Professor in Geography, Human Geography
Research interests in key words
Urban and social geography, neighbourhood effects, residential and school segregation, social justice, socio-economic career, rural gentrification, residential mobility, elderly, life course trajectories, Equipop
My publications in Google scholar https://scholar.google.se/citations?user=qTac5NgAAAAJ&hl=sv
The main themes for my research are residential segregation, mobility, life course trajectories and spatial contextual effects on socio-economic careers. My recent projects include; Spatial integration and segregation: Disadvantaged groups in Sweden in the 2000s (FORTE), Trajectories of vulnerability: A spatial perspective (VR), The neighbourhood revisited/Lyckliga gatan? Geografisk polarisering och social sammanhållning i dagens Sverige (RJ), Migrant Trajectories: Geographical Mobility, Family Careers, Employment, Education, and Social Insurance in Sweden, 1990-2016 (FORTE).
Yet other finished research projects are; RELOCAL - Resituating the Local in Cohesion and Territorial Development (Horizon 2020), Education attitudes and educational results in a changing educational landscape’ funded by VR, ’ResSegr – Residential segregation in five European countries’ (Formas, JIP), ‘Contrasts in urban residential segregation: An international comparative study of patterns, driving forces and effects’ financed by VR, ‘Residential Mobility Patterns of Older People, Their Housing Preferences, and Housing Choices’ financed by VR. Project descriptions below.
I am also a member of; the European Network for Housing Research, (ENHR) co-coordinating a working group on Disadvantaged Urban Neighbourhoods and Communities.
Urban and Social Geography at the Human Geography Department
Publications and Current research
My work is primarily concerned with issues regarding residential segregation from a human geographers’ perspective and motivated by an interest in social inequality. Starting from the important work of assessing residential segregation, I have mainly been concerned with consequences of segregation. This involves research on so called neighbourhood effects from living in an area, that is, the influence from a spatial surrounding on education, work and income as well as other outcomes. With the understanding of residential segregation as a variation in geographical context, I have conducted studies of housing markets, tenure type landscapes, and residential mobility that are structuring residential segregation. My latest projects include segregation of life course trajectories and the geography of latent vulnerability and distress in Sweden.
Malmberg, Bo, Andersson, Eva K., & Wimark, Thomas (2023) Life course trajectories and spatial segregation in older age. Population Space and Place.2023. 10.1002/psp.2739
Kawalerowicz, Juta, Cederström, Agneta, Andersson, Eva & Malmberg, Bo (2023) COVID-19 in The Neighbourhood: The Socio-Spatial Selectivity of Severe COVID-19 Cases in Sweden, March 2020-June 2021. GeoJournal. 10.1007/s10708-023-10939-x
Andersson, E.K., Borg, I. (2023) Trajectories of Latent Vulnerability and Distress: Identifying Social and Spatial Fringes of the Swedish Population. Soc Indic Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-023-03173-y
Andersson, Eva K., Janssen, Heleen, van Ham, Maarten & Malmberg, Bo (2023) Contextual poverty and obtained educational level and income in Sweden and the Netherlands: A multi-scale and longitudinal study. Urban Studies. 60(5):885-903 doi: 10.1177/00420980221120492
Malmberg, Bo & Andersson Eva K. (2023) Exploring life-course trajectories in local spatial contexts across Sweden. Annals of the American Association of Geographers. 113(2): 448-468, doi: 10.1080/24694452.2022.2105684
Borg, Ida, Kawalerowicz, Juta & Andersson, Eva (2022) Socio-spatial stratification of housing tenure trajectories in Sweden – a longitudinal cohort study. Advances in Life Course Research. 52(2022):100467 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2022.100467
Andersson, Eva K., Malmberg, Bo, & Abramsson, Marianne (2021) School Choice and Educational Attitudes: Spatially Uneven Neo-liberalization in Sweden. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography. 75(3):142–157 doi:10.1080/00291951.2021.1920624
Andersson, Eva K., Bo Malmberg & William AV Clark (2021) Neighbourhood Context and Young Adult Mobility: A Life Course Approach, Population, Space and Place 27(3):e2405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp.2405
Andersson, Eva K., Thomas Wimark & Bo Malmberg (2020) Tenure type mixing and segregation. Housing Studies, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2020.1803803
Malmberg, Bo, and Andersson, Eva K. (2020). How well do schools mix students from different neighbourhoods? School segregation and residential segregation in Swedish municipalities. Geographical Analysis. 0:1-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/gean.12233
Thomas Wimark, Eva Andersson, Bo Malmberg (2020) Tenure type landscapes and housing market change: A geographical perspective on neo-liberalization in Sweden. Housing Studies 35(2): 214-237. doi:10.1080/02673037.2019.1595535
Pontus Hennerdal, Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson (2020) Competition and School Performance: Swedish School Leavers from 1991–2012 Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 64(1): 70-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1490814
Andersson, Eva, Hennerdal, Pontus, and Malmberg, Bo (2019). The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms. A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–2012. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science. p. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1177/2399808319886594
Adrian Rogne, Torkild Hovde Lyngstad, Bo Malmberg, Eva Andersson (2019) Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European migrants New results from Norway. European Journal of Population. First Online. https://doi-org.ezp.sub.su.se/10.1007/s10680-019-09522-3
Bo Malmberg, Eva Andersson (2019) Adolescent Neighborhood context and transition to parenthood: A longitudinal study. Population Space and Place, 25(5): 1-20. https://doi-org.ezp.sub.su.se/10.1002/psp.2228.
Andersson, Eva K., Abramsson, Marianne and Bo Malmberg. (2018) Patterns of changing residential preferences during late-adulthood. Ageing & Society 39(8): 1752-1781. doi.10.1017/S0144686X18000259
Andersson, Eva K., Torkild Hovde Lyngstad and Bart Sleutjes (2018) Editorial Introduction: Comparing patterns of segregation in north-western Europe: A multiscalar approach. European Journal of Population. 34(2): 151–168 http://rdcu.be/Jz3U
Andersson, Eva K., Bo Malmberg, Rafael Costa, Bart Sleutjes, Marcin Jan Stonawski and Helga de Valk (2018) A comparative study of segregation patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European migrants. European Journal of Population. 34(2): 251–275 http://rdcu.be/Jz2i.
Malmberg, Bo, Michael M. Nielsen, Eva, K. Andersson and Karen Haandrikman (2018) Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden 1990-2012. European Journal of Population. 34(2): 169–193 http://rdcu.be/Jz3R
Andersson, Eva K., and Malmberg, Bo (2018). Segregation and the effects of adolescent residential context on poverty risks and early income career: A study of the Swedish 1980 cohort. Urban Studies, 55(2), 365-383. doi:10.1177/0042098016643915 http://urbanstudiesjnl.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/segregation-influences-life-chances-of.html
William A.V. Clark, Eva K. Andersson and Bo Malmberg (2018) What can we learn about changing ethnic diversity from the distributions of mixed race individuals? Urban Geography. vol. 39, no.2, p. 263-281. http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/m6ru5fKBiTVxaMRvqtdK/full
William A.V. Clark, Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg (2017) Ethno-racial neighborhood types in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Metropolitan Areas. Additional maps. diva-portal.org.
Abramsson, Marianne and Andersson, Eva K. (2016) Changing preferences with ageing - housing choices and housing plans of older people. Housing Theory and Society. 2016, vol. 33, no. 2, pages 217-241. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14036096.2015.1104385.
William Clark, Eva Andersson, Bo Malmberg, John Östh (2015) A multi-scalar analysis of neighborhood composition in Los Angeles 2000-2010: a location based approach to segregation and diversity. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1260-1284.
Malmberg, Bo, Andersson Eva K. (2015) Multi-scalar residential context and recovery from illness: an analysis using Swedish register data. Accepted for publication in Health & Place 2015. Vol. 35, September 2015, pp. 19–27. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.05.013
Andersson, Eva K. and Malmberg, Bo, (2015) Contextual effects on educational attainment in individualized, scalable neighborhoods; differences across gender and social class. Urban Studies, vol. 52 no. 12, pp. 2117-2133. doi: 10.1177/0042098014542487.
Abramsson, Marianne and Andersson, Eva K. (2014) Changing locations: Central or peripheral moves of seniors? Journal of Housing and the Built Environment. Published online before print http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10901-014-9427-0.
Malmberg, Bo, Andersson, Eva K., and Bergsten, Zara (2014) Composite geographical context and school choice attitudes in Sweden: A study based on individually defined, scalable neighborhoods. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 104 no. 4, pp. 869-888. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2014.912546
Andersson, Eva K. (2014) Rural Housing Market Hotspots and Footloose In-migrants. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment vol 30, no. 1, pp. 17-37. http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10901-013-9377-y
Östh, John, Malmberg, Bo, and Andersson, Eva (2014 august) Analysing segregation with individualized neighbourhoods defined by population size, in C. D. LLOYD, I. SHUTTLEWORTH and D. WONG (Ed.) Social-Spatial Segregation: Concepts, Processes and Outcomes, Ch. 7, pp. 135-161. Policy Press. (ISBN: 9781447301356)
Malmberg, Bo, Andersson, Eva and Östh, John. (2013) Segregation and urban unrest in Sweden. Urban Geography, vol. 34, no.7, pp 1031-1046. Doi: 10.1080/02723638.2013.799370.
Östh, John, Andersson, Eva, & Malmberg, Bo (2013). School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach. Urban Studies vol. 50, no 2 February 2013 pp. 407 – 425. http://usj.sagepub.com/content/50/2/407.abstract
Andersson, Eva and Abramsson, Marianne (2012) Changing residential mobility rates of older people in Sweden. Ageing & Society, vol. 32, no 6. August 2012, pp 963-982. http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A864nvar
Andersson, Eva, Malmberg, Bo. & Östh, John (2012) Travel-to-School Distances in Sweden 2000-2006 - Changing School Geography with Equality Implications. Journal of Transport Geography. Vol. 23, Special Issue on Time Geography, July 2012, pp. 35–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.022, OpenAccess http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79190
Abramsson, Marianne, Andersson Eva. (2012) Residential mobility patterns of elderly - leaving the house for an apartment. Housing Studies, vol. 27, no. 5. July 2012, pp. 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2012.697553
Malmberg, Bo, Andersson, Eva & Östh, John (2011) How does segregation vary between different urban areas? Using a k-nearest neighbour approach to segregation measurement. Work shop 16, ENHR conference in Toulouse, July 5-7, 2011. http://www.enhr2011.com/sites/default/files/Paper-BoMalmberg-WS16.pdf
Andersson, Eva, John Östh & Bo Malmberg (2010) "Ethnic segregation and performance inequality in the Swedish school system: A regional perspective". Environment and Planning A, Vol. 42, No 11, pp. 2674-2686.
Malmberg, Bo, Eva Andersson & S. V. Subramanian (2010) "Links between ill health and regional economic performance. Evidence from Swedish longitudinal data". Environment and Planning A, Vol. 42, No 5, pp. 1210-1220. doi:10.1068/a42331.
Andersson, Eva and Urban Fransson (2008) "Från Babylon och Chicago till Fittja", pp. 85-118 in Lena Magnusson Turner (red.), Den delade staden. Segregation och etnicitet i stadsbygden. Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag.
Andersson, Eva (2008) Risk and security in home owning and renting. An interview study in Sweden. Research report 2008:1. Gävle: Institute for housing and urban research Uppsala University. http://www.ibf.uu.se/artiklar/2008/ea-1-08.pdf
Andersson, Eva (2007) "Sweden: To Own or to Rent?", pp. 225-257 in Marja Elsinga, Pascal De Decker, Nóra Teller and Janneke Toussaint (eds), Home ownership beyond asset and security. Perceptions of housing related security and insecurity in eight European countries. Housing and urban policy studies 32. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Andersson, Eva (2007) "Ohälsans landskap och regional utveckling" (The landscape of unhealth and regional development), s. 16-23 i Malmberg, Bo, Eva Andersson, Mats Johansson och Kent Hermansson, Hälsans betydelse för individens och samhällets ekonomiska utvecking (The importance of health for the economic development of individuals and of the society). Statens Folkhälsoinstitutet, Rapport nr 2007:8. Elanders Östrvåla.
Andersson, Eva, Päivi Naumanen, Hannu Ruonavaara and Bengt Turner (2007) "Housing, Socio-economic Security and Risks. A qualitative comparison of household attitudes in Finland and Sweden", European Journal of Housing Policy 7: 151-172. Author Posting. (c) Taylor & Francis, 2007. European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 151-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616710701308547
Andersson, Eva and S. V. Subramanian (2006) "Explorations of neighborhood and educational outcomes for young Swedes" (En undersökning av bostadsområde och utbildningsresultat för unga svenskar), Urban Studies Journal, Vol. 43, No 11, pp. 2013-2025.
Andersson, Eva (2004) "From Valley of Sadness to Hill of Happiness – The Significance of Surroundings for Socio-economic Career" (Från Sorgedalen till Glädjehöjden? Omgivningens betydelse för socioekonomisk karrär), Urban Studies Journal, Vol. 41, No 3, s. 641-659.
Andersson, Eva (2004) "Befolkningsprognoser om äldre i Sverige med utblick mot övriga Europa". In Äldrelandskapet. Äldres boende och flyttningar. (Ed) Fransson, Urban, Research report 2004:1. Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle.
Andersson, Eva (2004) "Sveriges äldrelandskap". In Äldrelandskapet. Äldres boende och flyttningar. (Ed) Fransson, Urban, Research report 2004:1. Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle.
Magnusson, Lena, Eva Andersson and Cecilia Enström (2003) The Importance of Housing Systems In Safegarding Social Cohesion in Europe (SOCOHO), National Report Sweden. Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle.
Andersson, Eva (2001) Från Sorgedalen till Glädjehöjden - omgivningens betydelse för socioekonomisk karriär (From Valley of Sadness to Hill of Happiness – The Significance of Surroundings for Socio-economic Career), Geografiska regionstudier No. 44. Dissertation. Uppsala University, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
Borgegård, Lars-Erik, Eva Andersson, and Susanne Hjort (1998) "The Divided City? Socio-Economic Changes in Stockholm Metropolitan Area 1970-94". In Urban Segregation and the Welfare State - Inequality and Social Exclusion in Western Cities. Eds. Musterd, Sako, Wim Ostendorf. Routledge.
Andersson, Eva, Lars-Erik Borgegård and Susanne Hjort (1998) Boendesegregationen i de nordiska huvudstadsregionerna. (Residential Segregation in the Nordic Capital Regions) GERUM, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University, 1998:2, Umeå.
Andersson, Eva K. John Östh, Estelle Conraux & Bo Malmberg (2012) Social segregation in Greater Stockholm 1995-2008. Poster presented at the EPC, European Population Conference, Stockholm. http://www.demografi.se/jamnews/documents/Poster_Malmberg_EPC_2012_EA.pdf
Malmberg, Bo; Andersson, Eva K. (2021): Exploring life-course trajectories in local spatial contexts across Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography. Preprint. https://doi.org/10.17045/sthlmuni.14036219.v2
Andersson, E., Hennerdal, P., & Malmberg, B. (2018). The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms. A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–2012. Retrieved from Stockholm: SRRD 2018:27
Andersson, Eva (2018) Utbildningsattityder, föräldrars preferenser och skolresultat i ett förändrat utbildningslandskap. In Resultatdialog 2018, Vetenskapsrådet 2018. p. 16-19. https://www.vr.se/download/18.ad27632166e0b1efab112b/1542969255780/Resultatdialog_VR_2018.pdf
Andersson, E., Hennerdal, P., & Malmberg, B. (2018). The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms. A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–2012. Retrieved from Stockholm: SRRD 2018:27
Bo Malmberg, Michael M. Nielsen, Eva Andersson and Karen Haandrikman (2016) Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990-2012. ResSegr Working Paper 2016:1 http://media.wix.com/ugd/870ecc_4552d531132c46169989961b35d9c320.pdf
Thomas Wimark, Eva Andersson (2015) Kombohusprojektens påverkan på de lokala bostadsmarknaderna. Viktiga för äldres framtida boende. Report to SABO, the Swedish Association of Public Housing Companies, January, 23rd, 2015. https://stockholmuniversity.app.box.com/s/c2q2wdq6094iz3s8v9pmxsyf4fysm1gx
William Clark, Eva Anderson, Bo Malmberg and John Östh (2014) Segregation and De-segregation in Metropolitan Contexts: Los Angeles as a Paradigm for a Changing Ethnic World. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, SRRD 2014:16 http://www.suda.su.se/SRRD/SRRD_2014_16.pdf
Eva Andersson and Bo Malmberg (2013) Contextual Effects on Educational Attainment in Individualized Neighborhoods: Differences across Gender and Social Class Stockholm University Linnaeus Center on Social Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe (SPaDE) WP 2013:10 http://www.su.se/polopoly_fs/1.156100.1384877033%21/menu/standard/file/WP_2013_10.pdf
Bo Malmberg, Eva Andersson and Zara Bergsten (2013) School Choice Motives: The Effects of Class and Residential Context. Stockholm University Linnaeus Center on Social Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe (SPaDE) WP 2013:11
Östh, John., Andersson, Eva, & Malmberg, Bo (2010) School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach. Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography 2010:11. Stockholm University.
Andersson, Eva och Lena Magnusson (2006) Vilken attraktivitet har olika bostadsområden och boendeformer i Gävle? Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF), Uppsala universitet. Rapport till Gävle kommun 2006.
Malmberg, Bo and Eva Andersson (2006) Health as a factor in regional economic development. Arbetsrapport. Institutet för Framtidsstudier, 2006:4. Stockholm, Institutet för framtidsstudier. http://www.framtidsstudier.se/filebank/files/20060428$104817$fil$7vf0kHdEx63nlUDTD3MG.pdf
Andersson, Eva and Bengt Turner (2005) Institutional Studies. In the EU-project Origins of Security and Insecurity: The Interplay of Housing Systems with Jobs, Household Structures, Finance and Social Security, (OSIS). Uppsala University. Gävle.
Magnusson, Lena and Eva Andersson (2005) Konsekvenser av ekonomiska och sociala förändringar i Europa. Svensk sammanfattning av det EU-finansierade forskningsprojektet SOCOHO. Working paper no. 47. Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Gävle.
Andersson, Eva and Lena Magnusson (2003) The Importance on Housing Systems in Safeguarding Social Cohesion in Europe, Sweden, Part C. (Acronym SOCOHO). Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle.
Andersson, Eva and Lena Magnusson (2002) The Importance on Housing Systems in Safeguarding Social Cohesion in Europe, Sweden, Part B. (Acronym SOCOHO). Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle.
Andersson, Eva (2001) Från Sorgedalen till Glädjehöjden - omgivningens betydelse för socioekonomisk karriär (From Valley of Sadness to Hill of Happiness – The Significance of Surroundings for Socio-economic Career.) Geografiska regionstudier no. 44. Dissertation. Uppsala University, Department of Social and Economic Geography. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:160923/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Borgegård, Lars-Erik, Marianne Abramsson, Eva Andersson and Robert Murdie (2000) Invandring, bostäder och planering i Kanada. Rapport från en studieresa med SABOs framtidsstudiegrupp. Arbetsrapport/Working Paper No. 35, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning, Uppsala universitet, Gävle.
Borgegård, Lars-Erik and Eva Andersson (1998) Boendesegregation i nordiska huvudstadsregioner. - Globala influenser med nationella utfall?, GERUM arbetsrapport, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. 1998-06-15.
Spatial integration and segregation: Disadvantaged groups in Sweden in the 2000s, financed by FORTE 2021-2023
It can be argued that a society is never better than how individuals at its spatial outskirts are treated: a society benefits socially and economically on equality and loses on inequality. The purpose of the project is to study, from a life course trajectory perspective, how vulnerable groups are affected by spatial segregation. What role does spatial segregation and integration play in the risk of being linked into vulnerability trajectories or the opportunities to leave vulnerability? What factors influence the spatial integration and separation of vulnerable groups?
In the area of welfare policy, integration has been a guiding principle, as has the ideas of equal upbringing and welfare. Recently, however, the development of income in Sweden has shown increasing gaps. An important part of the integration has always been the spatial integration, both to create equal living conditions and to promote the social cohesion needed for socially sustainable societies. Thus, integration is a basic idea of welfare policy.
In recent years, the idea of integration has met various challenges: new population groups, a liberalization of housing policy (sales, financialization), and disadvantaged housing areas. In parallel with these changes, interest in understanding how spatial segregation affects people's vulnerability has increased.
In the project, we will map the spatial dimensions of vulnerability using partially new methods. To identify life trajectories associated with vulnerability in registry data, we will use latent class analysis. This means that we find classes with life courses that are similar to each other and that can give a better picture of spatial segregation than before. The spatial sorting of vulnerable individuals will then be analyzed using individualized neighborhoods, a method where one can examine tailored neighborhoods for each individual, which can be varied in scale according to what one analyzes and which may be composed of multiple variables.
Trajectories of vulnerability: A spatial perspective. (Utsatthet i longitudinella data: Ett geografiskt perspektiv.) Project time 2021-2023. The Swedish Research Council, Vetenskapsrådet. PI Eva Andersson. VR, Dr.nr 2020-01046.
In the Swedish debate, spatial differences in living conditions have increasingly been identified as one of society's major challenges (Delegationen mot Segregation, Delmi). While large population groups enjoy better material living conditions than perhaps ever before, other groups are living in both economic, social, and housing insecurity.
Perhaps most evident in metropolitan areas, affluent and vulnerable groups are found in different places. With a special focus on vulnerable groups, and based on a life-course trajectory approach, the purpose of this project is to clarify the mechanism behind this spatial sorting and to explore the social consequences of increasing geographical polarization. Thus, in this project we want to analyse how different vulnerable groups have fared in the Swedish society and in the housing market. One expected outcome is that the project will show how current policies may be revised in order to promote better outcomes for vulnerable groups. Such policies can focus specifically on neighbourhoods with a concentration of vulnerable groups, but can also include broader measures to counteract the consequences of increased inequality.
Lyckliga gatan? Geografisk polarisering och social sammanhållning i dagens Sverige (RJ)
This program explores the extent to which spatial polarization produces a society that is increasingly polarized in attitudes, valuations, life styles and behaviou and, thus, less socially cohesive. Our focus will be on neighbourhoods as locales for social interaction, socialization, identity formation, and for building social capital. If neighbourhoods, through a process of spatial sorting, come to consist of communities with very different social composition there is a risk that societywide common values and solidarity between groups cannot be established. Spatial polarization can produce neighbourhoods with concentrations of socially marginalized individuals that provide poor contexts for social integration. The research program uses a novel approach to social classification based on lifecourse patterns in education, income, employment, and family formation.
Three broad questions will be addressed: To what extent do individuals that follow similar life course trajectories tend to cluster into similar neighbourhoods? To what extent are individuals’ attitudes formed in and influenced by their neighbourhood residential context? To what extent are the adult life courses of children and adolescents influenced by their exposure to different types of neighbourhoods during childhood? Further, the program considers how neighbourhoods change their composition over time and how such dynamics influence people’s attitudes and well-being.
Migrant Trajectories: Geographical Mobility, Family Careers, Employment, Education, and Social Insurance in Sweden, 1990-2016 (Migranters livsförlopp: flyttningar, familj, arbete, utbildning och socialförsäkring i Sverige 1990-2016.) PI: Bo Malmberg 2017-(2022) FORTE.
2016- 2020 Horizon 2020. Resituating the local in cohesion and territorial development, RELOCAL. H2020-SC6-REV-INEQUAL-2016-2017. http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/205651_en.html
Education attitudes and educational results in a changing educational landscape
The Swedish Research Council (VR)
The project "Education attitudes and educational results in a changing educational landscape" has three trends as basis for analyses. First, the increasing differences in educational background between regions, second the increasing residential segregation by ethnic origin in Swedish metropolitan regions, and third, the increasing school segregation by ethnic origin in Swedish metropolitan regions and increasing performance differences between schools. The purpose of this project is, thus, to analyze the associations between these trends and other changes in the Swedish school system. In the current debates and formation of school policies, there is a need for research-based proposals on how current approaches to school choice, voucher finance, and the establishment of charter schools could be redesigned in ways that improve school performance and educational equity. The project will answer questions such as; long-term effects on educational attainment in different social and ethnic groups, polarization of student attitudes, spatial sorting of students, school locational decisions, as well as parental preferences for social and ethnic homogeneity in schools. Questions will be addressed by estimating and evaluating an appropriately designed statistical model using data from a survey and SCB register data. The project adopts a geographical perspective within the theory that the social environment in the form of neighbors and this case schoolchildren (peer effects), affect children and young people's choices and attitudes for future educational achievements.
Together with; Pontus Hennerdal and Bo Malmberg
Time period: 2015-2017
ResSegr – Residential segregation in five European countries
JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe) 2014–2016.
Karen Haandrikman will act as PI (principal investigator) and direct researchers at the Department of Human Geography in Stockholm, Human Geography and Sociology at the University of Oslo, Statistics Denmark, NIDI (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute), and Interface Demography at Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
The project involves advanced spatial methods and register-based geographic and demographic research. It builds on Swedish research experience that is now extended to other countries with similarly good infrastructures in terms of register data.
The Swedish funding comes from the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, Formas.
Summary of the project
This project employs an innovative technology for urban analysis that addresses a main concern of contemporary urban policy: urban residential segregation and its effects on social inclusion. International comparisons of residential segregation and the effectiveness of various strategies are lacking, because segregation is spatially complex and because geographical units of analysis are different in size and distribution. Our innovative approach uses the increased availability of geocoded individual data to construct individualized scalable neighbourhoods to measure segregation. For comparative research, the advantage of using egocentric neighbourhoods with a predetermined number of neighbours is that it allows direct comparison across national and urban contexts. In ResSegr we will compute measures of socio-demographic segregation based on such neighbourhoods for urban areas in Europe. Based on these measurements, we will compare patterns of segregation, evaluate theories about the driving forces of residential segregation and examine effects of area-based programmes on segregation. The method has proven very successful using Swedish micro data. By creating a European database on segregation measures we will enable public and private actors to assess patterns of segregation in places with different political and economic systems and give tools to fight this substantial threat to social cohesion and the welfare state.
Stockholm University SIMSAM Node for Demographic Research (SUNDEM), Principal applicant Gunnar Andersson. Financed with 25 000tkr by Vetenskapsrådet 2010-2018. http://www.suda.su.se/simsam/
Stadens segrationsmönster: En internationell jämförande studie av boendesegregationens mönster, drivkrafter och effekter
Contrasts in urban residential segregation: An international comparative study of patterns, driving forces and effects
In almost all societies, increasing residential segregation is considered to be a substantial threat to the welfare state. Strategies to decrease segregation and its negative societal effects are utilized in many urban areas worldwide, yet international comparisons of the effectiveness of various strategies are not commonplace. There are several reasons for the lack of comparison. Two of the most important include the inability of segregation measures to capture the spatial complexities of segregation, and the fact that geographical units of analysis (blocks, census tracts, municipalities, etc.) are so different in size and distribution that comparison makes little sense. Our research team has developed a new method for the creation of geographical units of analysis that enables comparison between countries and over time. The method makes use of statistics from existing geographical units but converts the statistics to values representing counts of individuals surrounding each neighbourhood. The method has been tested by researchers in several countries and has proven effective in comparative analysis of segregation between countries. The method opens up a possibility to compare the effectiveness of various local and international strategies for fighting segregation. The project initially involves comparison of four countries, but due to a large interest from other international researchers we envisage that the group of comparing countries will increase.
John Östh, Uppsala University firstname.lastname@example.org, principal applicant
Bo Malmberg, Stockholm University email@example.com
Clark, William University of California, Los Angeles Department of Geography
Shutlleworth, Ian Queen´s University Belfast, Department of Geography
Residential mobility patterns of elderly
In many western societies the increasing share of elderly is a special concern for the future. One issue in this debate is housing for these elderly. A hypothesis in Sweden is that tomorrow's and today's elderly will increasingly demand an apartment in a central location in exchange for their house in the suburb. This assumption includes the idea that the elderly thereby change tenure form from homeownership to cooperative housing or rental housing. Rental and cooperative housing typically includes more service for residents. There are studies pointing to such a residential mobility trend among seniors but quantitative tests are wanted. We will follow the total cohorts born in the 1920s 1930s and 1940s and their mobility patterns between 2001 and 2006. What characterize the movers and stayers respectively and do the elderly movers compete for the same apartments as young entrants on the housing market do? Especially planning processes are to be informed by such an analysis. In this paper we analyze the residential mobility patterns among pensioners, and pensioners to be, using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population.
Together with Marianne Abramsson, N I S A L - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later, Linköping University, Sweden.
A selection from Stockholm University publication database
Contextual poverty and obtained educational level and income in Sweden and the Netherlands: A multi-scale and longitudinal study
2023. Eva Andersson (et al.). Urban Studies 60 (5), 885-903Article
Studies of neighbourhood effects typically measure the neighbourhood context at one specific spatial scale. It is increasingly acknowledged, however, that the mechanisms through which the residential context affects individual outcomes may operate at different spatial scales, ranging from the very immediate environment to the metropolitan region. We take a multi-scale approach to investigate the extent to which concentrated poverty in adolescence is related to obtained education level and income later in life, by measuring the residential context as bespoke neighbourhoods at five geographical scales that range from areas encompassing the 200 nearest neighbours to areas that include the 200k+ nearest neighbours. We use individual-level geocoded longitudinal register data from Sweden and the Netherlands to follow 15/16-year-olds until they are 30 years old. The findings show that the contextual effects on education are very similar in both countries. Living in a poor area as a teenager is related to a lower obtained educational level when people are in their late 20s. This relationship, however, is stronger for lower spatial scales. We also find effects of contextual poverty on income in both countries. Overall, this effect is stronger in the Netherlands than in Sweden. Partly, this is related to differences in spatial structure. If only individuals in densely populated areas in Sweden are considered, effects on income are similar across the two countries and income effects are more stable across spatial scales. Overall, we find important evidence that the scalar properties of neighbourhood effects differ across life-course outcomes.
Exploring Life-Course Trajectories in Local Spatial Contexts Across Sweden
2023. Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 113 (2), 448-468Article
This article explores typical life-course trajectories based on annual observations of educational participation, employment, and establishing a family from age sixteen to age thirty. Using latent class analysis, we identify seven different trajectory classes that capture the different life courses experienced by individuals born in 1986. Examples of trajectory classes are (1) an early partner and childbearing trajectory; (2) a trajectory that mixes employment and a long postsecondary education into the later twenties; and (3) a trajectory involving low activity, very little employment, very little postsecondary education, and not starting a family. The classes identified correspond closely to trajectories found in earlier qualitative studies using life-history interviews, but in contrast to these studies that each encompass a few dozen individuals or less, our approach identifies trajectories for the individuals of an entire birth cohort. This allows for analysis of the geographical distribution of trajectories across regions, municipality types, and neighborhoods. Individuals following long postsecondary education trajectories were heavily concentrated in metropolitan areas and university towns. At the same age, individuals following early childbearing trajectories were concentrated instead in peripheral, rural areas. Individuals from nonmetropolitan areas also tend to follow more gender-polarized trajectories. Moreover, we find that there is more trajectory-based segregation at age thirty than at age fifteen. Theoretically, our study gives support to the idea that places are structured on the basis of life-course trajectories. Local context influences how individuals are linked into different trajectories and, at the same time, the spatial sorting of trajectories will shape local contexts.
Socio-spatial stratification of housing tenure trajectories in Sweden – a longitudinal cohort study
2022. Ida Borg, Juta Kawalerowicz, Eva K. Andersson. Advances in Life Course Research 57Article
Individuals tend to be most mobile when they are between 20 and 40 years of age. This pattern is relatively stable across regions and over time. For geographical mobility, less is known about their transitions between different types of housing and tenure forms. In Sweden, households may select between, principally, three different types of tenure forms, each often coupled with a specific housing type. Households may rent from either public companies (municipality owned) or private landlords in multifamily dwellings, households may own their single-family house privately, or they can cooperatively own a multifamily house as a tenant-owner in an apartment. Yet we lack knowledge of which tenure trajectories individuals tend to follow during their most mobile years, and we also lack knowledge about which factors determine tenure trajectories. Our sample consist of individuals who in 1995 were aged 18–25 and who left their parental house between 1994 and 1995. This study tracks their tenure trajectories for 21 consecutive years starting in 1995 until 2015. The cohorts in our sample were the first who encountered the conditions on the deregulated housing market that are still in place in Sweden today. We followed these cohorts until they were between 39 and 46 years old and used sequence analysis to classify tenure trajectories. One result that stands out is the outstanding and increasing emphasis on home ownership in our sample, quite unlike the traditional picture of the Swedish housing market. Additionally, we found that resources in a broad sense and spatial context have a great impact on the type of trajectory individuals follow.
Tenure type mixing and segregation
2022. Eva K. Andersson, Thomas Wimark, Bo Malmberg. Housing Studies (1), 26-49Article
We examine the 'overlap' or to which degree tenure form patterns are similar to socio-economic segregation patterns. The issue has been discussed concerning mixing policies; does mixing of tenure hinder socio-economic segregation? If mixing tenure is to be an effective policy against segregation, the overlap has to be understood. Using Swedish register data, we cross tenure-type landscapes with patterns of high/mixed/low-income and with European/non-European/Swedish-born. To what degree is there overlap among tenure, income and country of birth? Is the overlap related to geographical scale and polarization? Is the overlap of tenure forms with socio-economic characteristics consistent across regions? We find strong overlap of large-scale cooperative tenure landscapes with very high incomes as well as with Swedish-born. Small-scale tenure-landscapes provide mixing opportunities for incomes wherever they are located; however, these landscapes have a small non-Swedish-born population nearby. Some tenure-type landscapes vary in characteristics depending on location; e.g. public rental concentrated areas are high-income in urban cores but low-income in urban peripheries.
Bostadssegregation i Södertörn 1990-2012: förtätning och ombildning med olika utfall
2021. Thomas Wimark, Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Att göra stad i Stockholms urbana periferi, 91-119Chapter
How Well Do Schools Mix Students from Different Neighborhoods? School Segregation and Residential Segregation in Swedish Municipalities
2021. Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Geographical Analysis 53, 422-446Article
In this article, we propose a new approach for assessing the extent to which schools are successful in mixing students from different backgrounds. It is based on a comparison of variation in the composition of the student population in small-scale residential neighborhoods with variation in the composition of the student population at local schools. From this we compute a measure that corresponds to the number of small scale neighborhoods that needs to be sampled in order to arrive at the observed mixing of students in schools. Using this measure, we can show that in 2012, in a large majority of Swedish municipalities, schools are successful in mixing students from different types of neighborhoods, but in 25% of the municipalities mixing is not so good. Three fundamental determinants of mixing are large-scale residential segregation, average school size, and number of students in the municipality. These factors are strong determinants of mixing and when they are included, other contextual factors provide very little additional explanation of why mixing varies among municipalities. With the fundamental determinants excluded the contextual factors have an effect. For example, tertiary education, many migrants, and high proportions of independent schools tend to lower the level of mixing.
Neighbourhood context and young adult mobility: A life course approach
2021. Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg, William A. V. Clark. Population, Space and Place 27 (3)Article
This paper finds convincing evidence of upward progress out of poor Swedish neighbourhoods for individuals with a Swedish background, individuals with a European background, and those with a non-European background. We use the 1986 cohort of the Swedish population and follow them from age 15 when they are living at home to age 30. We find that by age 30, they live in a neighbourhood that in terms of the poverty level is relatively distant from the initial neighbourhood where they grew up. Mobility into less poor neighbourhoods is clearly linked to higher income, but interestingly, initial context is even more important. Mobility to less poor neighbourhoods is found for those starting in high-poverty neighbourhoods and vice versa for those starting in low-poverty neighbourhoods. Moreover, large-scale context and regional context strongly influence neighbourhood mobility along the poverty gradient. The analysis shows that a large proportion of individuals with a non-European background improve their neighbourhood status from where they were living as teenagers, to where they live after leaving home. Individuals who stay in the poorest neighbourhoods come from less favourable backgrounds, from large-scale poverty contexts, have low school grades, tend to have children early, and have low incomes and lower educational attainment. Individuals with a non-European background are overrepresented in this group. Thus, despite the overall gains in neighbourhood quality, the process of spatial sorting still contributes to an increased spatial concentration of vulnerable populations.
School choice and educational attitudes: Spatially uneven neoliberalization in Sweden
2021. Eva K. Andersson, Marianne Abramsson, Bo Malmberg. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 75 (3), 142-157Article
The aim of the article is to use survey evidence of school choice and educational attitudes in Sweden to explore how spatial polarization and liberal school reforms have affected the way parents, pupils, and school management think about education. The authors identify a possible polarization of attitudes in Sweden towards the importance of education in general and schools in particular, against the background of a highly liberalized school market, including school choice and rural-urban regional differences in the population’s education level. The basis for the analysis is TIMSS 2015 data for pupils in Grade 4 (age group 10–11 years). The results showed that localization of the school was a very important factor in school choice and that localization was more important than parental education and social class. Additionally, the authors tested the association between maths results and the variables attitudes, location, school, and household, and found that a household with a lower proportion of tertiary-educated parents in less central locations could make it difficult for pupils to perform well in mathematics. The authors conclude that in Sweden neoliberalization has been a geographically uneven process with a concentration in the metropolitan areas.
The re-emergence of educational inequality during a period of reforms: A study of Swedish school leavers 1991-2012
2021. Eva K. Andersson, Pontus Hennerdal, Bo Malmberg. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science 48 (4), 685-705Article
Against the background of a liberalization of Swedish compulsory education, this paper analyses post-1991 shifts in the way compulsory education performance in Sweden has been shaped by parental background, residential context and school context. We can document increasing school and residential segregation of foreign background students and, after 2008, increasing segregation by income, employment status and social allowance reception. Over time, educational performance has become increasingly linked to family, neighbourhood and school context. The greatest change has been for parental background, but the importance of school context and neighbourhood context has also increased. A noteworthy finding is that residential context consistently has a stronger effect on student performance than school context. Student grades were found to be most strongly influenced by the closest (12 or 25) residential peers of the school leavers as compared to larger peer groups. The increase in the influence of family, neighbourhood and residential context has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the between-school variation (intra-class correlation) in student performance, but it was not until after 2005 that this increased variability became clearly linked to the social composition of the schools. This study's results suggest that the restructuring of Swedish compulsory education has had consequences for equality, possibly because disadvantaged social groups have not been as able as advantaged groups to navigate and benefit from the educational landscape created by the school reforms.
Competition and School Performance: Swedish School Leavers from 1991–2012
2020. Pontus Hennerdal, Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 64 (1), 70-86Article
Based on the wide-ranging liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s, Sweden has become one of the most prominent realizations of Milton Friedman’s proposal for market-based schooling. From 1991 to 2012, the percentage of Swedish ninth-grade students attending independent, voucher-financed, private schools increased from 2.8% to 14.2%. A recent study using municipality-level data claimed that the resulting increase in school competition positively affected student performance in both private and public schools. In this study, using data on 2,154,729 school leavers, we show that this result does not hold when controlling for individual-level background factors and differences in the peer composition of schools.
Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants: New Results from Norway
2020. Adrian F. Rogne (et al.). European Journal of Population 36 (1), 71-83Article
In a previous study, Andersson et al. (A comparative study of segregation patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: neighbourhood concentration and representation of non-European migrants. Eur J Popul 34:1-25, 2018) compared the patterns of residential segregation between non-European immigrants and the rest of the population in four European countries, using the k-nearest neighbours approach to compute comparable measures of segregation. This approach relies on detailed geo-coded data and can be used to assess segregation levels at different neighbourhood scales. This paper updates these findings with results from Norway. Using similar data and methods, we document both similarities and striking differences between the segregation patterns in Norway and Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden. While the segregation patterns in Norway at larger scales are roughly comparable to those found in Denmark, but with higher concentrations of non-European immigrants in the most immigrant-dense large-scale neighbourhoods, the micro-level segregation is much lower in Norway than in the other countries. While an important finding by Andersson et al. (2018) was that segregation levels at the micro-scale of 200 nearest neighbours fell within a narrow band, with a dissimilarity index between 0.475 and 0.512 in the four countries under study, segregation levels at this scale are clearly lower in Norway, with a dissimilarity index of 0.429. We discuss possible explanations for these patterns.
Tenure type landscapes and housing market change: a geographical perspective on neo-liberalization in Sweden
2020. Thomas Wimark, Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Housing Studies 35 (2), 214-237Article
Discussions of tenure mix have received renewed interest as many have suggested that neo-liberalization has made way for gentrification of neighbourhoods and increasing segregation. Yet, few scholars have studied country-wide changes in tenure mix, due to the lack of data and appropriate methods. In this article, we propose to use tenure type landscapes to analyse changes in housing policy. We do so while acknowledging the evolution of housing policies in Sweden since 1990. Using individualized and multi-scalar tenure type landscapes to measure change in neighbourhoods, we analyse housing clusters in 1990 and 2012. We show that the tenure landscape in 1990 at the height of the welfare state was fairly diverse and mixed. During the next 22 years, however, the landscape changed to become more homogenized and dominated by ownership through tenure conversions and new housing. We argue that awareness of these changes is essential to understanding present and future segregation and gentrification processes.
Adolescent neighbourhood context and transition to parenthood: A longitudinal study
2019. Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Population, Space and Place 25 (5)Article
This paper investigates effects of neighbourhood context on first birth timing in Sweden. Analyses are on the basis of Swedish population registers and innovative methods for the construction of individualised neighbourhoods of varying sizes and a traditional measure using defined areas. The 1980 Swedish birth cohort is followed from age 13 to 36, with neighbourhood characteristics observed at age 15 to define the contexts in which the young adults were socialised and first exposed to socioeconomic opportunities for higher education and early adult careers. Young adults who lived in elite (education and income) neighbourhoods or neighbourhoods with a high proportion of foreign born were slower to have their first child in comparison with those who lived in a less socioeconomically advantaged neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods with high levels of social assistance, as well as those with a high proportion of single-family housing had earlier births. Although the preponderance of the first evidence is consistent with a pathway from neighbourhoods to individual attainments and delayed childbearing, the availability of affordable family-friendly housing appears to provide opportunities for earlier transitions to parenthood.
Patterns of changing residential preferences during late adulthood
2019. Eva K. Andersson, Marianne Abramsson, Bo Malmberg. Ageing & Society 39 (8), 1752-1781Article
Earlier research on residential mobility has demonstrated a tendency for the young old of the 55+-population to prefer peripheral locations, whereas older age groups choose central locations. Here, we present survey results indicating that such late-adulthood differences in preferences are supported by age–related shifts corresponding to differences in housing preferences expressed by individuals in peripheral as well as central locations in Sweden. A sample of 2,400 individuals aged 55 years and over was asked to select the seven most important characteristics of a dwelling from a list of 21 alternatives (SHIELD survey 2013). The preferences expressed were used as dependent variables in logistic regressions to determine to what extent the housing preferences of older people are linked to age, gender, socio-economic status and type of geographical area. The results demonstrated a close link between neighbourhood characteristics and housing preferences. Owning the dwelling, having a garden, and access to nature were stressed as important by individuals living in non-metropolitan middle-class areas and in suburban elite areas. The youngest cohort expressed similar preferences. Older age groups instead stressed the importance of an elevator, single-storey housing, and a good design for independent living; preferences that have similarities to those expressed by individuals living in large cities and smaller urban centres where such housing is more readily available.
A Comparative Study of Segregation Patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants
2018. Eva K. Andersson (et al.). European Journal of Population 34 (2), 251-275Article
In this paper, we use geo-coded, individual-level register data on four European countries to compute comparative measures of segregation that are independent of existing geographical sub-divisions. The focus is on non-European migrants, for whom aggregates of egocentric neighbourhoods (with different population counts) are used to assess small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale segregation patterns. At the smallest scale level, corresponding to neighbourhoods with 200 persons, patterns of over- and under-representation are strikingly similar. At larger-scale levels, Belgium stands out as having relatively strong over- and under-representation. More than 55% of the Belgian population lives in large-scale neighbourhoods with moderate under- or over-representation of non-European migrants. In the other countries, the corresponding figures are between 30 and 40%. Possible explanations for the variation across countries are differences in housing policies and refugee placement policies. Sweden has the largest and Denmark the smallest non-European migrant population, in relative terms. Thus, in both migrant-dense and native-born-dense areas, Swedish neighbourhoods have a higher concentration and Denmark a lower concentration of non-European migrants than the other countries. For large-scale, migrant-dense neighbourhoods, however, levels of concentration are similar in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Thus, to the extent that such concentrations contribute to spatial inequalities, these countries are facing similar policy challenges.
Comparing Patterns of Segregation in North-Western Europe: A Multiscalar Approach
2018. Eva K. Andersson, Torkild Hovde Lyngstad, Bart Sleutjes. European Journal of Population 34 (2), 151-168Article
Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European migrants: New results from Norway
2018. Adrian F. Rogne (et al.).Report
In a previous study, Andersson et al. (2018) compared the patterns of residential segregation between non-European immigrants and the rest of the population in four European countries, using the k-nearest neighbours approach to compute comparable measures of segregation. This approach relies on detailed geo-coded data and can be used to assess segregation levels at different neighbourhood scales. This paper updates these findings with results from Norway. Using similar data and methods, we document both similarities and striking differences between the segregation patterns in Norway and Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden. While the segregation patterns in Norway at larger scales are roughly comparable to those found in Denmark, but with higher concentrations of non-European immigrants in the most immigrant- dense large-scale neighbourhoods, the micro-level segregation is much lower in Norway than in the other countries. While an important finding by Andersson et al. (2018) was that segregation levels at the micro scale of 200 nearest neighbours fell within a narrow band, with a dissimilarity index between 0.475 and 0.512 in the four countries under study, segregation levels at this scale are clearly lower in Norway, with a dissimilarity index of 0.429. We speculate that this may in part be driven by Norwegian settlement policies for refugees and asylum seekers, but other explanations are possible.
Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990–2012
2018. Bo Malmberg (et al.). European Journal of Population 34 (2), 169-193Article
In this paper, we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geocoded individual-level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 409,600 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries, face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that already have high proportions of non-European migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if segregation is measured as differences in the neighbourhood concentration of migrants, segregation has increased.
Segregation and the effects of adolescent residential context on poverty risks and early income career: A study of the Swedish 1980 cohort
2018. Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Urban Studies 55 (2), 365-383Article
Will the consequences of residential segregation, that is, spatial concentration of marginalized populations on the one hand, and spatial concentration of affluent populations on the other hand, generate a situation where individual life trajectories are influenced by where individuals grow up? Our aim is to analyze how poverty risks and early income career at adult age are influenced by different neighborhood contexts in early youth. We use Swedish longitudinal register data, and follow individuals born in 1980 until 2012. Residential context is measured in 1995 at age 15 by expanding a buffer around the residential locations of each individual and, by computing statistical aggregates of different socio-demographic variables for that population. The results show that poverty risks increase for individuals growing up in areas characterized by high numbers of social allowance recipients living nearby, whereas elite geographical context is favorable for both women’s and men’s future income.
The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms: A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–2012
2018. Eva Andersson, Pontus Hennerdal, Bo Malmberg.Report
Against the background of a liberalization of Swedish compulsory education, this paper analyses post-1991 shifts in the way compulsory education performance in Sweden has been shaped by parental background, residential context and school context. We can document increasing school and residential segregation of foreign background students and, after 2008, increasing segregation by income, employment status, and social allowance reception. Over time, educational performance has become increasingly linked to family, neighbourhood and school context. The greatest change has been for parental background, but the importance of school context and neighbourhood context has also increased. A noteworthy finding is that residential context consistently has a stronger effect on student performance than school context. Student grades were found to be most strongly influenced by the closest (12 or 25) residential peers of the school leavers as compared to larger peer groups. The increase in the influence of family, neighbourhood and residential context has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the between-school variation (ICC) in student performance, but it was not until after 2005 that this increased variability became clearly linked to the social composition of the schools. This study’s results suggest that the restructuring of Swedish compulsory education has had consequences for equality, possibly because disadvantaged social groups have not been as able as advantaged groups to navigate and benefit from the educational landscape created by the school reforms.
What can we learn about changing ethnic diversity from the distributions of mixed-race individuals?
2018. William A. V. Clark, Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Urban geography 39 (2), 263-281Article
It is hypothesized that self-defined mixed-race persons live in residentially mixed areas in the largest metropolitan areas in California. The hypothesis is tested by examining the distribution of mixed-race persons among ethnically and racially diverse and nondiverse neighborhoods in the San Francisco and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas. The research confirmed that mixed-race individuals are more likely to live in areas with ethnic diversity and that the tendency is greater for the mixed-race population in the San Francisco–Oakland Metropolitan Areas than in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Mixed-race individuals live in neighborhoods which are diverse with mixes of all four major ethnic and racial groups, and in “well-off” (but not the most affluent) neighborhoods. The study also shows that the mixed-race population is youthful. The association of mixed-race individuals and racially integrated neighborhoods will have important implications for the evolving nature of spatial integration in California specifically, and the United States more generally.
"Lottning bättre än närhet och kötid för att bryta segregering"
2017. Eva Andersson (et al.). Dagens Nyheter (30 april)Article
A Comparative Study of Segregation Patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants
2017. Eva Andersson (et al.).Report
In this paper we use geo-coded, individual level register data on four European countries to compute comparative measures of segregation that are independent of existing geographical sub- divisions. The focus is on non-European migrants, and using aggregates for egocentric neighbourhoods with different population counts, small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale segregation patterns are assessed. At the smallest scale level, corresponding to neighbourhoods with 200 persons, patterns of over- and under-representation are strikingly similar. At larger scale levels, Belgium stands out as having relatively strong over- and under-representation. More than 55% of the Belgian population lives in large-scale neighbourhoods with moderate under- or over- representation of non-European migrants. In the other countries, the corresponding figures are between 30 % and 40%. Possible explanations for this pattern are differences in housing policies and refugee placement policies. Sweden has the largest and Denmark the smallest non-European migrant population, in relative terms. Thus, in both migrant-dense and native-born dense areas, Swedish neighbourhoods have a higher concentration, and Denmark a lower concentration of non- European migrants than the other countries. For large-scale, migrant-dense neighbourhoods, however, levels of concentration are similar in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Thus, if this pattern is linked to a high concentration of disadvantaged population groups, it shows that these countries are facing similar policy challenges with respect to neighbourhood contexts. Contexts that can have negative effects on outcomes such as employment, income and education.
Ethno-racial neighborhood types in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Metropolitan Areas
2017. William A. V. Clark, Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg.Other
Changing Preferences with Ageing - Housing Choices and Housing Plans of Older People
2016. Marianne Abramsson, Eva Andersson. Housing, Theory and Society 33 (2), 217-241Article
Planning for the housing situation of an ageing population is one of the challenges of many countries. To increase our understanding of the needs of the ageing population, a nationwide survey stratified on age and municipality type was conducted. Research questions referred to the current housing situation and plans. The aim was to investigate how preferences, location, and/or the type of housing preferred changes with age and if they are housing market dependent. Results of 10-year cohorts show that the most marked change is between the cohort 75-84years old and the oldest cohort 85+. There is a gradual change over time of moves from large to small housing, from owner-occupation to rented housing. Respondents in the major cities and in the rural or tourism-dependent municipalities are less inclined to move compared to those from other types of municipalities. The study predicts a shortage of rented apartments.
Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990-2012
2016. Bo Malmberg (et al.).Report
In this paper we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geo-coded individual level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 400,000 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that have high proportions of nonEuropean migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if unevenness is measured as variation in the neighbourhood proportion of migrants across neighbourhoods, segregation has increased.
A Multiscalar Analysis of Neighborhood Composition in Los Angeles, 2000-2010: A Location-Based Approach to Segregation and Diversity
2015. William A. V. Clark (et al.). Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105 (6), 1260-1284Article
There continues to be cross-disciplinary interest in the patterns, extent, and changing contexts of segregation and spatial inequality more generally. The changes are clearly context dependent but at the same time there are broad generalizations that arise from the processes of residential sorting and selection. A major question in U.S. segregation research is how the growth of Asian and Hispanic populations is influencing patterns of segregation and diversity at the neighborhood level. In this article we use a variant of a nearest neighbor approach to map, graph, and evaluate patterns of race and ethnicity at varying scales. We show that using a multiscalar approach to segregation can provide a detailed and more complete picture of segregation. The research confirms work from other studies that segregation is decreasing between some groups and increasing between others, and the patterns, and processes can be described as dynamic diversity. In a series of maps of ethnic clusters and population homogeneity we show how metropolitan areas, represented in this case by Los Angeles, now display patterns of complex living arrangements with multiple groups inhabiting both local neighborhoods and wider community spheres.
Changing locations: Central or peripheral moves of seniors?
2015. Marianne Abramsson, Eva K. Andersson. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 30 (4), 535-551Article
The increasing proportion of elderly in European populations has prompted debate about where and how they will reside. Our main hypothesis is that when moving in this phase of life the most common move would be one from a suburban location in owner occupation to a more central location. This would be in line with the belief that older people, when they retire or when the children have moved out, want to take part in the culture of city living, such as concerts, theatres and museums in addition to enjoying a more convenient type of housing. This, we argue, is the assumed residential pattern during the third age and a possible part of a mobility cycle as described by Rossi (1955). The aim of this study was to examine the local geographical mobility and tenure of older people. The analysis was made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s were followed between 2001 and 2006. Using five distances to the municipal population core a centralized mobility pattern could be observed. The two older cohorts made such moves, whereas the majority of the youngest cohort moved to peripheral destinations. From analysis of three case municipalities, it was shown that movers from owner occupation in the cohort born in the 1940s moved within owner occupation to a greater extent and made short distance moves. Such increased knowledge will have an impact on planning issues.
Contextual effects on educational attainment in individualized, scalable neighborhoods; differences across gender and social class
2015. Eva K. Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Urban Studies 52 (12), 2117-2133Article
This paper analyses whether a multi-scale representation of geographical context based on statistical aggregates computed for individualised neighbourhoods can lead to improved estimates of neighbourhood effect. Our study group consists of individuals born in 1980 that have lived in Sweden since 1995 and we analyse the effect of neighbourhood context at age 15 on educational outcome at age 30 controlling for parental background. A new piece of software, Equipop, was used to compute the socio-economic composition of neighbourhoods centred on individual residential locations and ranging in scale from including the nearest 12 to the nearest 25,600 neighbours. Our results indicate that context measures based on fixed geographical sub-divisions can lead to an underestimation of neighbourhood effects. A multi-scalar representation of geographical context also makes it easier to estimate how neighbourhood effects vary across different demographic groups. This indicates that scale-sensitive measures of geographical context could help to re-invigorate the neighbourhood effects literature.
Multi-scalar residential context and recovery from illness: an analysis using Swedish register data
2015. Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Health and Place 35, 19-27Article
The aim of this paper is to analyse if recovery from ill-health is influenced by geographical context using a multi-scalar approach to context measurement and Swedish longitudinal register-based data on sickness benefit recipiency as an indicator of onset of and recovery from illness. Our sample consists of individuals that have stayed healthy and in work for a three-year period (2000–2002) and then falls ill during the fourth year (2003), some of who recover to good health in the fifth year (2004). The results show that in areas with above-average percentages of people receiving sickness-benefit there is a reduced probability of recovery. In contrast, high levels of employment in the neighbourhood and in the local area have a positive effect on the chances of recovery. These contextual effects are statistically significant but relatively weak in comparison to the influence of individual level factors such as age, sex, marital status, and income. Our conclusion is that individualised scalable neighbourhoods constitute a potentially valuable addition to the toolbox used in neighbourhood effect studies.
Rural housing market hot spots and footloose in-migrants
2015. Eva K. Andersson. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 30 (1), 17-37Article
This study applies a housing market perspective to hot spots in rural Northern Sweden. Here, the concept of a hot spot is defined as a place with rising house prices and in-migration of households with higher than average education and income. Perceptions and performances in these particular housing markets are studied using interviews. Three locations are explored through interviews with footloose households. The aim is to explore factors that shape rural housing market hot spots, using narratives from footloose in-migrants. There is a need for greater understanding of the spread and maintenance of hot spots and rural housing markets in regional planning. Also, housing markets in the countryside are more scantily investigated than in urban areas. In an unbalanced housing market, with higher prices and limited supply in the urban areas, hot spots in rural areas are anomalies that do not follow traditional housing market theories. Results show that hot spots are locations with natural beauty to which households moved upon finding employment. Footloose in-migrants are thus discovered to indicate a hot spot development. The hot spot areas have the extra natural beauty, cheap housing in combination with a high status, as well as it is a location suitable for commuting. Hot spots have a rare combination of factors sought after by footloose in-migrants.
Analysing segregation using individualised neighbourhoods
2014. John Östh, Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson. Social-Spatial Segregation, 135-161Chapter
Analysing segregation using individualized neighbourhoods:
2014. John Östh, Bo Malmberg, Eva K Andersson. Social-spatial Segregation, 135-161Chapter
Composite Geographical Context and School Choice Attitudes in Sweden: A Study Based on Individually Defined, Scalable Neighborhoods
2014. Bo Malmberg, Eva K. Andersson, Zara Bergsten. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 104 (4), 869-888Article
This article contributes both to the expanding literature on the effect of school choice and to the literature focusing on how to measure and conceptualize neighborhood effects. It uses a novel approach to the measurement of geographical context to analyze neighborhood influences on school choice attitudes among Swedish parents. Data on attitudes come from a survey of 3,749 families with children in upper primary school. Geographical context is measured using multi-scalar contextual factors based on socioeconomic indicators for individually defined, bespoke neighborhoods that incorporate from 12 to 12,800 people. The results show that parental motives for choosing schools in Sweden are strongly influenced by the social and ethnic composition of their own and their adjacent neighborhoods. Contrary to most other studies, we find effects of socioeconomic context stronger than the effects of the parents' own social and ethnic background. Thus, parents living in academic, high-income areas put little stress on attending an assigned school, close-to-home schools, or stating that the municipality has influenced their decision. Furthermore, these attitudes become even stronger if nearby neighborhoods are dominated by visible minorities and disadvantaged groups. Supported by Sampson's ideas of coordinated perceptions among inhabitants in the same neighborhoods, we explain these surprisingly strong contextual effects with the idea that school choice motives are especially sensitive to neighbors' ideas and easily influenced as measured preferences in a survey.
Contextual Effects on Educational Attainment in Individualized Neighborhoods: Differences across Gender and Social Class
2013. Eva Andersson, Bo Malmberg.Report
Det fria skolvalet ökar kyftor mellan skolor: Den svenska skolans nya geografi
2013. Bo Malmberg, Eva Andersson, Zara Bergsten. Resultatdialog 2013, 119-126Chapter
School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach
2013. John Östh, Eva Andersson, Bo Malmberg. Urban Studies 50 (2), 407-425Article
In recent years, structural changes to the school system, including the introduction of independent schools, have increased school choice alternatives in Sweden. Consequently, a large share of today's students attend a school other than the one closest to home. Since the compulsory school system is designed to be free of charge and to offer the same standard of education everywhere, increasing school choice- hypothetically-should not increase the between-school variation in grades. In reality, however, between-school variation in grades has increased in recent years. The aim of this paper is to test whether increasing between-school variance can be explained by changes in residential patterns, or if it must be attributed to structural change. Using a counterfactual approach, the students' variations in grades are compared between observed schools of graduation and hypothetical schools of graduation. The multilevel results indicate that school choice seems to increase between-school variation of grades.
Changing residential mobility rates of older people in Sweden
2012. Eva Andersson, Marianne Abramsson. Ageing & Society 32 (6), 963-982Article
The lifestyle of the baby boomers as retirees has been assumed to differ from older cohorts due to them being financially more stable and having grown up during the welfare state expansion. Many baby boomers live in large houses with gardens that require maintenance and labour. Recent studies have indicated that a growing share of those born in the 1940s in Sweden express a wish to change residence at retirement or in old age. A need to verify such results statistically was identified to confirm whether there has been an increase in residential mobility among older people. As a result, moves that took place during 2001–06 of the total cohort born in the 1940s were compared to similar moves by those born in the 1930s, ten years earlier during 1991–96, i.e. those aged 57–66 in 1996 and 2006. The study used a register database, Geoswede, containing the entire Swedish population. The study showed increased residential mobility rates among the 1940s cohort compared to the cohort born in the 1930s. However, explanations for the differences between the cohorts were not evident.
Residential mobility patterns of elderly - leaving the house for an apartment
2012. Marianne Abramsson, Eva K. Andersson. Housing Studies 27 (5), 582-604Article
One hypothesis is that, in Sweden, the elderly today are more willing to change residence to accommodate for changing lifestyles and poorer health than in earlier generations. If so, the elderly will change their type of tenure from owner occupation to tenant co-operative or rental housing, which includes more services for residents. The aim of this study is to discover if elderly people move to apartments after leaving single-family housing that they own. Mobility patterns of those born in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s are analysed to identify characteristics of stayers and movers, and to determine to what extent the elderly move to rental and tenant cooperative apartments. The analysis is cross-sectional using a register database comprising the Swedish population. Moves were followed between 2001 and 2006. The majority remained in their current dwelling but almost one-quarter moved. Of those, a smaller number moved from owner-occupied housing to a tenant co-operative or rental apartment.
Rural Housing Market Hotspots and Footloose In-migrants
2012. Eva K. Andersson. ENHR Conference 2012Housing, 93-93Conference
This study applies a housing market perspective on hotspots in northern, rural Sweden. It uses the concept ‘hotspot’ defined as places with rising house prices and in-migration of households with higher than average education and income. The focus rests on three places having the ideal characteristics of being a rural hotspot, located in three Swedish northern municipalities. These places are explored through ten interviews with ‘footloose’ households. The aim is to explore factors that shape rural housing market hotspots using stories from hotspot population households. The first reason for this study is that regional planning requests understanding to develop different regions and places for the future. Here the origins of hotspots are explored to understand the spread and sustainability of such developments. Second, housing markets in the countryside are more scantily investigated than in urban areas. In the unbalanced housing market with higher prices and limited supply in the urban areas hotspots in rural areas are not following traditional housing market theories, they are rather anomalies. Interviews with a specific footloose group of recent hotspot in-migrants are used in combination with knowledge about the housing market. Results show that although hotspots are locations with beautiful nature most households moved there because of finding jobs. The three areas have the ‘extra’ nature values and high status required for being a hotspot and a location for commuting to larger labor markets. The ‘footloose’ non-return migrants did find nice, cheaper housing that made them chose the area despite being strangers to the place. I suggest hotspots are the rare combination of footloose migrants and special places which make them difficult to develop elsewhere.
Travel-to-schooldistances in Sweden 2000–2006: changing school geography with equality implications
2012. Eva Andersson, Bo Malmberg, John Östh. Journal of Transport Geography 23 (SI), 35-43Article
Twenty years ago the Swedish school system underwent serious change in that students were given the right to choose their school, though those living near each school had priority. Since then, there has been a new geographical debate concerning where students live and go to school and possible implications of this on student educational achievement and educational equality, as well as on students’ daily lives. In studies of changes in the school system, traveldistances to school have so far been less studied in the Swedish context. In this paper we will analyze the changes in distance to school for 15-year-olds, from 2000 to 2006, in order to identify who, and in which context, is traveling shorter/longer distances, and thus performing a school choice. We use register data from the database PLACE, Uppsala University. The focus is not on effects on achievement, nor school composition, but instead on the difference in ability/possibility of using school choice as measured by distance. A time-geography approach concerning variation in constraints between students is used. School choice may be a matter of preference for certain schools, but importantly, it might also be a matter of time and space restrictions for families with fewer resources; that is, with less spatial capital and a limited opportunity structure. Results show that travel to schooldistances have increased since the year 2000. Foreign-born students are traveling shorter distances, except for those with highly educated parents. Shorter distances are also travelled by students from families with social assistance and for visible minorities in areas where such minorities exist.
Ethnic segregation and performance inequality in the Swedish school system: a regional perspective
2010. Eva K Andersson, John Osth, Bo Malmberg. Environment and planning A 42 (11), 2674-2686Article
Sweden is today an immigrant country with more than 14% foreign born. An increasing share of the immigrants comes from non-European countries. This implies that Sweden has been transformed from an ethnically homogenous country into a country with a large visible minority. In this paper we survey the effect of this change on school segregation. Building on Schelling's model for residential segregation, we argue that establishment of a visible minority has triggered a process of school segregation that in some respects can be compared with the developments in the United States. In order to test the validity of a Schelling-type process in Swedish schools we compare segregation levels in regions with different shares of visible minority students. We use data from the PISA 2003 survey in combination with register data on the ethnic composition of student population in different parts of Sweden. We find that school segregation is higher in regions with a large visible-minority population. We also find that, controlling for student background, there are smaller differences in performance across schools in regions with low shares of minority students.
School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach
2010. John Östh, Eva K Andersson, Bo Malmberg.Other
Housing, Socio-Economic Security and Risks. A Qualitative Comparison of Household Attitudes in Finland and Sweden
2007. Eva K Andersson (et al.). European Journal of Housing Policy 7 (2), 151-172Article
This paper addresses the meaning of housing and the perception of socio-economic security of different forms of tenure in Sweden and Finland. Household interviews reveal that, in stark contrast to Finland, Swedish respondents think that home ownership is not safer than renting. Few ‘absolutists’ can be found in Sweden who believe that one tenure is superior to the other, while home ownership is still favoured in Finland despite a major housing crash in the 1990s. However, some similarities were also present: for example, even though renting has a much more positive image in Sweden than in Finland, home ownership nonetheless was the number one housing preference. There are prima facie reasons to assume that attitudes in the two countries would tend towards convergence given the marked similarities in culture and society due to common history and cultural diffusion (usually from Sweden to Finland) and similar welfare state models producing relatively low income inequality. The paper hypothesizes that differences in attitudes are due to different institutional arrangements in connection with different cultural values attached to housing and tenure.
Sweden: To Own or to Rent?
2007. Eva K Andersson. Home ownership beyond asset and security. Perceptions of housing related security and insecurity in eight European countries, 225-257Chapter
Explorations of neighborhood and educational outcomes for young Swedes
2006. Eva K Andersson, S.V. Subramanian. Urban Studies 43 (11), 2013-2025Article
The aim of this study is to estimate the impact of neighbourhoods on educational outcome for adolescents in Sweden. Using a multilevel statistical approach and the PLACE database that consists of a census of individuals in 1990-2000 in Sweden, the paper explores different domains of neighbourhood characteristics that predict educational outcomes in adolescents. Educational achievement in year 2000 was measured for three cohorts, geocoded to their neighbourhood environments. It was found that neighbourhood characteristics related to socioeconomic resources and demographic stability are predictors of individual educational outcomes. A strong association between neighbourhood socio-cultural capital variables and education were also observed. Despite national policies on availability and access to education in Sweden, there are substantial inequalities in educational outcomes that are not simply a result of differences in individual characteristics.
From Valley of Sadness to Hill of Happiness: The Significance of Surroundings for Socioeconomic Career
2004. Eva K Andersson. Urban Studies 41 (3), 641-659Article
Interest in neighbourhood effects has been increasing. This article is a contribution to the field, directed towards the entire areas of three municipalities in Sweden, not only their distressed areas, and to their total population with data from the Statistics Sweden register. The aim of the study is to analyse the significance of surroundings to an individual's socioeconomic career in the form of education, occupational status and income. Guided by a theoretical framework of social justice, the study proposes places of good fortune and places of few opportunities. The survey cohort is individuals born in 1970, who lived at least 5 years in the same area during their adolescence. Their careers are analysed 10 years later, in 1995. The most important finding is that the socio-demographic and physical context of the residential area of adolescence affects the subsequent socioeconomic career.