learning styles hypothesis in terms of the verbaliser – imager dimension was not provided, although visualizers benefitted more from the use of visual illustrations than verbalizers and mixed processors. Consequently, based on the results from this study one could not conclude that classroom teaching in general should be adjusted according to individual students’ learning style in order for each student to best learn.

    Students with a visual or mixed learning style performed better on the learning test compared to students with a verbal learning style. Since the learning styles diagnosis focuses on preference, these results could imply that it is worthwhile to help students develop a preference for visual aspects of information processing. In line with this argumentation, learning style diagnoses may be used to identify students who could develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference, rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching according to each student’s individual learning style.

     

    References

    Childers, T. L., Houston, M. J., & Heckler, S. E. (1985). Measurement of individual differences in visual versus verbal information processing. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 125-134.

    Kollöffel, B. (2012). Exploring the relation between visualizer–verbalizer cognitive styles and performance with visual or verbal learning material. Computers & Education, 58(2), 697-706.

    Mayer, R. E. (2010). Introduction to multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (1-16). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Mayer, R. E., (2011). Instruction based on visualizations. In R. E. Mayer, & P. A. Alexander  (Eds.), Handbook of Research on learning and Instruction. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning Styles, Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119.

    Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Riding, R. J., & Cheema, I. (1991). Cognitive styles: An overview and integration. Educational Psychology, 11, 193-215.

    Westelinck, K., Valcke, M., Craene, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2005). Multimedia learning in social sciences: Limitations of external representations. Computers in Human Behaviour, 21, 555-573.

     

  • 2015. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog. NoFa5, Nordic conference on subject education

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be diversified and adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary students were given a psychology lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self-rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

  • 2018. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog (et al.). Nationell ämnesdidaktisk konferens: Forskning och samverkan

    Varför flyr många, varför stannar andra kvar, hur påverkas individer och samhälle av flyktingsituationen? Vad innebär det att kunna svara på dessa frågor för elever i olika åldrar? Studien har genom en learning study tillsammans med tio verksamma lärare utvecklat och undersökt undervisning om och lärande av analys av flyktingsituationen i årskurserna 1, 6, 8 samt år 2 på gymnasiet. Undervisningsdesignen utgick från kartläggningar av hur elever i olika årskurser uppfattade och analyserade flyktingsituationen. De mest kvalificerade elevsvaren utmärks av att analysen relaterar till flyktingsituationen som en dynamisk process, använder konsekvenser i en processkedja även som orsaker, samt relaterar flera olika dimensioner till varandra. Vi exemplifierar undervisning som möjliggjorde även för de yngsta eleverna att uppvisa denna slags analys.

  • 2018. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog.

    Kvalitetskriterier inom forskning har traditionellt sett en stark influens från kvantitativ forskning, där hypoteser testas och data analyseras statistiskt. Begrepp som reliabilitet och validitet definieras ofta på sätt som är relevanta för statistiska analyser, men inte nödvändigtvis applicerbara inom andra forskningsansatser. Exempelvis är det inom den praktiknära forskningen ofta varken möjligt eller eftersträvansvärt att isolera, mäta och manipulera separata variabler i samma studie. Det är snarare så att utvecklingsforskning till sin natur ofta har att hantera många interrelaterade element samtidigt. Att definiera, identifiera och reflektera kring kvalitetskriterier är inte oproblematiskt, men nödvändig, något som gäller all forskning. Att det i många forskningsansatser, så som praktiknära forskning, ofta inte är relevant med statistiska beräkningar av reliabilitet och validitet får inte leda till att en diskussion om kvalitetskriterier i forskningen försummas. Utmaningen ligger i att hitta relevanta och användbara sätt att diskutera kvalitetskriterier även inom dessa forskningsansatser, vilket tycks kräva en delvis ny och breddad förståelse av begrepp som validitet och reliabilitet. Att hitta nya former för att diskutera kvalitetskriterier som är relevanta för praktiknära forskning handlar om att undvika fällan att försöka få ner runda klossar i fyrkantiga hål. Frågan är hur vi skapar hål som passar för nya klossar. Här finns ett stort arbete att göra inom den praktiknära forskningen.

  • 2017. Ove Bergqvist (et al.). Lärarnas forskningskonferens 31 oktober 2017, 24-25

    I samhällskunskap undervisas elever i frågor om hur olika samhällen är organiserade och strukturerade, om värden och värdefrågor samt om hur man kan analysera, kritiskt granska och dra relevanta slutsatser om argument i samhällsfrågor. Undervisningen utgår ofta från de dagsaktuella frågor som på- verkar vårt samhälle just nu. En av dessa samhällsfrågor är det faktum att många människor under en längre tid flytt i båt över Medelhavet, en farofylld flykt som medför stora risker och en osäker framtid. Projektets utgångspunkt är denna aktuella flyktingsituation - varför så många flyr, varför andra stannar kvar och hur individer och samhälle påverkas av flyktingsituationen, idag och i den nära framtiden. Vad är det man kan när man kan analysera flyktingsituationen – om man går i ettan, i sexan, i åttan, eller första året på gymnasiet? Hur kan vi undervisa kring detta i samhällskunskap för att utveckla elevernas förmåga att analysera flyktingsituationen? Det här är ett aktuellt och viktigt ämnesområde, och kunnandet som undersöks (förmågan att analysera en samhällsfråga) är grundläggande för samhällskunskap. Samtidigt saknas nästan helt svensk forskning om elevers lärande i interaktion med läraren i undervisning på området (Olsson, 2016, s. 71). Internationell forskning har främst fokuserat hur elevers idéer om samhällsfrågor relaterar till social bakgrund och kulturell identitet (Barton & Avery, 2016), medan forskning som syftar till att beskriva innebörden av elevers samhällskunskapskunnande saknas. I ett större ram-projekt som påbörjades 2015 av SO-nätverket inom Stockholm Teaching & Learning Studies undersöks elevers förmåga att analysera i ämnet samhällskunskap. Syftet med ramprojektet är att bidra till att elevers analysförmåga preciseras och att vi på så vis utvecklar kunskap om hur denna förmåga kan möjliggöras genom undervisning. Symposiet presenterar tre delprojekt som inom ramen för den övergripande studien om innebörden av analysförmågan i samhällskunskap undersöker innebörden av och undervisning för elevers förmåga att analysera situationen med flyktingströmmarna från Syrien till Europa. Tre lärarlag från olika undervisningsstadier – låg- och mellanstadiet, högstadiet och gymnasiet – har under läsåret 2016/2017 utformat och studerat undervisning för elever i årskurs 1 och 6, i årskurs 8 och i gymnasiets år 1. I delprojekten har elevers erfarande av flyktingsituationen och deras sätt att analysera denna kartlagts och analyserats fenomenografiskt (Marton, 1981; Larsson, 1986). Lärargrupperna har därefter utgått från resultaten av dessa kartläggningsanalyser för att med hjälp av variationsteori (Lo, 2012; Marton, 2014) utforma, pröva och revidera undervisning för att möjliggöra elevers utvecklande av förmågan att analysera flyktingsituationen. Varje delstudie har genomfört två cykler av planering, genomförande och analys av forskningslektioner med åtföljande för- och eftertest (jfr. Learning Study). Elevmaterial i form av skriftliga kartläggningar och inspelade och transkriberade lektioner/ gruppdiskussioner har analyserats för att identifiera kritiska aspekter (Marton 2014; Pang & Ki, 2016) av förmågan att analysera flyktingsituationen som behöver fokuseras i undervisning. Under symposiet presenteras de gemensamma utgångspunkterna och frågeställningarna, samt de tre delprojektens olika undervisningsinterventioner och analyser. Sammanfattningsvis diskuteras vilka likheter och skillnader som tycks finnas mellan olika skolstadier när det gäller att kunna analysera frågan om flyktingströmmarna över Medelhavet och kritiska aspekter av att kunna göra detta i olika undervisningskontexter.

  • 2018. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog (et al.).
  • 2018. Ann-Sofie Jägerskog, Cecilia Lundholm, Peter Davies. Programme and Book of Abstracts

     

     

    Making Possible by Making Visible

    Investigating Learning Opportunities when Using Different Visual Representations of Price

     

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to contribute to the understanding of how two different visual representations of price facilitate learning of the concept. Upper secondary students’ understanding of price in relation to two different visual representations was investigated from a multimodal point of view. Lessons were conducted with four different classes, of which two had lessons based on the traditional supply/demand graph and two on a causal loop diagram (Wheat, 2007). Students conducted a written pre- and post-test and the material was analysed phenomenographically and in relation to the visual representation used. Results suggest that students’ understanding of price was affected by the visual representation used in teaching in terms of more qualified understandings being developed through the use of a causal loop diagram than the graph. Results also indicate the importance of reflecting on what conceptual understanding visual representations represent and facilitate, when choosing representations for teaching and learning.

     

    Keywords: Visual representation; learning; price

     

    Research aims

    Visual representations are frequently used in economics textbooks and in every day economics teaching (Reimann, 2004). Price, often presented in terms of a supply/demand graph, is a key concept in economics teaching, however often difficult for students to grasp (Lundholm, 2018). Prior research has investigated whether or not graphs of pricing facilitate learning (Cohn et al., 2001), qualitatively different ways of understanding price (Pang & Marton, 2003) and common problems when learning about price (Strober & Cook, 1992). However, how learning and a complex understanding of pricing is affected by the use of different visual representations has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was to contribute to the understanding of how two different visual representations of price (a supply/demand graph and a causal loop diagram) facilitate learning of the concept and what aspects of conceptual understanding is made possible by these visual representations. What is especially focused upon is students’ understanding of the relationships between supply, price and demand.

     

    Theoretical framework

    From a perspective of multimodal learning, images should, rather than being considered simply adding something to the written or spoken text, be seen as a separate means of communication, highlighting certain aspects of the subject content illustrated (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2006). This means that an image as well as writing has its distinct potentials for meaning making and that different visual representations of the same subject content may communicate partly different messages (Danielsson & Selander, 2014) This implies that different aspects of the subject content may be made possible to discern through different visual representations. Investigating what learning is facilitated through the use of different visual representations of the same subject content would therefore be central both for multimodal theory and for practice.

     

    Learning about price does not merely involve learning facts and terms, but involves developing an understanding of complex processes, relations and interactions. Goldwater and Schalk (2016) distinguish between intrinsic features and extrinsic relations, arguing that students need to understand not only superficial features, but also the deep relational structures in the content being learnt. The difference between a novice and an expert in a subject, they argue, is the ability to see the latter (Goldwater & Schalk, 2016). Following reasoning on multimodal learning, visual representations may highlight relations and complex processes differently and could possibly facilitate different aspects of such relations. Identifying how different visual representations make it possible for students to discern various aspects of the relations involved is of interest to theory and practice. 

     

    Methodology

    A series of three lessons were conducted with four different upper secondary classes (96 students in total). Two classes had lessons based on the traditional supply/demand graph and two on a causal loop diagram. The research data consisted of in all 349 written student answers to the questions on price assessed in the pre- and post-test. The material was analysed phenomenographically in order to identify students’ different ways of understanding price and the critical aspects necessary to discern in order to develop a more qualified understanding of the concept (Marton & Booth, 1997). Students’ ways of understanding price in the pre-test was compared to the post-test and analysed in light of the visual representation used in the teaching. From this data conclusions were drawn concerning what critical aspects seemed to be possible for the students to discern through the use of the different visual representations.

     

    Results

    The study presents two interesting results. First, two new dimensions of variation in students’ understanding of price was identified: the causal relationships between supply, price and demand in pricing and how cost changes when output changes. The different categories of conceptions of price in the first dimension (the causal relationships in pricing) were; i) a relationship between supply and demand with no reference to price, ii) a one-way causal relationship between price and demand/supply, iii) bidirectional causal relationships between price and demand and/or price and supply, and iv) complex relationships, where supply, price and demand are interrelated. The two conceptions in the second dimension (how cost changes when output changes) were i) taking a producer perspective and ii) taking a market perspective on how demand and price are related. The critical aspects identified concern for the first dimension understanding price as a coordinating mechanism, understanding the bidirectional influence as a key characteristic of the relationships, and understanding the dynamic causal relationships between supply, price and demand. For the second dimension, the critical aspect concerns understanding price as dependent on the market, not merely a producer.

     

    Figure 1. Outcome space??

     

    Second, results show that students’ understanding of the relationships between supply, price and demand was affected by the visual illustrations used in teaching. Students presented with the causal loop diagram developed more qualified ways of understanding the causal relationships in pricing than did students presented with the graph. Fewer students in the causal loop-groups expressed understandings belonging to categories 1 and 2 in the post-test compared to the pre-test and many more students expressed understandings belonging to the more qualified ways of understanding the relationships in pricing. The critical aspects necessary to discern in order to develop more qualified understandings of price in terms of the causal relationships in pricing thus seemed easier to discern if presented with a causal loop diagram than a graph. Both visual representations seemed to enable the students to develop their understanding of how cost changes when output changes. Results indicate the importance of reflecting on what conceptual understanding the visual representations themselves represent and facilitate, when choosing illustrations in teaching and learning.

     

    Figure 2. Diagram of results from pre- and post-tests??

     

    Conclusion

    This study contributes to both theory and practice: 1) to theory in terms of an extended understanding of what learning is facilitated through different visual representations in economics, which could also be seen as a contribution to the field of multimodal learning and ii) to practice in terms of implications for teaching in economics as well as the designing of course material on price.

     

    References

    Cohn, E., Cohn, S., Balch, D. C., & Bradley Jr, J. (2001). Do graphs promote learning in principles of economics?. The Journal of Economic Education32(4), 299-310.

    Danielsson, K., & Selander, S. (2014). Se texten! Multimodala texter i ämnesdidaktiskt arbete. Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB.

    Goldwater, M. B., & Schalk, L. (2016). Relational Categories as a Bridge Between Cognitive and Educational Research. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000043

    Kress, G. R., & van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. London: Routledge.

    Lundholm, C. (2018). Conceptual change and the complexity of learning. In T. Amin &

    O. Levrini (Eds.). Converging and Complementary Perspectives on Conceptual Change. London: Routledge.

    Pang, M. F., & Marton, F. (2003). Beyond“lesson study”: Comparing two ways of facilitating the grasp of some economic concepts. Instructional Science31(3), 175-194.

    Reimann, N. (2004). First-year teaching-learning environments in economics. International Review of Economics Education3(1), 9-38.

    Strober, M. H., & Cook, A. (1992). Economics, lies, and videotapes. The Journal of Economic Education23(2), 125-151.

    Wheat, I. D. (2007). The feedback method of teaching macroeconomics: is it effective?. System Dynamics Review23(4), 391-413.

     

     

     

     

Show all publications by Ann-Sofie Jägerskog at Stockholm University

Last updated: January 26, 2019

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