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Pehr GranqvistProfessor

Om mig

Just nu är jag forskningsledig stora delar av tiden. Min undervisning består för närvarande av ströföreläsningar om anknytning, psykologins idémässiga förhistoria och vetenskapsteori på olika kurser och program vid institutionen. I övrigt består mina arbetsuppgifter av forskning kring en mängd olika företeelser som i de flesta fall på ett eller annat sätt berör anknytningsteori.

Jag disputerade i psykologi vid Uppsala universitet år 2002 på en avhandling som relaterade anknytningsteori till olika aspekter av religiositet. Därefter verkade jag som post-doc, vik lektor och forskarassistent vid samma universitet. År 2004 blev jag docent i psykologi. Jag kom till Psykologiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet år 2009, som forskarassistent och lektor. Jag fungerade som studierektor för forskarutbildningen i psykologi 2011-2015. Jag blev professor i psykologi 2015.

Jag deltog nyligen i en internationell expertpaneldiskussion om "Infant disorganized attachment: The key questions", avsedd att vara till hjälp för praktiker och kliniker. Filmad vid UC Berkeley, Jan 2017, och tillgänglig på: www.youtube.com

Ny bok

Granqvist, P. (2020). Attachment in Religion and Spirituality: A Wider View. Guilford Press. Förlagssida.

Podcastavsnitt om boken: New Books in Psychology, med Renee Garfinkel.

Undervisning

Just nu är jag forskningsledig stora delar av tiden. Min undervisning består för närvarande av ströföreläsningar om anknytning, psykologins idémässiga förhistoria och vetenskapsteori på olika kurser och program vid institutionen.

Forskning

Forskningsprojekt

(1) Anknytning och religion

Forskningen kring anknytning och religion handlar om hur individers religiositet och andlighet är kopplade till deras övriga anknytningsrelationer och -erfarenheter. Från utvecklingspsykologi kommer den anknytningsteoretiska grunden. Denna består dels av en evolutionsteoretisk modell över varför och hur barn och deras föräldrar utvecklar starka känslomässiga band till varandra, dels av beskrivningar av individuella skillnader i anknytning och deras betydelse för olika aspekter av barnets utveckling. Några av de religiositetsaspekter vi har tittat på är religiösa förändringar över tid, gudsbild, nyandlighet, och olika utvecklingsvägar till religiositet (via socialisering och reglering av negativa känslomässiga tillstånd). Dessa fenomen studeras empiriskt i relation till de olika anknytningsmönster som beskrivs inom anknytningsteorin. Vi har också fokuserat på behovet av metodologiska förbättringar och har genomfört anknytnings- och religiositetsstudier med prospektiva longitudinella och experimentella designer, liksom med mer indirekta, implicita metoder för att studera både anknytning och religiositet. Jag betonar ett livscykelperspektiv för utvecklingen av anknytning och religiositet med fokus på kopplingar däremellan från tidig barndom till sent vuxenliv. Utöver nedanstående samarbetspartners har många uppsatsstudenter varit involverade i forskningen under årens lopp.

Finansiellt stöd har givits av Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Alrutz fond, The Sasakawa Young Leaders' Fellowship Fund och Vetenskapsrådet.

Samarbetspartners inkluderar Anders G. Broberg, Andreas Birgegård, Rosalinda Cassibba, Jane Dickie, Mari Fransson, Berit Hagekull, Tord Ivarsson, Lee Kirkpatrick, Mary Main, Mario Mikulincer och Phillip Shaver.

(2) Neurovetenskap och religion

Religiositetens neurovetenskap är ett framväxande forskningsfält inom vilket man studerar religiösa erfarenheter i relation till neurokognitiva processer, inklusive olika hjärnaktivitetsmönster. Vi genomförde en stor experimentell replikeringsstudie av en serie experiment som utförts i Kanada av Dr. Michael Persinger med kollegor, som menar sig ha funnit att andligt relaterade upplevelser (t.ex. ”sensed presence”) resulterar från aktivering av delar av hjärnans s.k. limbiska system. I linje med deras procedur tillämpade vi svaga, komplexa magnetfält på deltagarnas temporallober för att testa om vi kunde reproducera sådana experimentella effekter. I motsats till Persinger och medarbetares experiment använde vi en strikt dubbelblind procedur. Vi undersökte också det eventuella inflytandet av religiositet, nyandlighet och den allmänna benägenheten för skiftningar i medvetandetillstånd (absorption) på sådana upplevelser. Våra resultat (publicerade i tidskriften Neuroscience Letters) avslöjade huvudeffekter av personlighetsparametrarna på ett sätt som indikerade att allmän suggererbarhet, men inte magnetfälten, var av betydelse. Utöver nedanstående forskare arbetade två uppsatsstudenter inom detta projekt.

Forskare: Pehr Granqvist, Mats.Fredrikson, Dan Larhammar, Marcus Larsson och Sven Valind.

(3) Anknytning under tonår och vuxet liv

Även om anknytningsteori- och forskning ursprungligen syftade till att förstå små barns känslomässiga band till sina primära omvårdare har senare teori och forskning också adresserat anknytningsprocesser under tonår och vuxet liv. Detta har gjorts inom två olika forskningstraditioner, den första baserad på lingvistisk analys av vuxnas berättelser om sin anknytningshistoria (vanligt i utvecklingspsykologi), den andra baserad på en analys av långvariga kärleksrelationer som det vuxna livets mest centrala anknytningsrelationer (vanligt i socialpsykologi). Vi har genomfört forskning om anknytning hos tonåringar och vuxna inom båda dessa traditioner. Till att börja med har vi studerat den prospektiva överflyttningen av anknytning from föräldrar till nära vänner och kärlekspartners under ungdomsåren. För det andra har vi fokuserat på individuella skillnader i tonåringars och vuxnas anknytning i relation till ett brett spektrum av fenomen som är relaterade till emotionsreglering, inklusive ätstörningar, bruk och missbruk av droger, självskadebeteenden och problembemästringsstrategier (coping). Slutligen studerar vi kontinuitet och diskontinuitet i anknytningstrygghet från tidig barndom till tidigt vuxenliv som en del av ett longitudinellt projekt om socioemotionell utveckling. I detta senare projekt undersöker vi också betydelsen av livshändelser och temperament som möjliga moderatorer av anknytningsrelaterad kontinuitet-diskontinuitet.

Forskare: Pehr Granqvist, Mari Fransson, Berit Hagekull, Gunilla Bohlin, Wolfgang Friedlmeier.

Finansiellt stöd från Vetenskapsrådet och Riksbankens Jubileumsfond.

(4) Anknytning hos barn till mödrar med intellektuellt funktionshinder

Vår målsättning med detta projekt är att få kunskap om anknytning hos barn till mödrar med intellektuellt funktionshinder (IF). Eftersom flera externa riskfaktorer har befunnits överrepresenterade bland mödrar med IF fokuserar också projektet på möjliga risk- och skyddsfaktorer för barnens utveckling. Trots att föräldraskap vid förekomst av IF har fått mycket uppmärksamhet och genererat stora kontroverser har ingen tidigare publicerad studie tittat på anknytningen hos barn till dessa föräldrar.

Forskare och övriga medarbetare: Pehr Granqvist, Mari Fransson, Lene Lindberg, Kerstin Andersson, Lydia Springer, Lena Palm Samuelsdotter och Tommie Forslund.

Detta projekt genomförs i samarbete med FUB (Föreningen för utvecklingsstörda barn, ungdomar och vuxna), Stockholms läns landsting och Kunskapscentrum vid Uppsala läns landsting.

Funding provided by FAS (Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap).

Forskningsprojekt

Publikationer

I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Attachment in Religion and Spirituality

    2020. Pehr Granqvist.

    Bok

    Synthesizing diverse strands of theory and research, this compelling book explores the psychology of religion and spirituality through an innovative attachment lens. Pehr Granqvist examines the connections between early caregiving experiences, attachment patterns, and individual differences in religious cognition, experience, and behavior. The function of a deity as an attachment figure is analyzed, as are ways in which attachment facilitates the intergenerational transmission of religion. The book also shows how the attachment perspective can aid in understanding mystical experiences, connections between religion and mental health, and cultural differences between more and less religious societies. Granqvist's conversational writing style, concrete examples, and references to popular culture render complex concepts accessible.

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  • Attachment, culture, and gene-culture co-evolution

    2020. Pehr Granqvist. Attachment & Human Development

    Artikel

    I argue that attachment relationships, and particularly secure ones, are important contexts for social learning and cultural transmission. Bowlby originally treated the attachment-behavioral system as serving only one evolutionary function: protection, via physical proximity. Yet the time is ripe to consider learning, especially social learning, as an additional functional consequence of attachment. Updated accordingly, attachment theory has the potential to serve as a much-needed developmental anchor for models of cultural evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. To support my arguments, I review progress in evolutionary science since Bowlby's lifetime, highlighting the growing recognition of ecological flexibility and the cultural embeddedness of animal behavior. I also review research pointing to a facilitating role of secure attachment relationships for social learning from caregivers among humans. For illustrational purposes, I show how one important aspect of human culture - religion - is culturally transmitted within attachment relationships, and of how the generalization of attachment-related working models biases the cultural transmission of religion from parents to offspring. I end the paper with a call for empirical research to test the role of attachment in cultural transmission beyond religion.

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  • Faith in the Wake of Disaster

    2019. Edward B. Davis (et al.). Psychological Trauma 11 (6), 578-587

    Artikel

    Objective: This longitudinal qualitative study explores the impact of natural disasters on religious attachment (perceived relationship with God). We sought to validate and conceptually extend the religion-as-attachment model in a postdisaster context.

    Method: At 4 weeks (T1; n = 36) and 6 months postdisaster (T2; n = 29), survivors of the 2016 Louisiana flood completed a disaster-adapted version of the Religious Attachment Interview (Granqvist & Main, 2017).

    Results: At T1 and T2. survivors emphasized God being a safe haven (source of protection, comfort, or nurturance). This emphasis was especially pronounced for survivors who were directly affected (their home or business flooded) or had previous disaster exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Overall, survivors consistently emphasized God serving as a stronger and wiser attachment figure, and it was rare for them to report experiencing perceived separation or loss of intimacy from God. At T1 and T2, around 85% of survivors described their current religious attachment as either having a positive affective quality (e.g., closer, stronger) or as no different from before the disaster; around 15% said it had a negative affective quality (e.g., disappointed, strained). In describing their postdisaster religion/spirituality, survivors highlighted (a) God being a source of love, comfort, strength, and hope; (b) actively putting trust/faith in God; and (c) experiencing God through family/community.

    Conclusion: Results support and conceptually extend the religion-as-attachment model in a postdisaster context. Findings suggest disasters activate the attachment system, and survivors commonly view and relate with God as an attachment figure, especially one who serves as a safe haven.

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  • Meaning Through Attachment

    2019. Laura Dewitte, Pehr Granqvist, Jessie Dezutter. Psychological Reports 122 (6), 2242-2265

    Artikel

    We propose an integrative framework, advancing attachment as a vital factor in the development and maintenance of meaning throughout life. First, early attachment experiences provide a foundation for recognizing patterns and acquiring a sense of order and coherence. Furthermore, interactions with sensitive attachment figures stimulate mentalization capacities and exploration of the inner and outer environment, enabling the formation of complex representations of self, others, and the world, ultimately also molding how individuals appraise meaning in their lives. Second, attachment security can serve as an enduring and powerful resource for handling threats to meaning. When confronted with disruptions to meaning, secure attachment provides a coherent set of representations to fall back on and maintain or regain a firm sense of order and meaning under challenging circumstances. Moreover, by promoting cognitive openness and tolerance of ambiguity, secure attachment facilitates flexible and realistic adjustment of meaning representations when encountering discrepant information.

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  • Religious meaning making and attachment in a disaster context

    2019. Edward B. Davis (et al.). Journal of Positive Psychology 14 (5), 659-671

    Artikel

    The goal of this longitudinal qualitative study was to develop a grounded theory of religious meaning making and attachment in a disaster context. At 1-month (T1; n = 36) and 6-months postdisaster (T2; n = 29), we conducted in-depth interviews with a highly religious sample of adult survivors of the 2016 Louisiana flood, using a disaster-adapted version of the Religious Attachment Interview. We utilized Corbin and Strauss's grounded-theory approach for data analysis. At both timepoints, results revealed that survivors who were theistic believers engaged in postdisaster religious meaning making in which they drew on benevolent God representations and theodicies to appraise the disaster's cause, purpose, and religious-attachment effects, thereby contributing to positive religious-attachment outcomes (religious meanings made; e.g. renewed beliefs and experiences of God's benevolence and providence). Findings are discussed in terms of theories and research on disasters, meaning making, and religious attachment, including implications for research and practice.

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  • The scent of security

    2019. Pehr Granqvist (et al.). Physiology and Behavior 198, 144-150

    Artikel

    When in a stressful situation, access to adult attachment figures (e.g., romantic partners) is an important means by which adults regulate stress responses. The practice of smelling a partner's worn garment is reported as a self-treatment against stress. Here, we experimentally determined whether exposure to a partner's body odor attenuates adults' subjective discomfort and psychophysiological responses, and whether such effects are qualified by adult attachment security. In a blocked design, participants (N = 34) were presented with their partner's body odor, their own body odor, the odor of a clean t-shirt and rose odor, while exposed to weak electric shocks to induce discomfort and stress responses. Results showed that partner body odor reduces subjective discomfort during a stressful event, as compared with the odor of oneself. Also, highly secure participants had attenuated skin conductance when exposed to partner odor. We conclude that partner odor is a scent of security, especially for attachment-secure adults.

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  • Attachment to God, depression and loss in late life

    2018. Evalyne Thauvoye (et al.). Mental Health, Religion & Culture 21 (8), 825-837

    Artikel

    Prior research shows that being anxiously and avoidantly attached to God is associated with psychologically problematic outcomes including depressive feelings. However, a clear understanding of how these insecure attachments to God are associated with depressive feelings is still missing. Therefore, a longitudinal study among 329 nursing home residents aged 65-99 was set up to investigate the prospective relation between anxious and avoidant attachment to God and the experience of depressive feelings, as well as whether this relation is moderated by a loss experience. That is, the loss of close relatives can be particularly stressful in late life, challenging existing attachment relationships and placing older adults at risk for depression. Results confirm that insecure attachments to God are distinctly related to depressive feelings, but that this relation is not moderated by a loss experience. Our results also show that depressive feelings predicts attachment to God, instead of the other way around.

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  • Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development

    2017. Pehr Granqvist, Frances Nkara. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 35 (1), 142-155

    Artikel

    We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e.g., nature produces the brain/mind, culture fills in the details). We argue that humans’ evolved psychological predispositions are substantially co-shaped by environmental/cultural input, such as relational experiences and modelling at the microlevel through belief and value systems at the macrolevel. Nurture's sculpting of nature is, then, expressed in R&S development. Finally, for heuristic purposes, we illustrate a fully integrated nature–nurture model with attachment theory and its application to R&S development.

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  • Attachment and religious representations and behavior

    2016. Pehr Granqvist, Lee A. Kirkpatrick. Handbook of attachment, 856-878

    Kapitel

    This chapter is divided into five major sections. In the first, we argue that people’s perceived relationships with God meet the defining criteria of attachment relationships reasonably well, and hence function psychologically much as other attachments do. We examine in the second section lifespan maturational issues involved in the development of attachment and religion. These first two sections deal with normative/typical aspects of the attachment–religion connection. In the third section, we review empirical connections between religion and individual differences in attachment. This section is subdivided into two subsections—the first focusing on a “compensation” pathway and the second describing a “correspondence” pathway to religion. We address in the fourth major section research findings and implications of the religion-as-attachment model with respect to psychological outcomes. In the final major section, which is new to this edition, we address the current state of theory and research on the attachment–religion connection.

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  • Attachment, emotion, and religion

    2016. Pehr Granqvist. Issues in Science and Theology, 9-26

    Kapitel

    This paper highlights how the development of emotion is intertwined with the development of attachment. I argue, also, that there are certain central emotions and affects associated with particular forms of attachment, which come to define the self in relation to others. Further, this emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in religion, especially in the religious individual’s perceived relationship with God. I describe pertinent findings from the scientific literature on the attachment-religion connection indicating that experientially based internal working models of self and other are generalized and lawfully expressed in the context of religion. Thus, attachment-related interactions will affectively color the individual’s perceived relationship with God. Yet, God and religion may also provide a source of surrogate attachments, which may aid in repairing negative working models of self and others. Finally, words of caution are offered to prevent misunderstandings of the implications arising from a consideration of how the emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in the context of religion.

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  • Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?

    2016. Mari Fransson (et al.). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 57 (2), 108-116

    Artikel

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

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  • Psychodynamic Foundations

    2016. Tommie Forslund, Pehr Granqvist. Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1-5

    Kapitel

    Westen (1998) has defined psychodynamic theories with five postulates: (1) much of mental life is unconscious; (2) mental processes operate in parallel so that people can have conflicting feelings that motivate them in opposing ways; (3) stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, and childhood experiences play an important role in the developing personality, particularly in shaping social relationships; (4) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships guide people’s interactions with others and influence psychological symptomatology; and (5) personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feelings but also the move from an immature, socially dependent state to a mature, interdependent one. According to this definition, attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. However, Bowlby explicitly demarcated his attachment theory from the drive principles.

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