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The Middle Atmosphere

The course deals with the middle atmosphere as part of the earth's climate system.

The middle atmosphere includes atmospheric processes around the tropopause, the stratosphere and the mesosphere. The interaction between dynamics, chemistry and radiation is of great importance in these levels. Special attention is therefore paid to atmospheric phenomena which this interaction causes.

  • Course structure

    The course includes:

    • the structure and composition of the atmosphere in the altitude range between 10 and 100 km
    • the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with gases and particles in the middle atmosphere
    • general circulation in the middle atmosphere, planetary waves, tidal waves, gravitational waves, turbulence and their interaction; Brewer-Dobson circulation, quasi-biannual oscillation
    • tropopausal exchange processes
    • stratospheric clouds and ozone chemistry
    • ice clouds and related processes in the mesosphere
    • ionospheric processes
    • atmospheric spectroscopy, excited states and aerial light
    • remote sensing and in-situ techniques for studying the middle atmosphere
    • the role of the middle atmosphere in weather forecasts and climate variations in the troposphere

    Teaching format

    The course consists of lectures, laboratory work (mandatory), exercises and seminars (mandatory).

    Course material

    Grading criteria, course literature and other material and correspondence related to the course will be available on the course Athena-site at once you have registered for the course.


    Examination is done through a written test.


    Here is a link to a list of course coordinators and examiners.

  • Schedule

    The schedule will be available no later than one month before the start of the course. We do not recommend print-outs as changes can occur. At the start of the course, your department will advise where you can find your schedule during the course.

    You can search for schedules from previous years in TimeEdit, by entering the course code.

    Link to TimeEdit

  • Course literature

    Note that the course literature can be changed up to two months before the start of the course.

    • Brasseur, G. P. and Solomon, S.: Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere, 3rd edition, Springer, 2005 (available as an e-book at the SU library).
    • Mohanakumar, K.: Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions - An introduction, Springer, 2008 (available as an e-book at the SU library).
    • Scientific review articles will be distributed in connection with the course.
  • Course reports

  • Contact

    Study counselor