I am Assistant Professor and Postdoctoral researcher in sociology at Stockholm University and the French Institute for Demographic Studies. Previously, I conduced an international postdoc project (funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare). My research interests lie in international migration, social stratification, and residential stratification.
My ongoing research focuses on international migration and integration in Sweden and France. I am currently engaged in empirical work assessing how neighborhood and school segregation shape the friendship circles and socioeconomic outcomes of immigrants and their descendants. I also study migration behavior and assess prevalent factors that impact individual propensities to migrate and return migrate. I analyze both administrative and survey data, including linked Finnish and Swedish register data and Trajectories and Origins 2 (TeO2). I use a variety of quantitative methods, among others difference in differences models, event history analysis and fixed effects models.
My work has appeared in Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, European Journal of Population, Population Research and Policy Review, PLOS ONE, and Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, among other outlets.
PhD in Sociology, 2020
M.Sc. in Sociology(Research), 2014
London School of Economics
B.A. in Serbian/Croatian and Eastern European Studies, 2013
University College London
Find my personal website at https://rosaweber.github.io
I supervise and examine Bachelor and Master's theses. I have previously held seminars in the courses Mesosociology, Ethnicity and Migration, Quantitative Sociology, Introduction to Quantitative Data Management and Statistics, and Basic Sociology at the Department of Sociology at Stockholm University. I have also supervised undergraduate theses in Sociology and Demography.
My research is situated within the 3GEN project at the French Institute for Demographic Studies and my FORTE project :
- The transmission of Social Disadvantage in Immigrant and Native Families Across Three Generations in France (3GEN) (PI Mathieu Ichou; Funded by Agence Nationale de la recherche (ANR); 2021-2025). The project describes patterns of social inequality and social reproduction among native and immigrant families across three generations using the Trajectoires et Origines 2 (TeO2) survey and in-depth interviews. In a second step, it aims to explain the mechanisms underlying social reproduction and mobility within immigrant families. My focus lies on studying spatial and socioeconomic outcomes across generations, origin, and gender.
- Segregation across multiple domains: How does workplace and neighbourhood segregation shape the employment trajectories of refugees and their children? (Funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE); 2023-00609). Increased rates of refugee immigration have led to rising concerns about integration in Sweden. Public debates often involve residential segregation, as there is a strong idea that economic disadvantages stem from concentrations of migrants in neighbourhoods. However, scholars show that living among co-ethnics can also generate certain advantages, such as employment opportunities or mutual support. Mixed findings have led to calls for research that compares and contrasts the role of residential and workplace segregation. Indeed, workplaces may play a more important role than neighbourhoods in facilitating the integration of refugees, as they imply more intense interaction across ethnic divides. The project will meet this gap by addressing three research questions: (1) To what extent does ethnic segregation in the workplace explain the employment trajectories of refugees? And how does this change when we consider the interaction between workplace and neighbourhood segregation?; (2) How does the socio-economic composition, employment sector, and urban/rural location of the workplace shape the relationship between segregation and employment trajectories?; (3) To what extent does the relationship between ethnic segregation and employment trajectories persist across generations for children of refugees?
In my PhD thesis, Borders and Barriers, I examined the links between migration and integration patterns and migrants' ties to the home and destination country. I focused on two ultimately distinct settings when it comes to the borders and barriers that migrants face: the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. settings. Until recently, Swedish migration policy was among the most welcoming to migrants from different parts of the world. Migration within the Nordic countries, in particular, is characterized by open borders. By contrast, Mexico and the U.S. are separated by an increasingly militarized border and internal policing of migrants has risen dramatically. Consequently, these two settings provide contrasting and interesting examples of the relationship between the policy context and migrants' experiences.
A selection from Stockholm University publication database
Who Migrates and Who Returns in a Context of Free Mobility? An Analysis of the Reason for Migration, Income and Family Trajectories
2023. Rosa Weber, Jan Saarela. European Journal of Population 39 (17), 1-28Article
The establishment of free mobility in Europe has lowered barriers to movement and given rise to diversity in migration and integration patterns. However, in part due to data constraints, it is difficult to study migration motives, integration and return migration together. Using linked Finnish and Swedish register data covering the period 1988–2005, we address these processes within the same framework and study how the reason for migration and trajectories at the destination relate to return migration. In particular, we assess the migration motives of 13,948 Finnish migrants in Sweden using pre- and post-migration information. Finland and Sweden have been part of the common Nordic labour market since 1954, which has allowed Nordic citizens to move without barriers between the two countries. We also study how income trajectories and trajectories of family formation differ across the assessed motives, and analyse how return migration risks are shaped by the motive and by trajectories of income and family formation. Results reveal that labour and tied migrants are initially more likely to have family abroad than student migrants. Student migrants instead continue their education and experience a steeper income increase. The income of student migrants eventually catches up and surpasses that of labour migrants. Return migration risks are shaped by trajectories at the destination, but also by the initial migration motive. These findings underline the importance of assessing diversity across migrants to gain a better understanding of how different migrant groups fare in the destination country and how this relates to subsequent moves.
Assessing the Effect of Increased Deportations on Mexican Migrants’ Remittances and Savings Brought Home
2023. Rosa Weber, Douglas S. Massey. Population 42 (2)Article
Beginning in the 1990s and intensifying after the events of September 11, deportations in the United States increased to record levels under President Obama and continued at high levels under President Trump. Although a growing literature addresses how migrants respond to the shifting context of reception, empirical evidence on how migrants’ remitting and saving behavior changed as a result of immigration enforcement remains limited. Using detailed individual-level data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP, N = 6787) for the years 1970–2019, this study examines how deportations relate to Mexican migrants’ joint decisions to remit and/or save, and how this relationship differs by documentation status. Results from multinomial logistic regressions reveal that rising deportations are associated with an increase in the transnational economic engagement of undocumented migrants. This is largely due to an increase in remittances; savings brought back decrease with rising deportations, likely because keeping savings in the United States is riskier than sending money back directly. Among documented migrants, the remitting and saving behavior does not appear to change as deportations rise. Analyzing these behaviors together is important to gain a more complete understanding of migrants’ transnational economic ties and links to the country of destination.
Heterogeneity or consistency across life domains? An analysis of disparities between second-generation migrants and the Swedish majority population
2023. Rosa Weber, Louisa Vogiazides. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 83Article
Migrant integration is theoretically conceived as a multidimensional process where integration in one lifedomain does not necessarily imply integration in another domain. An expanding literature analyses severalaspects of the lives of migrants and their children. However, to date research has mainly assessed how attainmentin one life domain influences attainment in another domain. This study analyses the extent to which attainmentacross multiple life domains–socioeconomic, social and residential–coincides among second-generation migrants.Using Swedish register data, we compare 10,450 children of migrants from six regions of origin, who were aged30–40 in 2015, to individuals born in Sweden with two Swedish-born parents. Multigenerational linkagesmoreover allow us to control for parental socioeconomic status as well as residential characteristics whengrowing up. Our analyses reveal considerable disparities in social and residential outcomes between second-generation migrants and the Swedish majority group, as well as across origin groups. Differences in socioeco-nomic attainment are comparatively small once we account for parental characteristics and residential back-ground. Second-generation Turkish and Middle Eastern migrants differ in terms of their social and residentialoutcomes when compared to the Swedish majority group, but have commensurate socioeconomic attainment. Incontrast, we find overall consistency across domains for Polish, ex-Yugoslav and Latin American second-generation migrants. Our findings underline the importance of studying outcomes in multiple domains inorder to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the life situation of second-generation migrants.
Apprehension and educational outcomes among Hispanic students in the United States: The impact of Secure Communities
2022. Rosa Weber. PLOS ONE 17 (10)Article
Prior research suggests that disruptive events, such as shocks induced by family instability, neighborhood violence, or relocation, tend to be detrimental for children’s educational outcomes, but findings are heterogeneous depending on the type of event. Limited evidence is available on how shocks resulting from immigration enforcement impact educational outcomes among targeted minority groups. This study contributes to the literature by assessing how a policy implementation in the US–Secure Communities–is related to the school district level achievement of Hispanic students. The Secure Communities program is a national level immigration enforcement policy that was rolled out on a county-by-county basis. The program has increased the risk of deportation and led to rising apprehension and insecurity among undocumented migrants and the wider Hispanic community. Using detailed information on the implementation of Secure Communities, data from the Stanford Education Data Archive, and the Current Population Survey, this study estimates dynamic difference in differences exploiting regional variation in the timing of the policy change to assess its impact on educational outcomes. Results show that the activation of Secure Communities is negatively associated with Hispanic students’ subsequent English language arts achievement, while white and black students’ achievement does not change. Findings further suggest that Hispanic students living in the South, rural areas, and areas with high proportions of likely undocumented migrants are disproportionately impacted by the program’s activation. Whereas, Hispanic students in sanctuary jurisdictions, which reduce the likelihood of deportation, are not impacted. These findings indicate that immigration enforcement can have negative consequences for educational and social inequalities in the United States.
Borders and Barriers
2020. Rosa Weber (et al.).Thesis (Doc)
International migration engages large numbers of people. Men, women and children break up from their homes and move to another country temporarily or permanently. Depending on the country of origin and the destination, this comes with varying degrees of uncertainties about where to settle, how much to invest in building a new life abroad and how to retain ties to the country of origin. In recent years, policies have become increasingly salient for migrants’ experiences. They impact entry possibilities and the ease of travelling back home. Increased policing of migrants can interfere in the building of a new life abroad and contribute to stress and apprehension felt among both migrants and their children. To some extent counteracting this, family and friends may provide newly arrived migrants with information on job opportunities and facilitate the transition into the new country.
This dissertation analyses the links between migration and integration patterns and migrants’ ties to the home and destination country. It does this in two ultimately distinct settings when it comes to the borders and barriers that migrants face: the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. settings. Until recently, Swedish migration policy was among the most welcoming to migrants from different parts of the world. Migration within the Nordic countries, in particular, is characterised by open borders. By contrast, Mexico and the U.S. are separated by an increasingly militarised border and internal policing of migrants has risen dramatically. Consequently, these settings provide contrasting and interesting examples of the relationship between the policy context and migrants’ experiences.
Study 1 shows that many moves are temporary and short term in the Nordic setting of free mobility. Still, the threshold to the first move is notably higher than for subsequent moves. Study 2 reveals that rising deportations of Mexican migrants in the U.S. are associated with a shift from savings brought home to the sending of remittances. Afraid of a sudden arrest or deportation, migrants maintain transnational ties by sending remittances back to Mexico rather than carrying savings across the border. Study 3 investigates the different roles that social contacts play for male and female migrants’ integration into the Swedish labour market. Whereas friends provide men with benefits in the labour market, women’s job search is often constrained by factors linked to having family in Sweden. Study 4 shows that the implementation of local level immigration enforcement in the U.S. has a negative impact on district level average educational achievement among Hispanic students. This indicates that integration and resulting ethnic achievement gaps are shaped by increased policing and surveillance of migrants.
This dissertation reveals a series of complex relationships between migration, integration and policies. Family and kin influence migration decisions also when barriers to movement are low. In the new country, kin can assist migrants’ job search or slow it down when newly arrived migrants are expected to care for them. Policing of migrants makes it more difficult to return and may affect migrants’ abilities to invest in building a new life, as indicated by negative effects for educational outcomes among groups targeted by immigration enforcement. Taken together, these factors shape the experiences and life chances of both migrants and their children in the new country.
Financial knowledge, attitude and behavior: evidence from the Austrian Survey of Financial Literacy
2020. Pirmin Fessler, Maria Silgoner, Rosa Weber. Empirica 47 (4), 929-947Article
This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the links between financial knowledge, attitude and behavior, based on the Austrian contribution to the OECD/INFE survey on financial literacy. Our analysis gives evidence of causal effects of financial knowledge on financial behavior, using a new instrument based on respondents' newspaper reading habits. We confirm that the selection bias is likely negative, i.e. we would underestimate the causal effect of knowledge on behavior in a classical regression setting. Furthermore, we provide mediation analyses, showing that about 13% of the causal effect of knowledge on behavior is mediated through financial attitude.
Circular migration in a context of free mobility
2019. Rosa Weber, Jan Saarela. Population, Space and Place 25 (4)Article
Circular migration in settings of free mobility has received increasing policy attention. However, due to data constraints, little is known about the mechanisms underlying it. Using linked Finnish and Swedish register data that allow us to follow Finnish migrants across national borders, we analyse whether the determinants of circular migration differ from those of the first and return move. People move freely between Sweden and Finland, as they are in the common Nordic labour market. Event history analysis shows that many moves are temporary and short term. Moreover, the patterns of circular migration reflect those of the first emigration and first return, respectively. Swedish speakers and individuals who are not married are more prone to emigrate for the first and second time, whereas Finnish speakers and married individuals have a higher risk of return migration. This implies that circular migration may amplify demographic features related to emigration and return migration.
Assessment of educational misclassification in register-based data on Finnish immigrants in Sweden
2017. Jan Saarela, Rosa Weber. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 45, 20-24Article
Aim: In population registers, information on completed schooling is either missing or misclassified for a large proportion of newly arrived immigrants. It is unclear how quickly the information is updated and whether misclassification, i.e., that the wrong level of education is recorded, biases empirical estimates. Methods: We use unique linked Swedish and Finnish register data to determine the extent of such mismeasurement. By running logistic regressions on zero earnings, we also illustrate how mismeasurement might influence the estimated effects of education on health or labour market outcomes. Results: We find a considerable bias in estimates based on Swedish records of educational attainment during immigrants' first few years in the country. Misclassification is additionally very common, even when information on educational attainment exists. Conclusions: These findings suggest that research and policies using recently arrived immigrants' completed schooling as a determinant of socioeconomic integration need to be interpreted with care.