Robert JohanssonUniversitetslektor, docent
Jag forskar främst i fältet Artificiell Generell Intelligens (AGI). Vår forskning utgår från premissen att generell intelligens kan förstås på ett meningsfullt sätt som ett exempel på en sorts abstrakt responsmönster som kallas arbiträrt applicerbara relationsresponser (AARR). För en längre beskrivning av AARR och hur det kan relateras till AGI, se nedan för en länk till min artikel från 2019 om just detta:
Johansson, R. (2019). Arbitrarily applicable relational responding. In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (pp. 101-110). Springer, Cham. Länk till artikel.
Min forskning innefattar också klinisk psykologi, där jag forskar på en mängd olika saker. Jag har ett särskilt intresse för emotionsfokuserad psykoterapi. Min profil på Google Scholar innehåller flera representativa publikationer.
I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
A unified Internet-delivered exposure treatment for undifferentiated somatic symptom disorder: single-group prospective feasibility trial
2022. Jonna Hybelius (et al.). Pilot and Feasibility Studies 8Artikel
Background: Exposure-based psychological treatment appears to have beneficial effects for several patient groups that commonly report distress related to persistent somatic symptoms. Yet exposure-based treatment is rarely offered in routine care. This may be because existing treatment protocols have been developed for specific symptom clusters or specific unwanted responses to somatic symptoms, and many clinics do not have the resources to offer all these specialised treatments in parallel. In preparation for a randomised controlled trial, we investigated the feasibility of a new and unified Internet-delivered exposure treatment (OSF.io: cnbwj) for somatic symptom disorder regardless of somatic symptom domain (e.g. cardiopulmonary, fatigue, gastrointestinal, pain), combination of unwanted emotions (e.g. anger, anxiety, fear, shame) and whether somatic symptoms are medically explained or not. We hypothesised that a wide spectrum of subgroups would show interest, that the treatment would be rated as credible, that adherence would be adequate, that the measurement strategy would be acceptable and that there would be no serious adverse events.
Methods: Single-group prospective cohort study where 33 self-referred adults with undifferentiated DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder took part in 8 weeks of unified Internet-delivered exposure treatment delivered via a web platform hosted by a medical university. Self-report questionnaires were administered online before treatment, each week during treatment, post treatment and 3 months after treatment.
Results: Participants reported a broad spectrum of symptoms. The Credibility/Expectancy mean score was 34.5 (SD = 7.0, range: 18–47). Participants completed 91% (150/165) of all modules and 97% of the participants (32/33) completed at least two exposure exercises. The average participant rated the adequacy of the rationale as 8.4 (SD = 1.5) on a scale from 0 to 10. The post-treatment assessment was completed by 97% (32/33), and 84% (27/32) rated the measurement strategy as acceptable. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire mean score was 25.3 (SD = 4.7, range: 17–32) and no serious adverse events were reported. Reductions in subjective somatic symptom burden (the Patient Health Questionnaire 15; d = 0.90) and symptom preoccupation (the somatic symptom disorder 12; d = 1.17) were large and sustained.
Conclusions: Delivering a unified Internet-delivered exposure-based treatment protocol for individuals with undifferentiated somatic symptom disorder appears to be feasible.
Psychometric properties of the emotional processing scale in individuals with psychiatric symptoms and the development of a brief 15-item version
2022. Daniel Maroti (et al.). Scientific Reports 12 (1)Artikel
The 25-item Emotional Processing Scale (EPS) can be used with clinical populations, but there is little research on its psychometric properties (factor structure, test-retest reliability, and validity) in individuals with psychiatric symptoms. We administered the EPS-25 to a large sample of people (N = 512) with elevated psychiatric symptoms. We used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate three a priori models from previous research and then evaluated discriminant and convergent validity against measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionaire-9), and anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7). None of the a priori models achieved acceptable fit, and subsequent exploratory factor analysis did not yield a clear factor solution for the 25 items. A 5-factor model did, however, achieve acceptable fit when we retained only 15 items, and this solution was replicated in a validation sample. Convergent and discriminant validity for this revised version, the EPS-15, was r = - 0.19 to 0.46 vs. TAS-20, r = 0.07- 0.25 vs. PHQ-9, and r = 0.29- 0.57 vs. GAD-7. Test-retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.73). This study strengthens the case for the reliability and validity of the 5-factor structure of the EPS but suggest that only 15 items should be retained. Future studies should further examine the reliability and validity of the EPS-15.
Therapist-guided internet-based psychodynamic therapy versus cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescent depression in Sweden: a randomised, clinical, non-inferiority trial
2022. Jakob Mechler (et al.). The Lancet Digital Health 4 (8), e594-e603Artikel
Background: Adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and associated with lifelong adversity. Evidence-based treatments exist, but accessible treatment alternatives are needed. We aimed to compare internet-based psychodynamictherapy (IPDT) with an established evidence-based treatment (internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy [ICBT]) for the treatment of adolescents with depression.
Methods: In this randomised, clinical trial, we tested whether IPDT was non-inferior to ICBT in the treatment of adolescent MDD. Eligible participants were 15–19 years old, presenting with a primary diagnosis of MDD according to DSM-5. Participants were recruited nationwide in Sweden through advertisements on social media, as well as contacts with junior and senior high schools, youth associations, social workers, and health-care providers. Adolescents who scored 9 or higher on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology for Adolescents (QIDS-A17-SR) in an initial online screening were contacted by telephone for a diagnostic assessment using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants were randomly assigned to ICBT or IPDT. Both interventions comprised eight self-help modules delivered over 10 weeks on a secure online platform. The primary outcome was change in depression severity measured weekly by the QIDS-A17-SR. Primary analyses were based on an intention-to-treat sample including all participants randomly assigned. A non-inferiority margin of Cohen's d=0·30 was predefined. The study is registered at ISRCTN, ISRCTN12552584.
Findings: Between Aug 19, 2019, and Oct 7, 2020, 996 young people completed screening; 516 (52%) were contacted for a diagnostic interview. 272 participants were eligible and randomly assigned to ICBT (n=136) or IPDT (n=136). In the ICBT group, 51 (38%) of 136 participants were classified as remitted, and 54 (40%) of 136 participants were classified as remitted in the IPDT group. Within-group effects were large (ICBT: within-group d=1·75, 95% CI 1·49 to 2·01; IPDT: within-group d=1·93, 1·67 to 2·20; both p<0·0001). No statistically significant treatment difference was found in the intention-to-treat analysis. Non-inferiority for IPDT was shown for the estimated change in depression during treatment (d=–0·18, 90% CI –0·49 to 0·13; p=0·34). All secondary outcomes showed non-significant between-group differences.
Interpretation: IPDT was non-inferior to ICBT in terms of change in depression for the treatment of adolescents with MDD. This finding increases the range of accessible and effective treatment alternatives for adolescents with depression.
Internet-based emotional awareness and expression therapy for somatic symptom disorder: A randomized controlled trial
2022. Daniel Maroti (et al.). Journal of Psychosomatic Research 163Artikel
Objective: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is commonly encountered in health care settings. Cognitive-behavioural treatments have been most extensively studied, but they tend to have small effects of temporary duration. Emotional awareness and expression therapy (EAET) is a newly developed treatment for SSD, targeting emotional processing of trauma and conflict as a mechanism of symptom change. In an earlier uncontrolled study of self-guided, internet-administrated EAET (I-EAET), we found substantial reductions in somatic symptoms, prompting the need for a randomized controlled trial of I-EAET.
Methods: We conducted a 2-arm RCT, comparing 10-week I-EAET (n = 37) to a waitlist control (WL; n = 37). Primary outcomes were reductions of somatic symptoms (PHQ-15) and pain intensity (BPI-4) at post-treatment, with a 4-month evaluation of effect duration. We also analysed emotional processing (EPS-25) and depression (PHQ-9) as possible mediators of I-EAET's effects.
Results: Compared to controls, I-EAET significantly reduced somatic symptoms at both post-treatment and follow-up. I-EAET also reduced pain, depression, insomnia, and anxiety at post-treatment, but these effects were not retained at follow-up. As hypothesized, a facet of emotional processing partially mediated the treatment effect on somatic symptoms, even when controlling for depression.
Conclusions: Although treatment effects were smaller than in the previous uncontrolled trial, I-EAET is a promising treatment for SSD, with a minority of patients (around 20%) experiencing substantial clinical improvement. The benefits of I-EAET are partially mediated by improved emotional processing. Future research should identify and target patients who respond best to I-EAET and develop tailored treatment to enhance treatment effects.
Is Cognitive Change Necessary to Alleviate Symptoms in Patients With Functional Somatic Syndrome?
2021. Daniel Maroti, Robert Johansson. Frontiers in Psychiatry 12Artikel
Dismantling, optimising, and personalising internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression
2021. Toshi A. Furukawa (et al.). Lancet psychiatry 8 (6), 500-511Artikel
Background: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom.
Methods: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from database inception to Jan 1, 2019, that compared any form of iCBT against another or a control condition in the acute treatment of adults (aged ≥18 years) with depression. Studies with inpatients or patients with bipolar depressionwere excluded. We sought individual participant data from the original authors. When these data were unavailable, we used aggregate data. Two independent researchers identified the included components. The primary outcome was depression severity, expressed as incremental mean difference (iMD) in the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores when a component is added to a treatment. We developed a web app that estimates relative efficacies between any two combinations of components, given baseline patient characteristics. This study is registered in PROSPERO, CRD42018104683.
Findings: We identified 76 RCTs, including 48 trials contributing individual participant data (11 704 participants) and 28 trials with aggregate data (6474 participants). The participants' weighted mean age was 42·0 years and 12 406 (71%) of 17 521 reported were women. There was suggestive evidence that behavioural activation might be beneficial (iMD −1·83 [95% credible interval (CrI) −2·90 to −0·80]) and that relaxation might be harmful (1·20 [95% CrI 0·17 to 2·27]). Baseline severity emerged as the strongest prognostic factor for endpoint depression. Combining human and automated encouragement reduced dropouts from treatment (incremental odds ratio, 0·32 [95% CrI 0·13 to 0·93]). The risk of bias was low for the randomisation process, missing outcome data, or selection of reported results in most of the included studies, uncertain for deviation from intended interventions, and high for measurement of outcomes. There was moderate to high heterogeneity among the studies and their components.
Interpretation: The individual patient data cNMA revealed potentially helpful, less helpful, or harmful components and delivery formats for iCBT packages. iCBT packages aiming to be effective and efficient might choose to include beneficial components and exclude ones that are potentially detrimental. Our web app can facilitate shared decision making by therapist and patient in choosing their preferred iCBT package.
Emotional Processing and Its Association to Somatic Symptom Change in Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy for Somatic Symptom Disorder
2021. Daniel Maroti (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 12Artikel
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate emotional processing as a potential mediator in therapist-guided, internet-based Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy (I-EAET) for somatic symptom disorder, using data from a previously published pilot study.
Methods: Participants (N = 52) engaged in a 9-week I-EAET treatment. Before treatment and each week during treatment (i.e., 10 weekly measurements), emotional processing was assessed with the Emotional Processing Scale-25 (EPS-25), which contains five subscales, and somatic symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15).
Results: Mediation analyses using linear mixed models showed that two EPS-25 subscales—Signs of Unprocessed Emotions and Impoverished Emotional Experience—were uniquely associated with somatic symptom reduction. The proportion of the mediated effect was 0.49, indicating that about half of the total association of the PHQ-15 with symptoms was accounted for by the two EPS-25 subscales.
Conclusion: This preliminary mediation analysis suggests that improved emotional processing is associated with change in somatic symptoms in I-EAET. However, randomized controlled and comparison trials are needed to establish that I-EAET creates the change in emotional processing and that such changes are specific to I-EAET.
Healthcare cost reduction and psychiatric symptom improvement in posttraumatic stress disorder patients treated with intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy
2021. Hannah Roggenkamp (et al.). European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 5 (3)Artikel
Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant psychiatric morbidity and high healthcare costs. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate changes in healthcare costs and general psychiatric symptom severity in patients with PTSD following intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP).
Method: Healthcare services cost and utilization data were compiled at intake, prior to starting ISTDP and then assessed annually for three years thereafter. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination.
Results: Results showed significant reductions in physician costs and physician visits at one-year post-treatment, with these persisting over the three-year follow-up period. There were also large but statistically non-significant reductions in hospital costs. At termination, self-reported psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems were reduced.
Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest that ISTDP may lead to healthcare cost reductions and general psychiatric symptom improvement in patients with PTSD, with healthcare utilization benefits maintained at long-term follow up. Future research directions were discussed.
Individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for survivors of intimate partner violence
2021. Gerhard Andersson (et al.). Internet Interventions 26Artikel
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health concern worldwide and defined as behavior performed by spouses or other intimate partners that causes physical, sexual, or psychological harm. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may be particularly useful for survivors of IPV for several reasons, including barriers pertaining to limited community recourses and treatment availability, safety concerns, and issues of stigma, guilt and shame, which may prevent members of this population from seeking help via face-to-face interactions. However, Internet interventions are lacking. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled pilot trial was to explore the feasibility of ICBT as guided self-help individually tailored to the predominant symptomatology of PTSD or depression in survivors of IPV. A second aim was to conduct a preliminary evaluation exploring the short- and long-term effects of the treatment in comparison to a waitlist control condition. Results showed that the treatment was feasible. Attrition rate was low (9.4%), and participants were satisfied with treatment. However, treatment adherence was moderate in terms of completed modules (62.5%). Results of the preliminary evaluation of treatment effects showed large and statistically significant between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.86–1.08) on some measures of PTSD and depression at post assessment, favoring the treatment condition. However, there were no effects on other measures. At follow-up assessment, when the control condition had received delayed treatment, there were large and statistically significant within-group effect sizes (d = 0.96–1.48) on measures of PTSD, depression and anxiety, and small effects (d = 0.48) on a measure of quality of life. The results of the present pilot study are promising and warrant further research on ICBT for this population.
Internet-Administered Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy for Somatic Symptom Disorder With Centralized Symptoms
2021. Daniel Maroti (et al.). Frontiers in Psychiatry 12Artikel
Background: There is growing evidence that trauma, psychosocial conflict, and difficulties with emotional processing contribute to centralized somatic symptoms. Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy (EAET) was developed to address these factors and reduce symptoms, and EAET has shown efficacy in face-to-face formats. No trial of an internet-delivered EAET (I-EAET) exists, however, so we developed such an intervention and conducted an uncontrolled feasibility and potential efficacy trial of I-EAET for patients with Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) with centralized symptoms (SSD-CS).
Method: After screening potential participants, a sample of 52 patients (50 women, two men; age M = 49.6, SD = 11.9) diagnosed with SSD-CS initiated treatment. I-EAET consisted of nine weekly modules focused on psychoeducation, emotional awareness and exposure, and anxiety regulation with self-compassion. Therapists communicated with each patient by email for about 20 min per week during treatment, answering questions and giving feedback on homework assignments. Patients completed measures of somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, trauma-related symptoms, and functional disability before treatment and again at post-treatment and 4-month follow-up.
Results: A large reduction in somatic symptoms (PHQ-15) occurred pre-to post-treatment (d = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.84-1.47) which was fully maintained at 4-month follow-up (d = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.88-1.56). Twenty-three percent of the patients at post-treatment and 27% at follow-up achieved a 50% or greater reduction in somatic symptoms, and about 70% achieved a minimally important clinical difference. In addition, at post-treatment, there were small to medium reductions (d's from 0.33 to 0.72) in anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), trauma-related symptoms (PCL-5), and functional disability (Sheehan Disability Scale). For all of these secondary outcomes, improvements were slightly to substantially larger at follow-up than at post-treatment (d's from 0.46 to 0.80).
Conclusion: I-EAET appears to be a feasible treatment for adults with SSD and centralized symptoms, resulting in substantial and durable improvement not only in somatic symptoms but in other psychiatric symptoms and functioning. Controlled trials are needed determine the effects of I-EAET specifically and how this approach compares to face-to-face EAET and to other internet-delivered treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral interventions. Research should also identify treatment responders and mechanisms of change in EAET.
Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression
2021. Eirini Karyotaki (et al.). JAMA psychiatry 78 (4), 361-371Artikel
Importance: Personalized treatment choices would increase the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for depression to the extent that patients differ in interventions that better suit them.
Objective: To provide personalized estimates of short-term and long-term relative efficacy of guided and unguided iCBT for depression using patient-level information.
Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up to January 1, 2019.
Study Selection: Eligible RCTs were those comparing guided or unguided iCBT against each other or against any control intervention in individuals with depression. Available individual patient data (IPD) was collected from all eligible studies. Depression symptom severity was assessed after treatment, 6 months, and 12 months after randomization.
Data Extraction and Synthesis: We conducted a systematic review and IPD network meta-analysis and estimated relative treatment effect sizes across different patient characteristics through IPD network meta-regression.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9) scores.
Results: Of 42 eligible RCTs, 39 studies comprising 9751 participants with depression contributed IPD to the IPD network meta-analysis, of which 8107 IPD were synthesized. Overall, both guided and unguided iCBT were associated with more effectiveness as measured by PHQ-9 scores than control treatments over the short term and the long term. Guided iCBT was associated with more effectiveness than unguided iCBT (mean difference [MD] in posttreatment PHQ-9 scores, −0.8; 95% CI, −1.4 to −0.2), but we found no evidence of a difference at 6 or 12 months following randomization. Baseline depression was found to be the most important modifier of the relative association for efficacy of guided vs unguided iCBT. Differences between unguided and guided iCBT in people with baseline symptoms of subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 scores 5-9) were small, while guided iCBT was associated with overall better outcomes in patients with baseline PHQ-9 greater than 9.
Conclusions and Relevance: In this network meta-analysis with IPD, guided iCBT was associated with more effectiveness than unguided iCBT for individuals with depression, benefits were more substantial in individuals with moderate to severe depression. Unguided iCBT was associated with similar effectiveness among individuals with symptoms of mild/subthreshold depression. Personalized treatment selection is entirely possible and necessary to ensure the best allocation of treatment resources for depression.
Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder
2021. Andrea N. Niles (et al.). Behaviour Research and Therapy 136Artikel
Though therapist-guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) appears to be efficacious for depression, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, relatively little is known about real-world settings and predictors of treatment effects derived from cognitive-behavioral theory. We examined treatment effectiveness and predictors of improvement in a prospective cohort study where patients took part in 10 weeks of ICBT for depression (n = 114), social anxiety disorder (n = 150), or panic disorder (n = 106) at a teaching clinic. Patients self-reported symptoms before, during, and after treatment. Effect sizes were large for improvement in the primary symptom domain of each treatment group: depression (d = 1.48), social anxiety disorder (d = 1.01), and panic disorder (d = 1.15). In ICBT for depression, having no previous experience of psychological treatment (r = 0.21), and more frequent baseline negative automatic thoughts (r = 0.20) predicted larger improvement. In ICBT for panic disorder, having more baseline safety behaviors (r = 0.25) predicted larger improvement. Predictors remained significant when baseline symptoms were included in the statistical models. We conclude that ICBT can be effective in a real-world teaching clinic, and that patients with greater deficits at baseline benefit the most.
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