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Helena FalkenbergUniversitetslektor, forskare



I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Do gender and socioeconomic status matter when combining work and family

    2020. Helena Falkenberg (et al.). Economic and Industrial Democracy 41 (1), 29-54


    Work and family are sources of both satisfaction and conflicting demands. A challenge is to identify individuals at risk for conflict and factors that potentially reduce conflict. This study investigated how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI) and how control at work and at home related to WFI and FWI. Data from 1991-1993 and 1997-1999 of the Whitehall II study of British civil servants, including 3484 (827 women and 2657 men) employees in three SES-levels, were analysed. Women reported a higher risk for WFI and FWI. High SES employees reported higher WFI. Less control at home increased risks for WFI and FWI as did low control at work but only for WFI. This suggests that high SES women are especially at risk for conflict and that aspects from the spheres of both work and home should be considered in further research and practice.

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  • Just What I See? Implications of Congruence Between Supervisors’ and Employees’ Perceptions of Pay Justice for Employees’ Work-Related Attitudes and Behaviors

    2020. Sofia Malmrud (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 11


    Perceiving a pay system as just has been suggested to be a precondition for individualized pay to have a motivating effect for employees. Supervisors’ enacted justice is central for understanding the effects that pay setting can have on employee attitudes and behavior. Yet, enacted justice has received little research attention, in regard to both organizational justice and pay-related topics. This study examines the effects of employees’ perceived pay justice and supervisors’ enacted justice, as well as the degree of congruence, on employees’ work-related attitudes and behaviors. Questionnaire data from employees (N = 566) matched with data from their pay-setting supervisors (N = 208), employed in a Swedish manufacturing company, were analyzed. Results of polynomial regression with response surface analysis show that employees’ perceptions of pay justice were important for their work-related attitudes and behaviors and that supervisor–employee congruence regarding pay justice was positively related to employees’ attitudes and behavior, particularly when the ratings concerned high levels of justice. The results not only highlight the importance of developing a pay system that is perceived as just by employees but also emphasize the importance of reaching a congruence between supervisors’ and employees’ perceptions of high fairness, as this has positive implications for employees’ attitudes and behaviors.

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  • “It’s [Not] All ‘Bout the Money”

    2020. Alexander Nordgren Selar (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 5 (1), 1-14


    The use of performance-based pay is increasing rapidly, but empirical evidence on how and why it relates to job performance, as well as its relative strategical importance, remains unclear. The present study examined the relative importance of performance-based pay variables and support of psychological needs variables for task and contextual performance in a sample of 582 white-collar employees in Sweden. Multiple regression results, based on survey and register data, showed that the instrumentality of the pay system related to lower levels of task and contextual performance. However, supplementary relative weight analysis (RWA) showed that, in relative terms, instrumentality of the pay system was of minor importance for performance. Performance-based pay-raise amount was positively related to contextual performance but not predictive of task performance. Procedural pay-setting justice was unrelated to both outcomes. Among the support of psychological needs variables, feedback and job autonomy had positive associations with both outcomes while social support from colleagues was not predictive of performance. Considering the explained variance (16–17%), the performance-based pay variables combined accounted for up to a third (12.6–29.2%) while support of psychological needs variables accounted for more than half of the explained variance (56.1–68.1%) in task and contextual performance. The results indicate that organizations would benefit from putting support of psychological needs to the forefront of their motivational strategies as a complement to administrating complex compensation systems.

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  • Emotional exhaustion and parent's relative perceived work flexibility

    2019. Constanze Leineweber, Helena Falkenberg, Sophie Albrecht. Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 1488-1488


    Purpose: When children are living at home, parents are interdependent of each other to care for them. Higher work flexibility than partner might provide better opportunity for recovery, but might also mean more responsibility for work at home or at paid work. It is possible that mothers and fathers use their relative work flexibility differently. The aim with this study was to investigate 1) the association between parent´s relative work flexibility, compared with their partner, and emotional exhaustion 2) gender differences in emotional exhaustion 3) the interaction between relative work flexibility and gender in relation to emotional exhaustion and 4) differences between mothers and fathers in time use.

    Methodology: Mothers and fathers in paid work in Sweden with children living at home was included (n=2 911). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2012.

    Results: The results indicated that 1) having higher flexibility than partner was associated with lover levels of emotional exhaustion; 2) mothers reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion than fathers 3) relative flexibility seemed to influence fathers emotional exhaustion more than mothers 4) differences in time use between mothers and fathers was found.

    Limitations: Ideally, data from the same family would have been gathered and relative flexibility would have been measured in a more nuanced way.

    Research/Practical Implications: Highlighting the importance of consider work flexibility in its family context.

    Originality/Value: The first study, as far as we know, that investigates the relative work flexibility and emotional exhaustion among mothers and fathers.

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  • Challenges for pay-setting managers

    2019. Sofia Malmrud (et al.). Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 1281-1282


    Purpose: In organizations using individualized pay setting, where pay raises are based on job performance and the quality of work, managers have a central role as they execute the organizations’ pay systems. The present study aims at increasing the understanding of pay-setting managers’ beliefs and perspectives on their role in connection to pay setting.

    Design/Methodology: The study is based on seven focus group interviews with pay-setting supervisors from four different companies in the Swedish private sector. In the past few years, all four companies have implemented new pay-systems with a greater focus on employee performance. The semi-structured focus group interviews were analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis.

    Results: Data analysis is ongoing. A preliminary thematic analysis revealed several tentative themes. These concern difficulties in assessing employee performance and in ensuring that employees fully understand the pay setting process (especially the performance assessments), the importance of regular constructive feedback, need for guidance and support, and lack of resources to reward high performing individuals.

    Limitations: While focus groups with managers from four organizations provide a wealth of perspectives, individual interviews may have allowed for more in-depth insights. The results also need replication using questionnaire data to examine how wide-spread various experiences are.

    Implications: This study contributes to a better understanding of the challenges that pay-setting supervisors perceive. This knowledge could be used by organizations to facilitate the pay-setting process for managers.

    Originality: This is one of few studies focusing on pay-setting managers, who are the ones executing organizations’ pay setting systems.

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  • Employees' experiences of pay-related justice and supervisors' enacted justice

    2019. Magnus Sverke (et al.). Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 1633-1633


    Purpose: Individualized pay-setting, where pay raises are based on job performance, are used in many organizations. Research suggests that employees’ justice perceptions are important for pay to have beneficial outcomes. It can also be expected that the level of agreement between employee and supervisor regarding the fairness of the pay-setting process may have similar positive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate how congruence in pay justice perceptions between supervisor and employee relates to employees’ work-related attitudes and behaviour.

    Methodology: An online questionnaire was administered to all white-collar employees (N=744) and their pay-setting supervisors (N=188) of an industrial enterprise in Sweden, which had recently implemented a more individualized pay-setting system. The matched data was analysed using polynomial regression analysis.

    Results: Preliminary results of the polynomial regression analyses show that employee experiences of pay-related justice related to more positive work-related attitudes, a lower inclination to leave the organization, and better job performance. The preliminary findings also indicate a tendency for more favourable outcomes among employees who experienced higher fairness congruence with their supervisor.

    Limitations: The cross-sectional design does not allow for causal inferences. The study needs replication among other occupational groups, in other sectors, and in different countries.

    Implications: The results highlight the importance of a transparent pay-setting process, which is perceived as fair by both supervisors and employees.

    Originality/Value: While supervisors’ enacted justice has been highlighted in research on organizational justice, there is a lack of research on the congruence between supervisors and employees regarding pay-related justice perceptions.

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  • Pay justice attention! A systematic literature review of antecedents and consquences of pay justice

    2019. Helena Falkenberg (et al.). Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 1149-1149


    Purpose: Employee perceptions of pay as fair have been suggested to be important for motivation and performance. This circumstance, together with an increase in pay-systems where annual pay raises in part are based on employees’ performance, has directed attention to the justice of pay. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe research focusing on (1) what contributes to perceptions of pay justice and (2) the potential consequences of pay justice.

    Methodology: Literature search in large databases were performed. Major search terms were “pay justice” and” pay-related justice”, supplemented with searches of concepts that emerged as important such as “performance evaluation” and “feedback”. Priority was given to studies published in the year 2000 and later.

    Results: In terms of predictors, performance assessments, knowledge of pay-setting criteria, feedback, performance appraisal and the supervisor´s ability to fulfil the requirements as pay-setters, were important for employee perceptions of pay justice. Consequences of pay justice were less studied but a positive relation with pay satisfaction was reported.

    Limitations: The literature search was done on pay justice specifically. This means that studies focusing on organizational justice were generally not included, even if such studies could include pay.

    Research/Practical Implications: The results provide insights regarding how different aspects of the pay-setting process relate to pay justice and indicate that less is known about the consequences of pay justice.

    Originality/Value: Although several reviews and meta-analyses concerning organizational justice in general exists, to our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on pay justice specifically.

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  • Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion

    2018. Constanze Leineweber, Helena Falkenberg, Sophie C. Albrecht. Frontiers in Psychology 9


    A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) were conducted (N = 2,911). Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner), gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender seems to have a pronounced effect on time use, relative work flexibility seems to have less influence on how time is used. Generally, mothers tend to spend more time on unpaid work while fathers spend longer hours on paid work and report more time for relaxation.

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  • A Review of Work-Family Research in the Nordic Region

    2018. Constanze Leineweber, Helena Falkenberg. The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work–Family Interface, 288-302


    A fundamental issue concerning work and family is the extent that women and men work and take care of children. The Nordic countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland for the purposes of this review) are characterized by a “dual-worker model” in which a majority of both women and men participate in paid work, but are also, to some extent, characterized by a “dual-carer model” in which both women and men actively take part in the upbringing of their children (Edlund & Öun, 2016). The Nordic countries have a history of family policies being directed toward both mothers and fathers, and state provisions for dual-earner family support and childcare were developed in a political context with women’s equality in mind (Ellingsaeter & Leira, 2006). Still, the challenge of combining work and family domains is under continual debate and development in the Nordic countries. In the next sections, we will briefly describe the general trends of women’s participation in the labor market in relation to the development of the welfare system. This historical development is crucial for the understanding of how women and men combine work and family in the Nordic countries today.

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  • Anställdas syn på lön, motivation och prestation

    2018. Helena Falkenberg (et al.).


    Lönesättningen i privat sektor sker med olika grad av koppling till den individuellaprestationen. Vissa avtal ger inget eller endast begränsat utrymme för verksamhets- ochindividnära lönesättning. I andra avtal ges stort utrymme, som i varierande gradanvänds av företagen för att koppla samman lön och arbetsresultat. Generellt setthar tjänstemännens avtal betydligt större utrymme för verksamhets- och individnäralönesättning än de avtal som LO-förbunden träffar.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är att undersöka hur anställda i privat sektor, såväl tjänstemän som arbetare, upplever lönesättningen samt att bidra till ökad kunskap om lönens och lönesättningens betydelse för motivation och prestation i arbetet. Någon motsvarande studie av lönesättningen inom privat sektor har inte tidigare gjorts i Sverige. I rapporten beskrivs de anställdas erfarenheter av och uppfattningarom hur deras lön sätts. Här undersöks också hur lön och lönesättning hänger sammanmed motivation och prestation i arbetet. Även andra faktorer – såsom legitimitet ilönesättningen (det vill säga upplevelsen av om lönen sätts på ett sätt som upplevsrättvist), arbetsklimat och personlighet – undersöks i relation till motivation ochprestation.Rapportens resultat baseras på en enkätundersökning som genomfördesår 2016 bland ett nationellt representativt urval av anställda i åldern 20–65 år som arbetade inom fem sektorer: bygg och installation, handel och besöksnäring, industri, service och tjänster samt transport.

    Undersökningen visar att färre än hälften hade haft lönesamtal under det senaste året. Av de som hade haft lönesamtal var det ungefär en tredjedel som inte hade förstått hur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats. Ungefär 40 procent av samtliga svarande angavatt de inte kände till vilka kriterier deras lön baseras på. Av de som kände till lönekriteriernavar det cirka två tredjedelar som ansåg att lönekriterierna följdes. Resultatenvisar att det fanns en stor variation mellan sektorerna när det gäller erfarenheter avoch uppfattningar om hur lönesättningen går till.

    De flesta ansåg att det fanns skillnader i arbetsprestation mellan anställda med likvärdigaarbetsuppgifter och att skillnader i prestation borde ge skillnad i lön. Närmare60 procent trodde att individuell lönesättning kunde gynna den egna löneutvecklingen.En sådan positiv förväntan var vanligare bland personer med högre lön och bland män.Däremot var det omkring 40 procent som ansåg att löneskillnader mellan anställdamed likvärdig befattning kunde påverka verksamheten i en negativ riktning, medanomkring 40 procent ansåg att sådana skillnader var bra för verksamheten och20 procent inte hade någon åsikt i frågan.

    Anställda som upplevde att den egna lönen i stor eller ganska stor utsträckning varbaserad på deras arbetsutförande var mer nöjda med sin lön än de som inte upplevdeatt lönen var kopplad till prestation. Kvinnor hade en lägre lönetillfredsställelse änmän och rapporterade även generellt något lägre upplevd grad av jämställdhet i lönesättningenän män, oavsett sektor. Graden av legitimitet i lönesättningen (mätt med fyra dimensioner av lönerättvisa) var överlag måttlig till god, men varierade mellan sektorerna. Nivåerna i upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen var generellt sett högre bland anställda som tyckte att lönekriterierna följdes, som hade haft lönesamtal, som förstodhur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats och som fick högre grad av återkopplingpå hur de utförde sitt arbete. Chefer rapporterade en högre grad av lönerättvisa jämfört med anställda utan chefsansvar.

    Undersökningen visar att lönen som sådan tycks ha viss betydelse för arbetsmotivationoch arbetsprestation. När hänsyn togs till andra faktorer visade sig olika upplevelser avhur lönesättningen går till, såsom förtroende för chefens bedömning och upplevelser avrättvisa, vara viktigare än lönen i sig. Arbetsklimat, i termer av sådant som autonomii arbetet och tydliga mål, var det område som hade störst betydelse för både motivationoch prestation. Personlighet hade betydelse för arbetsprestationen, men var inte särskiltbetydelsefullt för arbetsmotivationen.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns behov av att arbeta med hur lönesättningen gårtill inom privat sektor om avsikten är att använda lönesättningen för att motivera ochöka de anställdas prestation i arbetet. Även om lönenivån som sådan har viss betydelseför de anställdas arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation, har upplevelser av hur lönesättningen genomförs, legitimitet i lönesättningen och arbetsklimatet större betydelse. Chefer kan beskrivas som bärare av lönesystemet och har ett ansvar för att skapatransparens avseende hur lönekriterier används och hur anställdas arbetsutförande bedöms, liksom för att forma de anställdas arbetsklimat.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar undersökningen att när lönesättningen fungerar på ett sätt som de anställda upplever som legitimt finns det förutsättningar för att lön och lönesättning kan bidra till ökad motivation och prestation – och därmed även till verksamhetens utveckling. Resultaten antyder att det är viktigt att integrera lönesättningen med andra åtgärder – såsom att främja arbetsklimatet – för att förbättraverksamheten. Lön och lönesättning utgör ett verktyg bland flera i utvecklingen avmedarbetare och företag.

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  • Women and men and their working conditions

    2017. Magnus Sverke (et al.).


    This report includes a research overview commissioned by the Swedish Work Environment Authority with the aim of detailing relationships between organizational and psychosocial factors at work, and various work-related and health-related outcomes among working women and men. A second aim involved reporting on the prevalence of the different work environment factors among women and men. To fulfil the first aim, systematic research reviews, including meta-analyses and literature reviews, were retrieved from combined searches in different international and national databases. Search terms were chosen to target the broad array of organizational and psychosocial factors, and to retrieve published journal articles and systematic reports of Swedish government agencies linking such factors to various outcomes. The time period was restricted to the past ten years.

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  • Lön, motivation och prestation

    2017. Johnny Hellgren (et al.).


    Företags- och medarbetarnära lönebildning blir allt vanligare. Den utvecklingen baseras på antaganden om att lön och löneutveckling bidrar till ökad motivation och goda arbetsprestationer, och att den gör det lättare för arbetsgivare att rekrytera och behålla attraktiva medarbetare. En tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön antas alltså  bidra till att verksamheten utvecklas. Samtidigt är lön en av flera olika faktorer som kan bidra till ökad motivation hos medarbetare och det finns andra faktorer än lön som kan ha större betydelse för motivationen. En förutsättning för att lön ska fungera som en motivationsfaktor är att lönesättningen upplevs som legitim och rättvis. Men för att nå dit behövs det kunskap om de psykologiska mekanismerna som ligger bakom upplevelser av legitimitet, liksom om hur lön och lönesättning hänger samman med motivation och prestation i arbetet.

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  • How do we react when our organization changes? Perspectives on employees' appraisal of change, consequences, and mitigating factors

    2017. Magnus Sverke (et al.). An introduction to work and organizational psychology, 233-257


    Organizational changes are becoming a common response to financial and operational needs. The changes may be systematic and gradual or dramatic and sudden in an attempt to face various business demands. Different types of organizational changes are discussed in this chapter, focusing on the impact they may have on employees. One factor affecting employees' reactions to an organizational change is how the change is perceived and appraised – whether as a threat or as an opportunity. Individuals' health, well-being, and work-related attitudes may all be impacted, potentially carrying with it negative consequences for the organization as well as the individuals. Various individual and organizational factors that can influence the strength of the consequences of organizational change are also presented. These include individual factors such as personality, coping strategies, social status, and demographic characteristics as well as organizational factors such as organizational justice, opportunities for participation, and social support.

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  • Lön, motivation och prestation

    2017. Johnny Hellgren (et al.).


    Individuell lönesättning, med en tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön, har blivit ett allt vanligare inslag i verksamheter. Ett grundläggande antagande som ligger bakom denna utveckling är att lön och löneutveckling är motiverande för individen och därmed bidrar till bra arbetsprestationer och god verksamhetsutveckling. Ett annat grundantagande är att lön och lönesystem kan dra till sig individer som är attraktiva för organisationen samt att lönesystemet ger organisationen möjligheter att premiera och därmed behålla de individer som bidrar till verksamheten.

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  • Job demands and job resources as related to job attitudes and work-related health outcomes among women and men with different occupations

    2017. Petra Lindfors, Helena Falkenberg, Magnus Sverke.


    State of the art: Several models, including the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, describe how various psychosocial factors at work relate to different outcomes. This has resulted in abundant empirical research. Such primary research findings have been summarized in reviews and meta-analyses. Overall results show that job demands link to poorer attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes while resources typically link to attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes beneficial for both employers and individual employees. However, much secondary research focuses on specific outcomes meaning that few bring together a range of outcomes.

    New perspectives/contributions: Using the JD-R model as a meta-model, this symposium presents how job demands and resources relate a number of outcomes ranging from attitudes and behaviours to health-related outcomes. Additionally, factors such as gender and occupation are addressed. Specifically, two contributions introduce meta-review findings investigating how demands and resources relate to different outcomes while also addressing gender and occupation. The third contribution is a primary study of psychosocial factors at work and health in women and men within one occupation. The fourth contribution is a primary study of another occupation and uses a different design focusing on the interplay between different levels. The symposium ends with a discussion addressing assessment, integration of findings, and the balancing of different levels.

    Research/practical implications: The contributions and the final discussion aim to inform and inspire researchers and practitioners to address thoroughly the impact of psychosocial factors for women and men working in different contexts and occupations.

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  • Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation

    2017. Helena Falkenberg (et al.).


    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

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  • Chefens kön och medarbetarens lön

    2017. Sofia Malmrud (et al.). FALF konferens 2017: Arbetslivets utmaningar i staden och på landsbygden, 21-21


    Den svenska lönebildningen har de senaste decennierna kommit att bli allt mer lokal och tillämpningen av individuella prestationsbaserade lönesystem ökar stadigt. Det grundläggande antagandet bland arbetsmarknadens parter är att löneökningar som baseras på arbetsutförande leder till ökad motivation och prestation hos de anställda. Evidensen gällande hur väl individuella och prestationsbaserade lönesystem lever upp till sitt grundantagande är tvetydig, men en förutsättning för att dessa lönesystem skall verka motiverande och prestationshöjande antas vara att lönesättningen upplevs som rättvis. Det är i de flesta fall den närmaste chefen som gör bedömningen av prestationen, vilket skulle kunna innebära att könsstereotyper får en inverkan vid prestationsbedömningen, och därmed löneökningen, för de anställda. Kunskapen är begränsad om vilken betydelse könet på den lönesättande chefen har för såväl anställdas upplevelser av lönesättningen som för löneutfallet. Kvinnor har generellt en lägre lön än män, även efter justering för individ- och arbetsrelaterade faktorer. Tidigare forskning har visat att skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns lön är större än skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns när det gäller bedömningar av deras arbetsprestation. De få studier som har undersökt anställdas upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningen indikerar att kvinnor upplever lönesättningen som mer rättvis än män. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur individuell och prestationsbaserad lönesättning upplevs av anställda på ett företag som 2014 introducerade ett nytt lönesystem. Genom att jämföra kvinnor och män, som har en kvinna respektive man som lönesättande chef, undersöks skillnader mellan dessa fyra grupper när det gäller (1) lönenivå och löneökning (i absolut och relativ nivå), (2) upplevelser av lönesättningen och erfarenheter av lönesystemet samt (3) bedömningar av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen. Resultatet indikerar att män generellt hade en högre lön och fick en högre lönehöjning i absolut nivå än kvinnor. Resultaten visar att män som var lönesättande chefer generellt gav en högre lön, både i absolut och relativ nivå, jämfört med kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer. Dessutom antyder resultatet att kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer tenderade att ge en högre lön till män. Trots detta rapporterade kvinnor generellt högre grad av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen, särskilt i upplevelser av tillgång tilll information samt hur proceduren för lönesättningen gått till, det fanns inga skillnader mellan grupperna när det gällde upplevelsen av distributiv rättvisa (fördelning av lömnemedel) eller mellanmänsklig rättvisa (hur man behandlats av lönesättande chef). Sammantaget bidrar denna studie till en ökad förståelse av hur lönesättningen upplevs av kvinnor och män utifrån om de har en kvinna eller man som lönesättande chef. Medan det är ett välkänt faktum att kvinnor tenderar att ha lägre lön än män, reser denna studie också en mängd nya frågor, exepelvis varför kvinnliga chefer tenderar att ge högre lön till medarbetare som är män snarare än kvinnor och varför kvinnor trots lägre lönenivåer och lönepåslag tycks uppleva lönesättningen som mer rättvis. Genom att diskutera möjligheter till hur könsstereotyper kan inverka i lönesättningen bidrar studien med insikter i vilken utsträckning såväl den lönesättandechefens som den anställdes kön har betydelse för anställdas löneutfall och upplevelse av lönesättningen. 

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