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Mara Westling AllodiProfessor

Om mig

Professor i Specialpedagogik

Koordinator för Forskarskolan i Specialpedagogik med inriktning mot tidiga insatser i förskola och skola, finansierad av Vetenskapsrådet

Aktuellt

Samarbetspartner i Forskarskola om pedagogik och särskild begåvning för lärarutbildare (2021-2026) GiftED

Projektledare för Stöd till extremt prematurfödda barn SPIBI Clinical Trials

Lek och samspel för alla barn i inkluderande förskolemiljöer webbplats

Nätverket Inkluderande Lärandemiljöer och Tidiga Insatser (ILTI) 

Stimulerande miljöer för lärande med integration av lärandets socio-emotionella komponenter finansierad av Vetenskapsrådet Samspel i samklang med elevernas behov 

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Ledarskap, delaktighet och specialpedagogik - att skapa en bra arbetsmiljö som präglas av gemenskap

    2021. Mara Westling Allodi. Ledarskap, sociala relationer och konflikthantering för lärare, 339-369

    Kapitel

    Att leda en pedagogisk verksamhet betyder att skapa en bra arbetsmiljö som präglas av gemenskap. Eftersom en viktig målsättning i pedagogiska miljöer är lärande, är det inte tillräckligt att skapa trivsel, utan de aspekter i arbetsmiljön som främjar lärande ska specifikt uppmärksammas och utvecklas. Kvaliteten i lärandemiljön är en viktig fråga generellt, men även i specialpedagogiska insatser, för att motverka att elever drar sig undan och inte deltar i de aktiviteter som planeras.

    Läs mer om Ledarskap, delaktighet och specialpedagogik - att skapa en bra arbetsmiljö som präglas av gemenskap
  • Specialpedagogik för lärare

    2021. .

    Bok (red)

    Specialpedagogik för lärare riktar sig till alla lärarstuderande men passar även på specialpedagog- och speciallärarprogram. Boken speglar kärnan i läraruppdraget, det vill säga att stödja lärmiljöer som främjar välbefinnande och lärande och gör alla elever delaktiga. Antologin bidrar till att aktualisera kunskap om alla barns och ungdomars utveckling och behov och integrerar dem i gynnsamma undervisningspraktiker.

    Specialpedagogik för lärare täcker in följande delar av den utbildningsvetenskapliga kärnan:

    • specialpedagogikens roll i utbildningssystemet
    • tidiga insatser i förskolan och skolan
    • specialpedagogik och organisationspecialpedagogik i klassrummet
    • specialpedagogiska insatser och risker i utveckling eller funktionsnedsättningar.
    Läs mer om Specialpedagogik för lärare
  • Capitalizing on Classroom Climate to Promote Positive Development

    2021. Hanna Ginnner Hau, Laura Ferrer-Wreder, Mara Westling Allodi. Handbook of Positive Youth Development, 375-386

    Kapitel

    Although many conceptualizations of classroom climate exist, one view is that it involves individual and group level interactions in a classroom with teachers and students, as well as interactions among students. Classroom climate is important to academic and social aspects of student learning and development. The research literature on classroom climate has largely been advanced by educational and public health theory and research. This chapter presents a novel pairing of ideas and evidence about classroom climate and the field of Positive Development (PD). From a PD perspective, the classroom is a setting, which has the potential to confer an array of resources to youth. To this end, we present Goals, Attitudes, and Values in School (GAVIS) as an illustration of a research program in Sweden that demonstrates how PD theory and the study of classroom climate can intersect. Future empirical work of classroom climate taking into consideration the intersections with PD theory and research will open up new avenues for intervention and improvement of classroom climate, as well as more effective and frequent multidisciplinary collaboration within classrooms as a key ecology of youth development.

    Läs mer om Capitalizing on Classroom Climate to Promote Positive Development
  • A Cluster Randomized Trial of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS®) With Swedish Preschool Children

    2021. Lilianne Eninger (et al.). Frontiers in Psychology 12

    Artikel

    The preschool edition of Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS(R)) is a school-based, teacher implemented universal intervention developed in the United States designed to promote social emotional competence (SEC) in children as a foundation for improved mental health. PATHS is delivered as a curriculum and it is based on theories and research regarding SEC, brain development, and optimal school environments. A majority of children in Sweden attend preschool, which is government-subsidized and follows a national curriculum focusing on both academic and social emotional learning. However, there is not so much focus on formal instruction nor manual-based lessons. The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term (pre- to post-test) effects of PATHS in the Swedish preschool setting. Using a two-wave cluster randomized trial with multi-method and informant assessment (N = 285 4 and 5-year-old Swedish children; n = 145 wait-list control; n = 140 intervention; K = 26 preschools; k = 13 intervention; k = 13 control) we assessed changes in child emotional knowledge, emotional awareness, social problem solving, prosocial play, inhibitory control, and working memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We included schools with at least one classroom of 4-5-year-old children from three municipalities. We excluded open preschools, parent cooperative preschools, and family day homes. After random assignment, schools were informed of condition assignment. Research team members were not blind to assignment. We hypothesized that relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools would evidence improvements in social emotional competence as well as other outcomes. Children in PATHS, relative to children in the control, evidenced improvements in working memory and prosocial play, but also showed an increase in hyperactive behaviors. Girls in PATHS, relative to girls in the control, showed improvement in emotional knowledge and reduced anxiety. These results are considered in light of efforts to promote positive development and mental health.

    Läs mer om A Cluster Randomized Trial of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS®) With Swedish Preschool Children
  • How I Feel about My School—Adaptation and Validation of an Educational Well-Being Measure among Young Children in Sweden

    2021. Rasmus Riad (et al.). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (10)

    Artikel

    The well-being of children has received increasing attention in recent years. Nevertheless, we lack adequate brief self-report tools that enable us to consider young children’s well-being in policy evaluations and educational research. This study describes the adaptation and first validation of theSwedish version of How I Feel About My School (HIFAMS), a subjective well-being questionnaire suitable for children aged 4 to 12 years, which was originally developed in the United Kingdom (UK). Descriptive statistics with analysis of psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are based on the perceived well-being of 228 children in preschool and school aged 5 to 8 years old. The CFA endorsed a good fit to a one-factor model, and the scale showed moderate internal consistency (rα = 0.63). The results are largely in line with the findings of the original HIFAMS. We conclude that the Swedish version can be applied in early preschool/school settings and could provide first-hand information about children’s well-being from the first years of education until elementary school grades. Practitioners in early education settings might benefit from HIFAMS assessments when seeking to understand children’s current well-being to provide support to children with special educational needs or children at risk for mental health issues. Researchers could use the HIFAMS to standardize child well-being evaluations in policy evaluations and interventional studies.

    Läs mer om How I Feel about My School—Adaptation and Validation of an Educational Well-Being Measure among Young Children in Sweden
  • Social validity and psychometric properties of Teacher Impression Scale – A pilot study

    2021. Maria Gladh (et al.). European Journal of Special Needs Education

    Artikel

    Teachers of inclusive early childhood education (ECE) are responsible for monitoring children’s social skills achievement, and promoting social play between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). The Teacher Impression Scale (TIS) is an observational assessment developed for this purpose. This study aims to explore the social validity of the Swedish version of TIS, TIS-S, and to evaluate its effectiveness in identifying participants for peer-mediated interventions in Swedish preschools; by also testing the internal consistency, and the construct and criterion-related validity of the scale. The teachers (N = 16) observed children with SEN (n = 16) and without SEN (n = 16) in social play situations with TIS-S and subsequently answered a survey. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrate that the TIS-S has high internal reliability. The TIS-S also discriminated between the groups of children with and without SEN, which provided evidence of construct and criterion validity. Social validity was verified as the teachers reported that TIS-S was suitable for recognising individual children’s need for support in interactions with peers, planning for adaptations for all children in the social learning environment, and reflecting on the complexity of children’s social behaviour in play.

    Läs mer om Social validity and psychometric properties of Teacher Impression Scale – A pilot study
  • Teachers’ Experiences of Facilitators and Barriers to Implement Theme-Based Cooperative Learning in a Swedish Context

    2021. Lisa Fohlin, Mina Sedem, Mara Westling Allodi. Frontiers in Education 6

    Artikel

    Implementing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in school settings can be challenging. This case study presents barriers and facilitators expressed by kindergarten teachers (N = 6) during the implementation of a theme-based cooperative learning project over the course of a semester. During three group interviews, at the start, mid-point, and end, the teachers expressed their thoughts and experiences about the project. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to identify and analyze barriers and facilitators throughout the project. The importance of organizational investment, collegial connection and collaboration, the pedagogical fit of the EBP, and plans for long-term change were highlighted as beneficial factors for successful implementation in this case study.

    Läs mer om Teachers’ Experiences of Facilitators and Barriers to Implement Theme-Based Cooperative Learning in a Swedish Context
  • Parents’ Experiences of the First Year at Home with an Infant Born Extremely Preterm with and without Post-Discharge Intervention

    2020. Erika Baraldi (et al.). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (24)

    Artikel

    With increasing survival rates of children born extremely preterm (EPT), before gestational week 28, the post-discharge life of these families has gained significant research interest. Quantitative studies of parental experiences post-discharge have previously reported elevated levels depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress-disorder and anxiety among the parents. The current investigation aims to qualitatively explore the situation for parents of children born EPT in Sweden during the first year at home. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 17 parents of 14 children born EPT; eight parents were from an early intervention group and nine parents from a group that received treatment as usual, with extended follow-up procedures. Three main themes were identified using a thematic analytic approach: child-related concerns, the inner state of the parent, and changed family dynamics. Parents in the intervention group also expressed themes related to the intervention, as a sense of security and knowledgeable interventionists. The results are discussed in relation to different concepts of health, parent–child interaction and attachment, and models of the recovery processes. In conclusion, parents describe the first year at home as a time of prolonged parental worries for the child as well as concerns regarding the parent’s own emotional state.

    Läs mer om Parents’ Experiences of the First Year at Home with an Infant Born Extremely Preterm with and without Post-Discharge Intervention
  • Stockholm preterm interaction-based intervention (SPIBI) - study protocol for an RCT of a 12-month parallel-group post-discharge program for extremely preterm infants and their parents

    2020. Erika Baraldi (et al.). BMC Pediatrics 20 (1)

    Artikel

    Background: Improved neonatal care has resulted in increased survival rates among infants born after only 22 gestational weeks, but extremely preterm children still have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delays, learning disabilities and reduced cognitive capacity, particularly executive function deficits. Parent-child interaction and parental mental health are associated with infant development, regardless of preterm birth. There is a need for further early interventions directed towards extremely preterm (EPT) children as well as their parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Stockholm Preterm Interaction-Based Intervention (SPIBI), the arrangements of the SPIBI trial and the chosen outcome measurements.

    Methods: The SPIBI is a randomized clinical trial that includes EPT infants and their parents upon discharge from four neonatal units in Stockholm, Sweden. Inclusion criteria are EPT infants soon to be discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with parents speaking Swedish or English. Both groups receive three initial visits at the neonatal unit before discharge during the recruitment process, with a strengths-based and development-supportive approach. The intervention group receives ten home visits and two telephone calls during the first year from a trained interventionist from a multi-professional team. The SPIBI intervention is a strengths-based early intervention programme focusing on parental sensitivity to infant cues, enhancing positive parent-child interaction, improving self-regulating skills and supporting the infant’s next small developmental step through a scaffolding process and parent-infant co-regulation. The control group receives standard follow-up and care plus extended assessment. The outcomes of interest are parent-child interaction, child development, parental mental health and preschool teacher evaluation of child participation, with assessments at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months corrected age (CA). The primary outcome is emotional availability at 12 months CA.

    Discussion: If the SPIBI shows positive results, it could be considered for clinical implementation for child-support, ethical and health-economic purposes. Regardless of the outcome, the trial will provide valuable information about extremely preterm children and their parents during infancy and toddlerhood after regional hospital care in Sweden.

    Trial registration: The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in October 2018 (NCT03714633).

    Läs mer om Stockholm preterm interaction-based intervention (SPIBI) - study protocol for an RCT of a 12-month parallel-group post-discharge program for extremely preterm infants and their parents
  • Culturally diverse families of young children with ASD in Sweden

    2020. Rano Zakirova-Engstrand (et al.). PLoS ONE 15 (7)

    Artikel

    Background

    Research suggests that families’ knowledge and cultural perceptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and beliefs about its etiology and prognosis, can affect parents’ recognition of the first signs of autism in their children and influence help seeking and treatment decisions.

    Objective

    This study investigated explanatory models of autism among parents of young children with ASD in the multicultural context of Sweden.

    Method

    Seventeen parents from diverse cultural, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds participated in semi-structured interviews. A deductive approach to qualitative content analysis was used to analyze data. Five domains of the Explanatory Model supplementary module of the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) were used as coding categories, operationalized as ‘Parents’ understanding of autism’; ‘Autism prototypes’; ‘Causal explanations’; ‘Course of autism’, and ‘Help seeking and treatment expectations’

    Results

    The results showed that parents’ prior knowledge of autism and experience of young children’s typical developmental trajectories, as well as the opinions of children’s grandparents and preschool teachers, affected symptom recognition and help seeking. There were differences in parents’ explanatory models before and after ASD diagnosis. Initial interpretations of the disorder included medical conditions and reaction to environmental influences, while genetic, supernatural/religious factors, and vaccinations were mentioned as definite causes after obtaining a clinical diagnosis. Parents also held multiple explanatory models, influenced by the views of family members and information obtained from media or from health care professionals. Parents’ treatment decisions included use of available state-funded support services, and complementary and alternative treatments.

    Conclusion

    The results demonstrate the utility of the CFI’s Explanatory Model supplementary module in autism research. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

    Läs mer om Culturally diverse families of young children with ASD in Sweden
  • Childcare, Culture, and Child Development

    2020. Laura Ferrer Wreder (et al.). The Oxford Handbook of Moral Development

    Kapitel

    This chapter concerns theory and research relevant to child development and early childhood education and care (ECEC), which is a key ecology for human development. In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of the organizational features and processes important to understanding these settings. The authors then focus on describing the Nordic welfare model as it relates to ECEC settings, with an exploration of how certain ethics are reflected in the design, goals, and practice of ECEC settings in Sweden. The chapter then moves to summarizing and reflecting on the empirical research literature on how Swedish ECEC settings may support aspects of children’s moral development; finally, the authors pose several questions that may prove important to advancing future research in this area.

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  • Play for Children with Disabilities

    2019. Mara Westling Allodi (et al.). Users' Needs Report on Play for Children with Disabilities, 104-116

    Kapitel

    The aim of this study is twofold: firstly the aim is to give a short description of the policy context of Sweden, which is relevant for the topic of “Play for children with disabilities”, through a presentation of the legislation and the policies of stakeholders, the national and local agencies and authorities with responsibilities in this field, and of other non-governmental organizations. Secondly, the aim is to perform a mapping of the users’ needs concerning play for children with disabilities, which are emerging from available research from relevant disciplines, reports and investigations made from the authorities and organizations that have responsibilities in this field, and other relevant stakeholders in Sweden. The content of the mapping effectuated are the users’ needs, the barriers and the facilitators that are described in the identified reports.

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  • The Sävsjö-school-project

    2019. Göran Ahlqvist (et al.). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 13

    Artikel

    Background

    A curriculum was planned using modern concepts based on the “old” principles to test if such an educational intervention provided pupils with good mental health and a solid basis for good reading and writing skills, as well as generated a positive attitude to learn. These “old” principles were based on previous knowledge derived from school psychiatry (which in Sweden was a branch of child and adolescent psychiatry 1915–1970), educational psychology and the educational approach from the differentiating Swedish School system of 1946–1970 (itself based on the principles of curative education “Heilpädagogie”, which was later renamed mental health care).

    Methods

    All six available schools in the small Swedish city of Sävsjö participated in the study. In these six schools there were eight preschool classes that included every 6-year old child living in the city. In total there were 184 families with 186 children (including 2 pairs of twins) who belonged to these preschool classes and were invited to take part in the study. One family moved just before school-start and 8 decided not to participate, thus 177 children (84 boys and 93 girls, aged 5.6–6.6 years) entered the study. The preschool classes were randomized into an experimental group with four preschool classes and a comparison group with four preschool classes. The experimental group followed a teaching program from the start of the preschool year until the end of grade 3 that was tailored to each student’s individual capacity based on the concepts of school maturation and curative education used in the Swedish schools during the period 1946–1970. The comparison group followed today’s average Swedish school curriculum. The project was planned as an intervention study covering the preschool year and the first 3 years of elementary school, which was to form a basis for a follow-up when the pupils had left senior high, the 12th year in Swedish public school. The outcome and the achievements were measured at end of grade 3 using standardized tests on reading, writing and mathematical skills. Behavior was assessed at school start and at end of grade 3 using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL-scales) in addition to a questionnaire on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) with criteria from DSM-IV. The children made a self-evaluation of their attitude towards learning.

    Results

    At the end of school year 3, the children in the experimental group had an improved reading capacity (p = 0.002, effect size(es) = 4.35) and reading comprehension (p = 0.03, es = 0.04). They evaluated their own reading (p = 0.02, es = 0.23), writing (p = 0.007, es = 0.35) and mathematical skills (p = 0.003, es = 0.48) as going “very well” when compared to comparison group. Differences regarding intelligence quotas between the groups at the start of school had disappeared by the end of grade 3. No differences referring to CBCL were found at end of grade 3. One child in the comparison group fulfilled criteria for AD/HD, according to parents and teachers.

    Conclusions

    The alternative curriculum covering the preschool year through the first 3 years of elementary school based on the old principles from curative education (“Heilpädagogie”), educational psychology and school psychiatry gave the children in the experimental group a better reading capacity and reading comprehension.

    Trial registration The study started in 1998. The data were collected longitudinally and prospectively but have not been analyzed until now, with the children having left senior high. A retrospective registration in the ISRCTN is pending.

    Läs mer om The Sävsjö-school-project
  • Observation of Social Participation in Play

    2019. Mara Allodi Westling (et al.).

    Konferens

    Aim. The aim of this presentation is to describe: - the process that we adopted in order to develop an instrument to observe play and social interaction recorded in natural preschool settings; - the contents of the instrument.

    The instrument will be used in a peer-mediated intervention based on Play Time/Social Time (Odom et al. 1997), where we need a reliable and valid measure of children’s play behaviour and social skill, which would make the external observers able to detect possible changes after the intervention and as a complement to other instruments, as teachers’ impressions ratings (TIS) and structured classroom observations (ICP).

    Background. The program PTST was translated to Swedish. The contents of the interventions were discussed with students and practitioners and tested in small scale studies, showing a good social validity (Siljehag & Allodi, 2017). A pilot study was conducted in four preschools. The analysis of data from the trial is currently ongoing.

    Procedure. We obtained an observation instrument that has been used in previous research on friendship for children with autism, the Friendship Observation Scale (FOS) (Bauminger, Aviezer & Rogers, 2004). Its contents matched fairly well our interventions’ contents.  We made a translation and adaptation. The contents of Social Participation Observation in Play (SPOP) were discussed with an expert educator from our team who tested it in field observations in preschool. After her feedback we reduced the number of behaviours to observe, retaining behaviours that were more likely to happen with young children, and that were targeted by the program. Simple Video Coder (Barto, Bird, Hamilton et al., 2017) or other available software will be used to code the videorecorded interactions. It will be used in the study: Social Interaction in play time and language activities (2018-00018) funded by  Skolforskningsinstitutet /Swedish Institute for Educational Research.

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  • A Critical Review of Ideology, Policy and Circumstances in the Swedish Context Related to Inclusive Education Organisational Climate and Students’ Wellbeing

    2017. Mara Allodi Westling. Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Practices, 97--116

    Kapitel

    The learning environment in the classroom with its daily interactions involves processes that can be developed and utilised to strengthen educational environments, preventing difficulties and enhancing learning for the students. Yet the classroom environments are imbedded in educational organisations that are influenced by local and national policies and by societal factors as ideologies and values. Based on analyses of reforms introduced in the Swedish Educational system and of their effects, this paper will analyse influences on the educational organisation that may thwart the traditionally agreed upon humanistic values of fairness and equity, and therefore may counteract the efforts to build developmentally healthy and effective learning environments. In planning interventions for more inclusive and successful learning environments in school, it would be opportune to consider the influence of organizational factors at broader levels, if they represent forces and values to combat.

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  • Simple-minded accountability measures create failure schools in disadvantaged contexts

    2013. Mara Allodi Westling. Policy Futures in Education 11 (4), 331-363

    Artikel

    The principles of new public management – market mechanisms, accountability and standards – have been applied in the education system. These methods are supposed to increase efficiency, but there is also a risk of negative consequences from the services provided if the measures of performance target a reduced range of goals, ignore relevant variables or are not valid measures. Indicators used to compare schools’ performance are aggregate measures, such as the percentage of students who have access to secondary education and the average qualification value. This study reports how accountability policy and procedures may affect the functioning of the education system through the case study of a school serving a diverse student population. The school organisation was influenced by measures of performance, external events and contextual and selection variables. The average qualification value measure seems to be a limited measure of performance at the school level, since it largely reflects school composition and school segregation. Even the available performance measures adjusted for background variables do not take account of relevant variables that may influence the school’s need of resources and its results, such as students’ language proficiency and special educational needs. Other performances that are not easily measured – such as the prevention of dropout, improvement of school attendance and provision of an equitable education for all students – are disregarded. Schools serving those students with the most needs risk being penalised by an approximate and restricted range of accountability systems because there is a risk that the schools will appear to be failing when they are working with more complex and advanced tasks than average schools. Based on these inaccurate performance measurements, the school may be targeted with wide-ranging, severe and basically unjust interventions.

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  • Characteristics of Swedish preschools that provide education and care to children with special educational needs

    2016. Johanna Lundqvist, Mara Westling Allodi, Eva Siljehag. European Journal of Special Needs Education 31 (1), 124-139

    Artikel

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and quality. The purpose was also to provide reflections on the usefulness of different structured observation rating scales designed to assess preschool quality. Eight preschool units located in four Swedish districts were visited. A total of sixteen 5-year-old children with special educational needs/disability and forty typically developing children of the same age participated. The data sources were structured observation rating scales (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Caregiver Interaction Scale and Inclusive Classroom Profile), ABILITIES Index questionnaire, unstructured observation, interviews, conversations and documents. Two overall typologies of preschool units were identified: the comprehensive units enrolled children with various special educational needs/disability, while the specialised units enrolled children with the same disability. The staff resources were greater in the specialised units. The overall quality in the observed units ranged from low to good. In units educating children with a disability diagnosis, the quality was never low. None of the preschool units was scored as having a good inclusive environment. The structured observation rating scales complemented each other and covered, in part, different quality aspects of the units. The study shows that there is a large variation in quality between the units and that there is a need to further develop the quality of the preschool units and of the services for children with special educational needs in Swedish preschools.

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  • School, Learning and Mental Health

    2010. Jan-Eric Gustafsson (et al.).

    Rapport

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en systematisk översikt av forskning om skola, lärande och barns psykiska hälsa. Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens Hälsoutskottet har givit uppdraget att genomföra en sådan översikt till en arbetsgrupp som har arbetat med uppdraget från hösten 2008 till mars 2009.

    Det första syftet med översikten är att genomföra en kartläggning av forskning inom det breda fält som behandlar frågor om skola, lärande och barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Det andra syftet är att genomföra en narrativ syntes av forskning som undersökt orsaksförhållanden mellan psykisk hälsa å ena sidan och skolresultat och lärande å den andra sidan. Det tredje syftet är att redovisa resultat från forskning som har studerat svenska barns och ungdomars erfarenheter och upplevelser av skola och undervisningssituationer. För att uppnå de första två syftena genomfördes systematiska litteratursökningar i bibliografiska databaser av artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga internationella tidskrifter inom olika discipliner. Det tredje syftet undersöktes med litteratursökningar av kvalitativa svenska studier i bibliografiska databaser.

    Slutsatser

    På grundval dels av kartläggningen av forskning om skola, lärande och psykisk hälsa, dels av de två fördjupade översikterna kan följande slutsatser dras:

    • Omfattningen av forskning som undersöker relationerna mellan olika aspekter av skola och psykisk hälsa är begränsad och i synnerhet gäller detta forskning som undersöker organisationsfaktorer och undervisnings-faktorer, aktiviteter, läroplaners utformning, resurser, specialpedagogiskt stöd, och olika former av betyg och bedömning.

    • Tidiga svårigheter i skolan och i synnerhet läs- och skrivsvårigheter kan orsaka internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem.

    • Svårigheter i skola och psykiska problem tenderar att vara stabila över tid.

    • Skolrelaterade hälsoproblem tenderar att minska när eleverna börjar på gymnasiet och får tillgång till nya områden av aktiviteter, roller och valmöjligheter.

    • Att genomföra stora ansträngningar utan att detta leder till resultat är relaterat till utveckling av depression.

    Problem i skolan med skolresultat och prestationer orsakar inter-naliserande symptom för flickor under tonåren.

    • Det finns samband mellan olika typer av psykiska problem och de är också relaterade till ett brett spektrum av somatiska och psykosomatiska symptom.

    • Internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem har negativa effekter på skolprestationer genom mekanismer som är delvis ålders- och genusspecifika.

    • Kompetenser och prestationer i skolan är relaterade till psykisk hälsa.

    • Goda resultat i skolan har en positiv effekt på självuppfattning.

    • En god självuppfattning bidrar inte direkt till bättre resultat, men andra faktorer som är relaterade till självuppfattning (motivation och upplevd inre/yttre kontroll) påverkar lärande och resultat

    • Relationer med klasskamrater och lärare bidrar till processer som kopplar skolmisslyckande till psykisk ohälsa. Relationer med kamrater och lärare kan också skydda mot utvecklingen av psykiska problem.

    • Jämförelser med klasskamrater påverkar självuppfattningen, med effekter som varierar beroende på gruppsammansättning och typ av skola.

    Läs mer om School, Learning and Mental Health
  • The meaning of social climate of learning environments

    2010. Mara Allodi Westling. Learning Environments Research 13 (2), 89-104

    Artikel

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments: presenting evidence of its effects; its importance in special needs and inclusive education; presenting existing differences between settings; discussing the contribution of social climate to teachers’ professional autonomy. The arguments support the view that social climate is an essential factor in educational processes and make incomprehensible the scarce attention reserved to it in educational policy, research and teacher programs. Indications of neglect in the Swedish context are presented. The resistance towards the concept of social climate is related to a) dualistic and hierarchic views; b) characteristics of bureaucratic systems; c) reductionist interpretations; d) difficulties in handling and evaluating social values and goals; e) post-modern criticism of scientific knowledge and psychology. Implications for counteracting reductive interpretations and meeting resistance and criticism are discussed.

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  • Users' needs on play for children with disabilities

    2017. Mara Allodi Westling, Tamara Zappaterra. Handicap, Reconnaissance et “Vivreensemble” [Recognition and “Community living”], 10-10

    Konferens

    The COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” is devoted to the enhancement of play for children with disabilities. In order to develop policies, practices and professional training on the topic of play for children with disabilities, it is necessary to take account of the users’ needs. Aim. The aim of the study is to investigate the users’ needs on play for children with disabilities. Method. Surveys directed to disability associations and parents, developed by the COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” were distributed to 31 coordinators and translated into 23 languages. 75 answers were collected from association in 24 countries and 129 from parents in 26 countries. Results from Associations. Play for play sake is important and essential for a wide range of reasons. Play conduces to an array of positive outcome for the child, even if it is experienced as a free activity without specific objectives. Results from parents. Play is an activity that fulfil essential needs for the child. The child’s needs were to have friends and peers, adapted and specialized toys, a knowledgeable adult; improved skills necessary to play; accessible outdoor environments; available time; societal attitudes, policy and resources. The children’s experiences of play were reported. Play is an engaging activity in which the children observe, communicate, share and experience participation. Play means positive emotions as joy, happiness, relax, excitement and fun. The children experience agency when they play. The children wanted to play for more time, to have more options, adaptions, and to overcome barriers.

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