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Linda Magnusson HansonForskare

Om mig

Linda Magnusson Hanson, med.dr, är forskare och docent vid Epidemiologiska enheten , Stressforskningsinstitutet, vid Psykolgiska Institutionen och SLOSH Study Manager. Lindas forskning fokuserar främst på samband mellan olika organisatoriska eller psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer och hälsoutfall såsom psykisk ohälsa, smärta och kardiometabola sjukdomar, mortalitet, och vad som kan förklara den typen av samband. De organisatoriska eller psykosocial arbetsmiljöfaktorerna innefattar bland annat krav, kontroll, stöd i arbetet, långa arbetstider, organisatoriska förändringar, anställningsotrygghet, liksom sociala stressorer såsom arbetsrelaterad exponering för våld/hot om våld, mobbning och sexuella trakasserier som kommer vara i speciellt fokus i kommande studier. Studierna bygger främst på longitudinella data från den Svenska Longitudinella studien Om Sociala förhållanden, arbetsliv och Hälsa/Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) som drivs av Epidemiologienheten vid Stressforskningsinstitutet, men även på liknande data från andra länder såsom Danmark, Finland, England och Australien genom internationella samarbeten.

Forskningsprojekt

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • How consistently does sleep quality improve at retirement? Prospective analyses with group-based trajectory models

    2022. Paraskevi Peristera (et al.). Journal of Sleep Research 31 (2)

    Artikel

    Growing evidence indicates that retiring from paid work is associated, at least in the short-term, with dramatic reductions in sleep difficulties and more restorative sleep. However, much is still not known, in particular how universal these improvements are, how long they last, and whether they relate to the work environment. A methodological challenge concerns how to model time when studying abrupt changes such as retirement. Using data from Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (n = 2,148), we studied difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, premature awakening, restless sleep, a composite scale of these items, and non-restorative sleep. We compared polynomial and B-spline functions to model time in group-based trajectory modelling. We estimated variations in the individual development of sleep difficulties around retirement, relating these to the pre-retirement work environment. Reductions in sleep difficulties at retirement were sudden for all outcomes and were sustained for up to 11 years for non-restorative sleep, premature awakening, and restless sleep. Average patterns masked distinct patterns of change: groups of retirees experiencing greatest pre-retirement sleep difficulties benefitted most from retiring. Higher job demands, lower work time control, lower job control, and working full-time were work factors that accounted membership in these groups. Compared to polynomials, B-spline models more appropriately estimated time around retirement, providing trajectories that were closer to the observed shapes. The study highlights the need to exercise care in modelling time over a sudden transition because using polynomials can generate artefactual uplifts or omit abrupt changes entirely, findings that would have fallacious implications.

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  • Commuting distance and behavior-related health

    2021. Auriba Raza (et al.). Preventive Medicine 150

    Artikel

    Health benefits of active commuting and short commuting time are well-documented; however, limited evidence exists on the effects of commuting distance. We examined longitudinal associations between commuting distance and behavior-related health. Participants were from four survey waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018). Analytical sample included 11,023 individuals and 21,769 observations. Random effects method used binomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. The outcomes were self-reported physical inactivity, overweight, smoking, problem drinking, and disturbed sleep. Models were adjusted for age, sex, occupational position, civil status, chronic disease, work strain, number of children under 12, and home/workplace neighborhood socioeconomic status. Using continuous measure, long commuting distance was associated with a higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04–1.09 per doubling of distance), overweight (OR 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00–1.04), and disturbed sleep (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.05) in fully adjusted models. Using categorized measure, individuals who commuted longer distance had a higher odds of physical inactivity compared to those with the shortest commute (3.1 km - <7.9 km vs. <3.1 km: OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04–1.28 and 7.9 km - <20 km vs. <3.1 km: OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06–1.32, fully adjusted model). Such dose-response associations were not observed for overweight or disturbed sleep. Our results suggest short commuting distance may be beneficial for behavior-related health.

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  • Global, regional, and national burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours for 194 countries, 2000-2016

    2021. Frank Pega (et al.). Environment International 154

    Artikel

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) and International Labour Organization (ILO) systematic reviews reported sufficient evidence for higher risks of ischemic heart disease and stroke amongst people working long hours (>= 55 hours/week), compared with people working standard hours (35-40 hours/week). This article presents WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of global, regional, and national exposure to long working hours, for 194 countries, and the attributable burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke, for 183 countries, by sex and age, for 2000, 2010, and 2016.

    Methods and Findings: We calculated population-attributable fractions from estimates of the population exposed to long working hours and relative risks of exposure on the diseases from the systematic reviews. The exposed population was modelled using data from 2324 cross-sectional surveys and 1742 quarterly survey datasets. Attributable disease burdens were estimated by applying the population-attributable fractions to WHO's Global Health Estimates of total disease burdens.

    Results: In 2016, 488 million people (95% uncertainty range: 472-503 million), or 8.9% (8.6-9.1) of the global population, were exposed to working long hours (>= 55 hours/week). An estimated 745,194 deaths (705,786-784,601) and 23.3 million disability-adjusted life years (22.2-24.4) from ischemic heart disease and stroke combined were attributable to this exposure. The population-attributable fractions for deaths were 3.7% (3.4-4.0) for ischemic heart disease and 6.9% for stroke (6.4-7.5); for disability-adjusted life years they were 5.3% (4.9-5.6) for ischemic heart disease and 9.3% (8.7-9.9) for stroke.

    Conclusions: WHO and ILO estimate exposure to long working hours (>= 55 hours/week) is common and causes large attributable burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke. Protecting and promoting occupational and workers' safety and health requires interventions to reduce hazardous long working hours.

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  • Home and Workplace Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Behavior-related Health

    2021. Auriba Raza (et al.). Annals of Behavioral Medicine 55 (8), 779-790

    Artikel

    Background: The influence of individual and home neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on health-related behaviors have been widely studied, but the majority of these studies have neglected the possible impact of the workplace neighborhood SES.

    Objective: To examine within-individual associations between home and work place neighborhood SES and health-related behaviors in employed individuals.

    Methods: We used participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to a minimum of two surveys between 2012 and 2018. Data included 12,932 individuals with a total of 35,332 observations. We used fixed-effects analysis with conditional logistic regression to examine within-individual associations of home, workplace, as well as time-weighted home and workplace neighborhood SES index, with self-reported obesity, physical activity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and disturbed sleep.

    Results: After adjustment for covariates, participants were more likely to engage in risky alcohol consumption when they worked in a workplace that was located in the highest SES area compared to time when they worked in a workplace that was located in the lowest SES area (adjusted odds ratios 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 3.49). There was an indication of an increased risk of obesity when individuals worked in the highest compared to the time when they worked in the lowest neighborhood SES area (1.71; 1.02–2.87). No associations were observed for the other outcomes.

    Conclusion: These within-individual comparisons suggest that workplace neighborhood SES might have a role in health-related behaviors, particularly alcohol consumption.

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  • Interrelationships between job demands, low back pain and depression

    2021. Julia K. Åhlin (et al.). Journal of Affective Disorders 282, 219-226

    Artikel

    Background: Psychosocial work stressors may lead to low back pain (LBP) through depressive symptoms or to depression through LBP. Depressive symptoms or LBP may also modify these associations.

    Methods: We examined prospective interrelationships between job demands, LBP and depsive symptoms. We used comparable data from three consecutive biennial surveys in 2010-2016, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) and the Work Environment and Health in Denmark (WEHD) cohorts, broadly representative of the working populations in Sweden and Denmark. We conducted multivariate counterfactual based mediation analyses allowing for four-way decomposition of the total effect of job demands, on incident LBP (N=2813, 2701) and incident major depression (N=3707, 5496). The four components estimated direct and indirect effects through mediation and/or interaction.

    Results: We observed no association between job demands and incident LBP four years later, but job demands was associated with later major depression (relative risks=1.88, 95% confidence interval=1.45-2.31 in SLOSH and 1.64, 1.18-2.11 in WEHD, adjusted for age, sex, panel (SLOSH data), education, cohabitation, physically strenuous work and chronic diseases. About 37% of the association was attributed to interaction between job demands and LBP in SLOSH. No interaction was found in WEHD. LBP partly mediated the relationship, by 14% in SLOSH and 2%, while statistically insignificant in WEHD.

    Limitations: Possible limitations include lack of comparable data on disabling low back pain, different scales for depressive symptoms, misclassification and residual confounding. Conclusions: This suggests mainly a direct effect of job demands on major depression, or through other pathways than LBP.

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  • Long working hours and risk of 50 health conditions and mortality outcomes

    2021. Jenni Ervasti (et al.). The Lancet Regional Health 11

    Artikel

    Background: Studies on the association between long working hours and health have captured only a narrow range of outcomes (mainly cardiometabolic diseases and depression) and no outcome-wide studies on this topic are available. To achieve wider scope of potential harm, we examined long working hours as a risk factor for a wide range of disease and mortality endpoints.

    Methods: The data of this multicohort study were from two population cohorts from Finland (primary analysis, n=59 599) and nine cohorts (replication analysis, n=44 262) from Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, all part of the Individual-participant Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) consortium. Baseline-assessed long working hours (≥55 hours per week) were compared to standard working hours (35-40 h). Outcome measures with follow-up until age 65 years were 46 diseases that required hospital treatment or continuous pharmacotherapy, all-cause, and three cause-specific mortality endpoints, ascertained via linkage to national health and mortality registers.

    Findings: 2747 (4·6%) participants in the primary cohorts and 3027 (6·8%) in the replication cohorts worked long hours. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, working long hours was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 1·68; 95% confidence interval 1·08-2·61 in primary analysis and 1·52; 0·90-2·58 in replication analysis), infections (1·37; 1·13-1·67 and 1·45; 1·13-1·87), diabetes (1·18; 1·01-1·38 and 1·41; 0·98-2·02), injuries (1·22; 1·00-1·50 and 1·18; 0·98-1·18) and musculoskeletal disorders (1·15; 1·06-1·26 and 1·13; 1·00-1·27). Working long hours was not associated with all-cause mortality.

    Interpretation: Follow-up of 50 health outcomes in four European countries suggests that working long hours is associated with an elevated risk of early cardiovascular death and hospital-treated infections before age 65. Associations, albeit weak, were also observed with diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. In these data working long hours was not related to elevated overall mortality.

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  • Occupational class and employment sector differences in common mental disorders

    2021. Emma Björkenstam (et al.). European Journal of Public Health 31 (4), 809-815

    Artikel

    Background Recent increases in common mental disorders (CMDs) among young adults are of great concern although studies of CMDs in young employees are sparse. This study investigated the independent and interacting effects of sector of employment, occupational class and CMDs. Additionally, associations between type of employment branch and CMDs within each sector were examined.

    Methods This population-based longitudinal cohort study included 665 138 employees, 19–29 years, residing in Sweden in 2009. Employment sector (i.e. private/public) and occupational class (non-manual/manual workers) were measured in 2009. Risk estimates of CMDs, measured as new prescription of antidepressants and/or psychiatric care with a diagnosis of CMDs, between 2010 and 2016, were calculated as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Cox multivariable regression analysis.

    Results Public sector employees (whereof 60% manual workers) had an elevated risk for CMDs compared to private sector employees [adjusted HR: 1.14 (95% CI 1.12–1.16)]. Within each sector, manual workers were at increased risk of CMDs compared to non-manual workers. There was an interaction between sector of employment and occupational class; manual workers in the public sector had the highest CMD risk [adjusted synergy index: 1.51 (95% CI 1.29–1.76)]. The most elevated risk for CMDs was observed in those employed in health and social services and the lowest risk among construction workers.

    Conclusion Sector of employment and occupational class play a role in CMDs in young employees. These findings should be taken into account in the attempts to reduce CMDs in the young working population.

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  • Sickness absence due to common mental disorders in young employees in Sweden

    2021. Emma Björkenstam (et al.). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

    Artikel

    Background A large proportion of sickness absence (SA) in young adults is due to common mental disorders (CMDs). Still studies on CMD-related SA in young workers are lacking, especially studies for those employed in the private sector. The current study investigated the associations between sector of employment, occupational class and SA due to CMDs. In addition, associations between type of employment branch and SA due CMDs within each sector were examined.

    Methods This population-based longitudinal cohort study included 663,583 employees, 19-29 years, residing in Sweden in 2009. Employment sector (i.e., private/public) and occupational class (non-manual/manual workers) were measured in 2009. Risk estimates of SA due to CMDs, between 2010 and 2016, were calculated as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using Cox regression analysis.

    Results Sector of employment was associated with SA due to CMDs, such that public sector workers had an elevated risk when compared with private sector employees (adjusted HR: 1.31 (95% CI 1.29-1.33). Moreover, manual workers had a slightly elevated risk for SA due to CMDs compared to non-manual workers. Within the private sector, in both manual and non-manual workers, those employed in education and health and social services evidenced the highest rates and risks of SA due to CMDs.

    Conclusion Sector of employment and occupational class play a role in SA due to CMDs in young employees. These findings should be considered when identifying high-risk groups for SA in the young working population.

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  • Technostress operationalised as information and communication technology (ICT) demands among managers and other occupational groups

    2021. Magdalena Stadin (et al.). Computers in human behavior 114

    Artikel

    Exposure to technostress operationalised as ICT demands is more prevalent in higher socioeconomic groups, but little is known about the exposure in different occupational groups considering industry and position. The aim of the present study was to explore the exposure to ICT demands in managers and other occupational groups. Cross-sectional self-reported data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), collected in 2016 was used, including 13 572 respondents (1 241 'managers', 12 331 'non-managers'). ICT demands based on a six-item Likert scale were analysed as the main measure. 'Managers' (varying industries and positions) in comparison with 'non-managers', including nine occupational groups separated by industry and education level, showed the highest prevalence (74.7%) of ICT demands. 'Managers in health care, other community services and education' showed the highest odds ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) of ICT demands, in comparison with 'non-managers' (OR 4.64 [CI 3.26-6.61], and with 'all other managers' (OR 1.55 [CI 1.01-2.38]), after adjustment for sex, age, job strain, and social support. In conclusion, managers have increased odds of exposure to ICT demands, especially managers in health care, other community services and education. Targeted actions to improve the digitalised work environment among managers are warranted.

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  • The relationship between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances in the Swedish working population

    2021. Meike Heming (et al.). Journal of Sleep Research 30 (5)

    Artikel

    The study investigated the association between onset of workplace violence and onset of sleep disturbances. We used self-reported data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) collected in 2014, 2016, and 2018. A two-wave design was based on participants who had no exposure to workplace violence or sleep disturbances at baseline (n = 6,928). A three-wave design was based on participants who in addition were unexposed to sleep disturbances in the second wave (n = 6,150). Four items of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire were used to measure sleep disturbances and one question was used to measure the occurrence of workplace violence or threats of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. In the two-wave approach, onset of workplace violence was associated with onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.96). The association was no longer statistically significant after further adjustment for night/evening work, demands, control, and social support at work. In the three-wave approach, results were only suggestive of an association between onset of workplace violence and subsequent onset of sleep disturbances after adjustment for sex, age, occupational position, education, and civil status. Onset of frequent exposure to workplace violence was associated with subsequent onset of sleep disturbances in the adjusted analyses, but these analyses were based on few individuals (13 exposed versus 5,907 unexposed). The results did not conclusively demonstrate that onset of workplace violence predicts development of sleep disturbances. Further research could elucidate the role of other working conditions.

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  • Workplace violence and health in human service industries

    2021. Anna Nyberg (et al.). Occupational and Environmental Medicine 78 (2), 69-81

    Artikel

    Objectives To provide systematically evaluated evidence of prospective associations between exposure to physical, psychological and gender-based violence and health among healthcare, social care and education workers.

    Methods The guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched for population: human service workers; exposure: workplace violence; and study type:prospective or longitudinal in articles published 1990–August 2019. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Cochrane’s ‘Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies’.

    Results After deduplication, 3566 studies remained, of which 132 articles were selected for full-text screening and 28 were included in the systematic review. A majority of the studies focused on healthcare personnel, were from the Nordic countries and were assessed to have medium quality. Nine of 11 associations between physical violence and poor mental health were statistically significant, and 3 of 4 associations between physical violence and sickness absence. Ten of 13 associations between psychological violence and poor mental health were statistically significant and 6 of 6 associations between psychological violence and sickness absence. The only study on gender-based violence and health reported a statistically non-significant association.

    Conclusion There is consistent evidence mainly in medium quality studies of prospective associations between psychological violence and poor mental health and sickness absence, and between physical violence and poor mental health in human service workers. More research using objective outcomes, improved exposure assessment and that focus on gender-based violence is needed.

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  • A comparison of the B-spline group-based trajectory model with the polynomial group-based trajectory model for identifying trajectories of depressive symptoms around old-age retirement

    2020. Paraskevi Peristera (et al.). Aging & Mental Health 24 (3), 445-452

    Artikel

    Objectives: The life event of retirement may be associated with changes in levels of depressive symptoms. The use of polynomial group-based trajectory modelling allows any changes to vary between different groups in a sample. A new approach, estimating these models using B-splines rather than polynomials, may improve modelling of complex changes in depressive symptoms at retirement.

    Methods: The sample contained 1497 participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Polynomial and B-spline approaches to estimating group-based trajectory models were compared.

    Results: Polynomial group-based trajectory models produced unexpected changes in direction of trajectories unsupported by the data. In contrast, B-splines provided improved insights into trajectory shapes and more homogeneous groups. While retirement was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms in the sample as a whole, the nature of changes at retirement varied between groups.

    Conclusions: Depressive symptoms trajectories around old age retirement changed in complex ways that were modelled more accurately by the use of B-splines. We recommend estimation of group-based trajectory models with B-splines, particularly where abrupt changes might occur. Improved trajectory modelling may support research into risk factors and consequences of major depressive disorder, ultimately assisting with identification of groups which may benefit from treatment.

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  • Changes in effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of onset of sleep disturbances in a population-based cohort of workers in Denmark

    2020. Mads Nordentoft (et al.). Sleep Medicine: X 2

    Artikel

    Objective/background: Associations between exposure to effort-reward imbalance at work (eg, high time pressure/low appreciation) and risk of sleep disturbances have been reported, but the direction of the effect is unclear. The present study investigated changes in effort-reward imbalance and risk of concomitant and subsequent onset of sleep disturbances. Methods: Participants with sleep disturbances at baseline were excluded. We included participants from a population-based cohort in Denmark (n = 8,464, 53.6% women, mean age = 46.6 years), with three repeated measurements (2012 (T0); 2014 (T1); 2016 (T2)). Changes in effort-reward imbalance (T0-T1) were categorized into ‘increase’, ‘decrease’ and ‘no change’. Self-reported sleep disturbances (difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep, daytime tiredness) were dichotomized (presence versus absence). We regressed concomitant (T1) and subsequent (T2) sleep disturbances on changes in effort-reward imbalance (T0-T1) and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for sex, age, education and cohabitation. Results: At follow-up, 8.4% (T1) and 12.5% (T2) reported onset of sleep disturbances. Increased effort-reward imbalance was associated with concomitant sleep disturbances (T1) (OR = 3.16, 2.56–3.81), whereas decreased effort-reward imbalance was not (OR = 1.22, 0.91–1.63). There was no association between increased effort-reward imbalance and subsequent sleep disturbances (T2) (OR = 1.00, 0.74–1.37). Results were similar for men and women. Conclusions: Increased effort-reward imbalance was associated with a three-fold higher risk of concomitant onset of sleep disturbances at two-year follow-up, but not subsequent onset of sleep disturbances at four-year follow-up, indicating that changes in effort-reward imbalance have immediate rather than delayed effects on sleep impairment. It is possible that the results from the two-year follow-up were to some extent affected by reverse causality.

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  • Commuting time to work and behaviour-related health

    2020. Jaana I. Halonen (et al.). Occupational and Environmental Medicine 77 (2), 77-83

    Artikel

    Objectives: Long commuting times are linked to poor health outcomes, but the evidence is mainly cross-sectional. We examined longitudinal within-individual associations between commuting time and behaviour-related health.

    Methods: Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. We selected workers who responded to a minimum of two surveys conducted every other year between 2008 and 2018. We included all study waves with self-reported commuting time (ie, the exposure, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15 or ≥15 hours/week), body mass index (based on weight and height), physical (in)activity, smoking, alcohol use and sleep problems (ie, the outcomes) (Nindividuals=20 376, Nobservations=46 169). We used conditional logistic regression for fixed effects analyses that controls for time-varying confounders by design. Analyses were stratified by working hours: normal (30–40 hours/week) or longer than normal (>40 hours/week) and adjusted for time dependent covariates: age, marital status, occupational position, presence of children, chronic disease, depressive symptoms, job strain and shift work.

    Results: Those working >40 hours/week had higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) and sleep problems (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) when they were commuting >5 hours/week than when they were commuting 1–5 hours/week. Among women working normal hours, longer commuting time associated with lower odds of problem drinking.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that lengthy commuting time increases the risk of physical inactivity and sleep problems if individuals have longer than normal weekly working hours. Effects of work arrangements that decrease commuting time should be examined in relation to health behaviours.

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  • Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes in a national sample of 50,552 workers in Denmark

    2020. Mads Nordentoft (et al.). Journal of Psychosomatic Research 128

    Artikel

    Objective: To examine the prospective relation between effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: We included 50,552 individuals from a national survey of the working population in Denmark, aged 30–64 years and diabetes-free at baseline. Effort-reward imbalance was defined, in accordance with the literature, as a mismatch between high efforts at work (e.g. high work pace, time pressure), and low rewards received in return (e.g. low recognition, job insecurity) and assessed as a continuous and a categorical variable. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified in national health registers. Using Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for estimating the association between effort-reward imbalance at baseline and risk of onset of type 2 diabetes during follow-up, adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status, cohabitation, children at home, migration background, survey year and sample method.

    Results: During 136,239 person-years of follow-up (mean = 2.7 years) we identified 347 type 2 diabetes cases (25.5 cases per 10,000 person-years). For each one standard deviation increase of the effort-reward imbalance score at baseline, the fully adjusted risk of type 2 diabetes during follow-up increased by 9% (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.98–1.21). When we used effort-reward imbalance as a dichotomous variable, exposure to effort-reward imbalance was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with a HR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02–1.58).

    Conclusion: The results of this nationwide study of the Danish workforce suggest that effort-reward imbalance at work may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

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  • Effort-reward imbalance at work and weight changes in a nationwide cohort of workers in Denmark

    2020. Mads Nordentoft (et al.). American Journal of Industrial Medicine 63 (7), 634-643

    Artikel

    Objective: To investigate the relation between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and subsequent weight changes.

    Methods: We included participants from a population-based cohort of workers in Denmark (mean age = 47 years, 54% women) with two (n = 9005) or three repeated measurements (n = 5710). We investigated the association between (a) ERI (ie, the mismatch between high efforts spent and low rewards received at work) at baseline and weight changes after a 2-year follow-up (defined as >= 5% increase or decrease in body mass index (BMI) vs stable), and (b) onset and remission of ERI and subsequent changes in BMI. Using multinomial logistic regression we calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for sex, age, education, cohabitation, migration background, and follow-up time.

    Results: After 2 years, 15% had an increase and 13% a decrease in BMI. Exposure to ERI at baseline yielded RRs of 1.09 (95% CI: 0.95-1.25) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.90-1.20) for the increase and decrease in BMI, respectively. There were no differences between sex and baseline BMI in stratified analyses. The onset of ERI yielded RRs of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.82-1.31) and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.57) for subsequent increase and decrease in BMI. The RRs for the remission of ERI and subsequent increase and decrease in BMI were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71-1.20) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.53-1.13), respectively. Of the ERI components, high rewards were associated with a lower risk of BMI increase.

    Conclusion: ERI was not a risk factor for weight changes. Future studies may investigate whether this result is generalizable to other occupational cohorts and settings.

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  • High-involvement work practices and conflict management procedures as moderators of the workplace bullying-wellbeing relationship

    2020. Maria Tornroos, Denise Salin, Linda Magnusson Hanson. Work & Stress 34 (4), 386-405

    Artikel

    Despite the serious consequences of exposure to workplace bullying for the wellbeing of individuals and functioning of organisations, few studies have investigated how organisational practices could reduce the negative impact of bullying on employee wellbeing. In the present study, we investigate the longitudinal association of exposure to workplace bullying with depressive symptoms and sleep problems, and whether high-involvement work practices (HIWP) and conflict management (CM) procedures moderate these associations. The data for the study were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final sample comprised 21,029 individuals with 45,678 person-observations from 4 waves. Longitudinal multilevel models (with study waves nested under individuals) showed that exposure to workplace bullying increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems. Furthermore, both HIWPs and CM procedures were moderators of the association between exposure to bullying and depressive symptoms and sleep problems. The results support previous findings, suggesting that workplace bullying has severe consequences for subsequent wellbeing. Moreover, it extends previous research by showing that organisational practices, such as high-involvement work practices and collaborative conflict management procedures, may act as organisational resources that buffer the negative effects of exposure to bullying on wellbeing.

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  • Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Peripheral Artery Disease

    2020. Katriina Heikkila (et al.). Journal of the American Heart Association 9 (9)

    Artikel

    Background: Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom.

    Methods and Results: Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used tau(2), I-2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (tau(2)=0.0427, I-2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations.

    Conclusions: Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

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  • Job insecurity and risk of coronary heart disease

    2020. Linda L. Magnusson Hanson (et al.). Psychoneuroendocrinology 118

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    Job insecurity has been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the extent to which this association is mediated through life style, physiological, or psychological factors. A total of 3917 men and women free from CHD provided data on job insecurity in the Whitehall II cohort study in 1997-1999. The association between job insecurity and CHD was decomposed into a direct and indirect effect mediated through unhealthy behaviors (smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity), sleep disturbances, 'allostatic load', or psychological distress. The counterfactual analyses on psychological distress indicated a marginally significant association between job insecurity and incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.75). This association was decomposed into a direct (HR 1.22, 95 %CI 0.92-1.63) and indirect association (1.08, 95 %CI 1.01-1.15), suggesting that about 30 % of the total relationship was mediated by psychological distress. No mediation was indicated via health behaviors, sleep disturbances, or allostatic load, although job insecurity was related to disturbed sleep and C-reactive protein, which, in turn were associated with CHD. In conclusion, our results suggest that psychological distress may play a role in the relation between job insecurity and CHD.

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  • Labor market exit around retirement age in Sweden and trajectories of psychotropic drugs in a context of downsizing

    2020. Sandra Blomqvist (et al.). BMC Public Health 20 (1)

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    Background A maintained psychological wellbeing is important in order to continue working longer and remain active into older age. However, little is known about impact of different organizational factors, such as downsizing, on the mental health of older workers exiting the labor market. The aim in this study was to investigate trajectories of purchases of psychotropic drugs in relation to labor market exit later in life in a context with and without downsizing. Method People living in Sweden, born 1941-1951, exiting paid work via unemployment, sickness absence/disability pension, or old-age pension were followed from 2005 to 2013 regarding purchases of psychotropic drugs. Individuals employed at a workplace closing down or downsizing with >= 18% between two subsequent years were compared to employees exiting from workplaces without downsizing or workplace closure. Generalized estimating equations was applied to derive trajectories of annual prevalence of purchased antidepressants, sedatives and anxiolytics from 4 years before to 4 years after a labour market exit. Results During the period around the exit, old-age retirees experiencing a downsizing/workplace closure did not decrease their purchases of sedatives (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.95-1.07) while the unexposed decreased their purchases during this period (OR 0.95 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Similar differences concerning sedatives and antidepressants between exposed and unexposed were seen for those exiting via sickness absence or disability pension. Furthermore, a significant difference in purchases of anxiolytics was observed between those exposed to downsizing (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and the unexposed (OR 0.98 95% CI 0.91-1.06) exiting via old-age retirement during the time before the exit. Conclusion Downsizing or workplace closure, although weakly, was associated with higher prevalence of psychotropic drugs certain years around the labor market exit. The results support the idea that involuntary labor market exit in mature adulthood may negatively affect the development of mental health.

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  • Long working hours and change in body weight

    2020. Marianna Virtanen (et al.). International Journal of Obesity 44 (6), 1368-1375

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    Objective: To examine the relation between long working hours and change in body mass index (BMI).

    Methods: We performed random effects meta-analyses using individual-participant data from 19 cohort studies from Europe, US and Australia (n = 122,078), with a mean of 4.4-year follow-up. Working hours were measured at baseline and categorised as part time (<35 h/week), standard weekly hours (35–40 h, reference), 41–48 h, 49–54 h and ≥55 h/week (long working hours). There were four outcomes at follow-up: (1) overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) or (2) overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) among participants without overweight/obesity at baseline; (3) obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) among participants with overweight at baseline, and (4) weight loss among participants with obesity at baseline.

    Results: Of the 61,143 participants without overweight/obesity at baseline, 20.2% had overweight/obesity at follow-up. Compared with standard weekly working hours, the age-, sex- and socioeconomic status-adjusted relative risk (RR) of overweight/obesity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.90–1.00) for part-time work, 1.07 (1.02–1.12) for 41–48 weekly working hours, 1.09 (1.03–1.16) for 49–54 h and 1.17 (1.08–1.27) for long working hours (Pfor trend <0.0001). The findings were similar after multivariable adjustment and in subgroup analyses. Long working hours were associated with an excess risk of shift from normal weight to overweight rather than from overweight to obesity. Long working hours were not associated with weight loss among participants with obesity.

    Conclusions: This analysis of large individual-participant data suggests a small excess risk of overweight among the healthy-weight people who work long hours.

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  • Mind and body exercises (MBE), prescribed antidepressant medication, physical exercise and depressive symptoms – a longitudinal study

    2020. Lina Rådmark (et al.). Journal of Affective Disorders 265, 185-192

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    Aims: Earlier studies show that participation in mind and body exercises (MBE) is cross-sectionally associated with high levels of depressive symptoms and antidepressants. This study investigates the longitudinal interrelationship between depressive symptoms, MBE and antidepressants.

    Methods: 3269 men and 4318 women aged 24–74 years participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Measures of MBE practice and depressive symptoms were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, data on prescription drugs were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze temporal relationships.

    Results: Both MBE practice and antidepressants in 2012 was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms two years later. Depressive symptoms in turn were associated with higher levels of later MBE practice and antidepressants. These relationships seemed to be explained by confounding by indication and were of higher magnitude for antidepressants than for MBE.

    Conclusion: Overall, SEM analysis shows that MBE and antidepressant treatment were both bi-directionally associated with depressive symptoms over time. Part of the explanation is likely to be confounding by indication: those with symptoms of depression more likely to undertake treatment, and MBE alone may be more common among those with less severe depression. The results clarify some of our findings from earlier studies and give some important, new information on what people are doing to manage depressive symptoms on a societal level, regarding self-care, medication, and the combination of both.

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  • Onset of Workplace Bullying and Risk of Weight Gain

    2020. Tianwei Xu (et al.). Obesity 28 (11), 2216-2223

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    Objective: This study aimed to examine the onset of workplace bullying as a risk factor for BMI increase.

    Methods: Repeated biennial survey data from three Nordic cohort studies were used, totaling 46,148 participants (67,337 participant observations) aged between 18 and 65 who did not have obesity and who were not bullied at the baseline. Multinomial logistic regression was applied for the analysis under the framework of generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Five percent reported onset of workplace bullying within 2 years from the baseline. In confounder-adjusted models, onset of workplace bullying was associated with a higher risk of weight gain of >= 1 BMI unit (odds ratio = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.19) and of >= 2.5 BMI units (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45). A dose-response pattern was observed, and those exposed to workplace bullying more frequently showed a higher risk (P-trend = 0.04). The association was robust to adjustments, restrictions, stratifications, and use of relative/absolute scales for BMI change.

    Conclusions: Participants with exposure to the onset of workplace bullying were more likely to gain weight, a possible pathway linking workplace bullying to increased long-term risk of type 2 diabetes.

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  • Persistent and changing job strain and risk of coronary heart disease

    2020. Reiner Rugulies (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 46 (5), 498-507

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    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain.

    Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30–59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1 660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996–2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001–2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD.

    Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07–1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women.

    Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.

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  • Psychosocial job strain and polypharmacy

    2020. Edwin C. K. Tan (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 46 (6), 589-598

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    Objectives: Psychosocial job strain has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job strain and prospective risk of polypharmacy (the prescription of ≥5 medications) and to evaluate whether coping strategies can modify this risk.

    Methods: Cohort study of 9703 working adults [mean age 47.5 (SD 10.8) years; 54% female] who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) at baseline in 2006 or 2008. Psychosocial job strain was represented by job demands and control, and measured by the Swedish version of the demand–control questionnaire. The outcome was incidence of polypharmacy over an eight-year follow-up period. Information on dispensed drugs were extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of job strain status with polypharmacy, adjusted for a range of confounders.

    Results: During the follow-up, 1409 people developed polypharmacy (incident rate: 20.6/1000 person-years). In comparison to workers with low-strain jobs (high control/low demands), those with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) had a significantly higher risk of incident polypharmacy (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04–1.89). The impact of high-strain jobs on developing polypharmacy remained among those with covert coping strategies (ie, directed inwards or towards others) but not among those with open coping strategies (ie, primarily directed toward the stressor).

    Conclusions: Workers in high-strain jobs may be at an increased risk of polypharmacy. Open coping strategies may reduce the negative impact of psychosocial job strain on risk of polypharmacy.

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  • Psychosocial working characteristics before retirement and depressive symptoms across the retirement transition

    2020. Julia K. Åhlin (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 46 (5), 488-497

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    Objectives Retirement is a major life transition. However, previous evidence on its mental health effects has been inconclusive. Whether retirement is desirable or not may depend on pre-retirement work characteristics. We investigated trajectories of depressive symptoms across retirement and how a number of psychosocial working characteristics influenced these trajectories.

    Methods We included 1735 respondents from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), retiring during 2008–2016 (mean retirement age 66 years). They had completed biennial questionnaires reporting job demands, decision authority, workplace social support, efforts, rewards, procedural justice and depressive symptoms. We applied group-based trajectory modelling to model trajectories of depressive symptoms across retirement. Multinomial logistic regression analyses estimated the associations between psychosocial working characteristics and depressive symptom trajectories.

    Results We identified five depression trajectories. In four of them, depressive symptoms decreased slightly around retirement. In one, the symptom level was initially high, then decreased markedly across retirement. Perceptions of job demands, job strain, workplace social support, rewards, effort–reward imbalance and procedural justice were associated with the trajectories, while perceptions of decision authority and work efforts were only partly related to the trajectories.

    Conclusions We observed a rather positive development of depressive symptoms across retirement in a sample of Swedish retirees. For a small group with poor psychosocial working characteristics, symptoms clearly decreased, which may indicate that a relief from poor working characteristics is associated with an improvement for some retirees. However, for other retirees poor working characteristics were associated with persistent symptoms, suggesting a long-term effect of these work stressors. Key terms depression; effort–reward imbalance; job control; job demand; job strain; longitudinal study; mental health; older worker; SLOSH; stress; Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health; work stress.

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  • Reciprocal relations between work stress and insomnia symptoms

    2020. Johanna Garefelt (et al.). Journal of Sleep Research 29 (2)

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    Work stress and poor sleep are closely related in cross-sectional data, but evidence from prospective data is limited. We analysed how perceived stress and work stressors (work demands, decision authority and workplace social support) are related to key dimensions of insomnia over time, using structural equation modelling. Biennial measurements from a large sample of the working population in Sweden enabled us to analyse both the relationship from stress to sleep as well as that from sleep to stress. Overall, we found reciprocal relations between insomnia and all four stress measures. However, looking at the relation between each dimension of insomnia and each stress measure, there were some differences in direction of effects. In the direction from stress to sleep, all work stressors as well as perceived stress predicted both difficulties initiating sleep and difficulties maintaining sleep. The same was found for non-restorative sleep, with the exception for decision authority. In the opposite direction, difficulties maintaining sleep predicted increased levels of work demands and perceived stress. Difficulties initiating sleep stood out among the insomnia symptoms as not predicting any of the stress measures, while non-restorative sleep was the only symptom predicting all stress measures. The results advance the understanding of the stress-sleep relationship and indicate a potential vicious circle between insomnia and perceived stress as well as work stressors, suggesting that the workplace could be an arena for interventions to alleviate insomnia.

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  • The effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke

    2020. Alexis Descatha (et al.). Environment International 142

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    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing joint estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of individual experts. Evidence from mechanistic data and prior studies suggests that exposure to long working hours may cause stroke. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on stroke (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence, and mortality).

    Data sources: A protocol was developed and published, applying the Navigation Guide to systematic reviews as an organizing framework where feasible. We searched electronic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CISDOC, PsycINFO, and WHO ICTRP. We also searched grey literature databases, Internet search engines, and organizational websites; hand-searched reference lists of previous systematic reviews; and consulted additional experts.

    Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (>= 15 years) individuals in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State but excluded children (aged < 15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on stroke (prevalence, incidence or mortality).

    Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first review stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. Missing data were requested from principal study authors. We combined relative risks using random-effects meta-analysis. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using the Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project.

    Results: Twenty-two studies (20 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies) met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 839,680 participants (364,616 females) in eight countries from three WHO regions (Americas, Europe, and Western Pacific). The exposure was measured using self-reports in all studies, and the outcome was assessed with administrative health records (13 studies), self-reported physician diagnosis (7 studies), direct diagnosis by a physician (1 study) or during a medical interview (1 study). The outcome was defined as an incident non-fatal stroke event in nine studies (7 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies), incident fatal stroke event in one cohort study and incident non-fatal or fatal (mixed) event in 12 studies (all cohort studies). Cohort studies were judged to have a relatively low risk of bias; therefore, we prioritized evidence from these studies, but synthesised evidence from case-control studies as supporting evidence. For the bodies of evidence for both outcomes with any eligible studies (i.e. stroke incidence and mortality), we did not have serious concerns for risk of bias (at least for the cohort studies). Eligible studies were found on the effects of long working hours on stroke incidence and mortality, but not prevalence. Compared with working 35-40 h/week, we were uncertain about the effect on incidence of stroke due to working 41-48 h/week (relative risk (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.14, 18 studies, 277,202 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence). There may have been an increased risk for acquiring stroke when working 49-54 h/week compared with 35-40 h/week (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.28, 17 studies, 275,181participants, I-2 0%, p 0.04, moderate quality of evidence). Compared with working 35-40 h/week, working >= 55 h/week may have led to a moderate, clinically meaningful increase in the risk of acquiring stroke, when followed up between one year and 20 years (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.61, 7 studies, 162,644 participants, I-2 3%, moderate quality of evidence). Compared with working 35-40 h/week, we were very uncertain about the effect on dying (mortality) of stroke due to working 41-48 h/week (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12, 12 studies, 265,937 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence), 49-54 h/week (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99-1.29, 11 studies, 256,129 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence) and 55 h/week (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89-1.31, 10 studies, 664,647 participants, I-2 20%, low quality of evidence). Subgroup analyses found no evidence for differences by WHO region, age, sex, socioeconomic status and type of stroke. Sensitivity analyses found no differences by outcome definition (exclusively non-fatal or fatal versus mixed) except for the comparison working >= 55 h/week versus 35-40 h/week for stroke incidence (p for subgroup differences: 0.05), risk of bias (high/probably high ratings in any domain versus low/probably low in all domains), effect estimate measures (risk versus hazard versus odds ratios) and comparator (exact versus approximate definition).

    Conclusions: We judged the existing bodies of evidence for human evidence as inadequate evidence for harmfulness for all exposure categories for stroke prevalence and mortality and for exposure to 41-48 h/week for stroke incidence. Evidence on exposure to 48-54 h/week and >= 55 h/week was judged as limited evidence for harmfulness and sufficient evidence for harmfulness for stroke incidence, respectively. Producing estimates for the burden of stroke attributable to exposures to working 48-54 and >= 55 h/week appears evidencebased, and the pooled effect estimates presented in this systematic review could be used as input data for the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

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  • Contribution of income and job strain to the association between education and cardiovascular disease in 1.6 million Danish employees

    2020. Elisabeth Framke (et al.). European Heart Journal 41 (11), 1164-1178

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    Aims: We examined the extent to which associations between education and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are attributable to income and work stress.

    Methods and results: We included all employed Danish residents aged 30–59 years in 2000. Cardiovascular disease morbidity analyses included 1 638 270 individuals, free of cardiometabolic disease (CVD or diabetes). Mortality analyses included 41 944 individuals with cardiometabolic disease. We assessed education and income annually from population registers and work stress, defined as job strain, with a job-exposure matrix. Outcomes were ascertained until 2014 from health registers and risk was estimated using Cox regression. During 10 957 399 (men) and 10 776 516 person-years (women), we identified 51 585 and 24 075 incident CVD cases, respectively. For men with low education, risk of CVD was 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58–1.66] before and 1.46 (95% CI 1.42–1.50) after adjustment for income and job strain (25% reduction). In women, estimates were 1.66 (95% CI 1.61–1.72) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.47–1.58) (21% reduction). Of individuals with cardiometabolic disease, 1736 men (362 234 person-years) and 341 women (179 402 person-years) died from CVD. Education predicted CVD mortality in both sexes. Estimates were reduced with 54% (men) and 33% (women) after adjustment for income and job strain.

    Conclusion: Low education predicted incident CVD in initially healthy individuals and CVD mortality in individuals with prevalent cardiometabolic disease. In men with cardiometabolic disease, income and job strain explained half of the higher CVD mortality in the low education group. In healthy men and in women regardless of cardiometabolic disease, these factors explained 21–33% of the higher CVD morbidity and mortality.

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  • Work related sexual harassment and risk of suicide and suicide attempts

    2020. Linda L. Magnusson Hanson (et al.). BMJ. British Medical Journal 370

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    Objective: To analyse the relation between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and suicide, as well as suicide attempts.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Sweden.

    Participants: 86 451 men and women of working age in paid work across different occupations responded to a self-report questionnaire including exposure to work related sexual harassment between 1995 and 2013. The analytical sample included 85 205 people with valid data on sexual harassment, follow-up time, and age.

    Main outcome measures: Suicide and suicide attempts ascertained from administrative registers (mean follow-up time 13 years).

    Results: Among the people included in the respective analyses of suicide and suicide attempts, 125 (0.1%) died from suicide and 816 (1%) had a suicide attempt during follow-up (rate 0.1 and 0.8 cases per 1000 person years). Overall, 11 of 4095 participants exposed to workplace sexual harassment and 114 of 81 110 unexposed participants committed suicide, and 61/4043 exposed and 755/80 513 unexposed participants had a record of suicide attempt. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for a range of sociodemographic characteristics, workplace sexual harassment was associated with an excess risk of both suicide (hazard ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 5.34) and suicide attempts (1.59, 1.21 to 2.08), and risk estimates remained significantly increased after adjustment for baseline health and certain work characteristics. No obvious differences between men and women were found.

    Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that workplace sexual harassment is prospectively associated with suicidal behaviour. This suggests that suicide prevention considering the social work environment may be useful. More research is, however, needed to determine causality, risk factors for workplace sexual harassment, and explanations for an association between work related sexual harassment and suicidal behaviour.

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  • Associations between cognitive and affective job insecurity and incident purchase of psychotropic drugs

    2020. Sandra Blomqvist (et al.). Journal of Affective Disorders 266, 215-222

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    Background: Previous research suggests that job insecurity is associated with poor mental health, but research examining how different aspects of job insecurity relate to clinical measures of poor mental health are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive and affective job insecurity and incident purchases of psychotropic drugs.

    Methods: We included 14,586 employees participating in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), who answered questions on cognitive and/or affective job insecurity in 2010, 2012 or 2014. Respondents were followed in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (2.5 years on average). We investigated the association between job insecurity and incident psychotropic drugs with marginal structural Cox models.

    Results: Affective job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of purchasing any psychotropic drugs (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.40 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.04–1.89)) while cognitive job insecurity was not (HR 1.15 (95% CI 0.92–1.43)). Cognitive and affective job insecurity were both associated with antidepressants, affective job insecurity with anxiolytics, but no association was found with sedatives. Women and younger workers seemed to have higher risk compared to men and older workers, but differences were not statistically significant.

    Limitations: Although job insecurity and psychotropic drugs were assessed through independent sources and several covariates were considered, unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out.

    Conclusions: The findings support that affective job insecurity is a risk factor for psychotropic drug treatment, that it may be relevant to distinguish between different types of job insecurity, and to consider sex and age as moderating factors.

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