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Thor NorströmProfessor emeritus

Om mig



Sociological alcohol research

Sociological suicide research

Evaluations of policy reforms

Methodological issues


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Below is an overview of my research. References to my papers point to the list of downloadable publications, which is found after the research overview. Comments and questions are welcome at


Modelling time-series data

Much of my research is based on analysing time-series data. A29 addresses various methodological and analytical issues that are central in such analyses. It was written with Ole-Jørgen Skog as a methodological introduction to a series of papers within the European comparative alcohol study – ECAS (A25). All of these papers focus on the link between population drinking and mortality in the EU15 countries during the post-war period (B5 summarizes these papers). We argue that analysis of time-series data is the most feasible approach for assessing the aggregate health consequences of changes in population drinking. We further discuss how aggregate data may also be useful for judging the plausibility of individual-level relationships, particularly those likely to be confounded by selection effects. The aggregation of linear and curvilinear risk curves is treated as well as various methods for dealing with the time-lag problem. A12 is another methodological paper in the same vein.

Lagged response or omitted predictor?

In my analyses of time-series data I have often encountered the time-lag problem, which spurred a certain interest in various approaches to addressing this phenomenon. It is intuitively clear that the omission of a lag structure leads to distorted estimates. In A4 I address the reverse of this problem, one that has received little attention in the literature: suppose that the true model is static (with no lagged response), but that a dynamic Koyck model is specified. This is a quite common approach, implying that the lagged dependent variable is included among the explanatory variables. By means of a simulation experiment, it is shown that the omission of a slow-changing predictor in this situation typically gives rise to the false inference of lagged response, because the residual autocorrelation induced by the omitted predictor is absorbed by the lag parameter. Further, the misspecified dynamics tend to pass unnoticed when applying standard diagnostic tests. Additional tests and an alternative estimation procedure are suggested as remedies. I also model the effects of unemployment and inflation on government popularity to illustrate how the problem may manifest itself in empirical research.

Integrating micro and macro findings

I often try to integrate and compare my macro estimates with the corresponding micro-level findings. However, this is cumbersome as different measures of associations are used at the micro and macro levels. In A10 I present a synthetic approach integrating micro and macro findings. In part 1 I derive the relations between the most common micro and macro measures of associations to make cross-level comparisons possible. In part 2, the approach is applied to the relation between unemployment and suicide.


High-risk strategy vs. population strategy

The most general paper addressing prevention strategies is A16, which compares the potential of a high-risk strategy with that of a population strategy for preventing acute and chronic alcohol-related mortality. The outcome suggests that a 25% reduction in per capita alcohol consumption (obtained, for example, through increased alcohol taxes) is matched only by a redistribution of drinking of the same magnitude as that obtained through the very strict rationing system that operated in Sweden from 1920 to 1955. A 25% reduction in per capita consumption lies within the limits of recent historical experience, whereas a strict rationing system would hardly be practically or politically feasible.

Cirrhosis mortality was triggered by abolition of alcohol rationing

The crucial importance of per capita consumption for chronic harm (cirrhosis mortality) is documented in A3, based on Swedish time-series data for the period 1931–1980. Much of the analysis in this paper concerns the modelling of the lag structure. Comparing with the experience of other countries, the outcome shows that the rise in Swedish cirrhosis mortality since the mid-1950s was much steeper than should be expected from the increase in per capita consumption. In A5 I address this anomaly, mainly focusing on the impact of the 1955 abolition of the rationing system (which had entailed a maximum purchase limit of 3–4 litres of spirits per month). Analyses of survey data before and after 1955 indicated a marked redistributive impact: the higher the consumption during the rationing, the larger the relative increase after its abolition. Micro-to-macro simulations suggested that most of the excess of the mortality rise was an effect of the redistribution in drinking.

Does the public health perspective apply to tsarist Russia?

Swedish alcohol policy rests on a public health perspective, implying that restricted availability through high alcohol taxes restrains consumption and thereby alcohol-related harm (see A39, with Mats Ramstedt, for a brief overview of Swedish alcohol policies). This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America (see A36 for a review of the link between drinking and harm, and A35 for estimates of alcohol price elasticities based on Swedish data). A more crucial test of the model, though, would be to subject it to data from a context where the cultural and political conditions are not very favourable for its success. In A59 Andrew Stickley and I do find support for this perspective using unique historical time-series data for tsarist Russia spanning the period 1864–1907. Our analyses suggest that the gradual increases in alcohol taxes during this period were associated with a fall in alcohol consumption, which in turn was associated with a fall in alcohol-related mortality. Further, in A52 Tanya Jukkala, Andrew Stickley and I, find a significant association between population drinking and suicide during the same historical period. We obtain a similar alcohol effect estimate when we analyse this association on post-war Russian data. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol–suicide association.

Does prevention of teenage drinking have long-term effects?

A58 also addresses prevention strategies. Numerous studies indicate that heavy episodic drinking (HED) in adolescence is related to problem drinking in early adulthood. Some researchers thus conclude that reducing adolescent heavy drinking will have long-term effects and reduce problem drinking in early adulthood as well. To check this Hilde Pape and I analysed data from the 1992 (Time 1, ages 14–17 years) and 2005 (Time 2) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. We, too, found that HED in adolescence entailed an elevated risk for problem drinking in early adulthood. However, a shift in risk assessment occurred when we expanded previous research by estimating population-attributable fractions. These estimates indicated that if all episodes of HED by underage youth were completely eliminated (an impossible mission), the expected reduction in problem drinking in young adulthood would be about 10%–15%. The key to understanding this is the marked discontinuity in drinking. Thus, most of the problem drinkers in early adulthood (Time 2) reported no HED in adolescence, and even among the adolescents who drank most heavily, a solid majority were not problem drinkers at Time 2. Preventive measures should thus target the entire adolescent population, not only a small group of excessive drinkers within this population.


Privatization of alcohol sales – what would happen?

In some papers, research teams in which I participated projected various scenarios implying liberalizations of Swedish alcohol policies, including lowered alcohol taxes (A37) and privatization of retail alcohol sales (A19, A50). These projections, based on a multitude of previous findings, suggest that the negative health consequences of such liberalizations are likely to be significant.

Alcohol sales on Saturdays

A number of studies aim at assessing the impact of more specific policy interventions. A22 reports a significant decrease in traffic crashes after the legal blood alcohol limit for driving in Sweden was lowered from 0.05% to 0.02% in 1990. The findings that Sven Andréasson, Eva Wallin and I report in A31 suggest that a comprehensive programme including responsible server training and stricter enforcement of existing alcohol laws can be effective in decreasing violence in and around bars. The latter also seems to be reduced by reducing bar opening hours. This is suggested by A56, where Ingeborg Rossow and I analyse a series of natural experiments in which bar opening hours in Norway were changed. The evaluation with the strongest design is A32. Here Ole-Jørgen Skog and I assess the impact of the Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in Sweden by comparing alcohol sales in an experiment area during 17 months with sales in a control area, and find a close to 4% increase in sales. The design is further strengthened in A34, where we included a 13-month post-experimental period when Saturday opening had been implemented in the control area as well. The analyses confirmed the expected equalization in sales between the experiment area and the control area.


Total (all-cause) mortality is a classic indicator of the overall health of a population. It is therefore of interest to assess its relationship to alcohol consumption, because the net result of alcohol’s supposedly beneficial and known deleterious effects is not obvious. An approach that is of great relevance from a public health perspective is to analyse how the mortality rate responds to changes in overall consumption. I have applied this approach to post-war data for the EU15 countries (A30), Belarus (A46, with Yury Razvodovsky), Russia (A54, B6), Canada (A33) and the USA (A40). By and large, an increase in total consumption is found to be associated with an increase in mortality. However, there is a systematic variation in the strength of this association, so that it is stronger in countries with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern (e.g. the Nordic countries) than in countries with a more tempered pattern of drinking (e.g. southern Europe). Comparing the estimates with those from corresponding analyses of 19th century data for France (A21) and Sweden (A9) suggests a conspicuous stability across time in this association.


Is the link causal and valid for all people?

The link between alcohol and violence is contested; some researchers maintain that the observed association is spurious and due to confounding common factors, such as weak self-control. In A49 Hilde Pape and I thus submit the alcohol-violence link to the more stringent test of causality that is provided by fixed-effects modelling. Analyses of data from two waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study revealed a significant association between change in drinking and change in violence. However, the effect of drinking is confined to individuals who tend to withhold their angry feelings—a finding that is particularly relevant to the alcohol disinhibition hypothesis.

The alcohol-violence link is highly contingent on context

Another way to avoid confounding is to assess the alcohol-violence link at the aggregate level. A23, based on Swedish post-war time-series data, suggests that violence rates respond significantly to changes in total alcohol consumption. More detailed analyses reveal that the assault rate is related to consumption of beer and spirits in bars and restaurants, while the homicide rate is linked to consumption of spirits in private contexts. The aggregate link between alcohol and violence (homicide) is also addressed from a comparative perspective in a couple of papers (A53; A55, with Jonas Landberg), concluding that the link is stronger in drinking cultures with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern than in cultures with a more tempered pattern of drinking.

More bars – more violence?

Much of the violence occurs in the vicinity of bars and pubs. Is that because bars attract violence-prone people, or does bar density also have an exogenous effect? Research in this area is typically based on geographical data with which it is hard to disentangle the two effects. However, the hypothesis of an exogenous effect is supported by the findings in A28, based on post-war data for Norway. The findings suggest that an increase in bar density is associated with an increase in violence rates. Bars and pubs thus seem to be suitable targets for interventions to curb violence. Two papers support this notion. A31 (with Sven Andréasson and Eva Wallin) suggests that a comprehensive programme including responsible server training and stricter enforcement of existing alcohol laws can be effective in decreasing bar-related violence. The latter also seems to be reduced by reducing bar opening hours. This is suggested by A56, where Ingeborg Rossow and I analyse a series of natural experiments involving changes in bar opening hours in Norway.


An indirect method to estimate unrecorded alcohol consumption

Since 2001, unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sweden has been monitored by monthly surveys, but prior to that, and in most other countries, systematic data are scarce. In a series of papers I have elaborated an indirect method to estimate unrecorded alcohol consumption from the discrepancy between the actual level of alcohol-related harms and the harms that are expected on the basis of recorded consumption. I first applied it to Swedish data, uncovering an 80% increase in unrecorded alcohol consumption during the period 1960–1995 (C5). A similar result is obtained for Norway (A24), where comparisons with a series of survey data suggest the indirect estimates correspond well with independent estimates.

Does unrecorded alcohol consumption explain the Russian mortality crisis?

During the period 1990–1994, Russia experienced a mortality crisis unprecedented in peace-time history. The vast literature on this topic offers a host of rival explanations for this, none of which has been generally embraced. For instance, the rise in population drinking, as indicated by the standard alcohol consumption proxy, has been judged as too modest to comprise the major cause. However, when I apply (A54) the indirect method to estimate unrecorded alcohol consumption outlined above, results suggest that actual consumption is grossly underestimated by the commonly used consumption proxy, and that most of the Russian mortality crisis was actually due to the increase in population drinking.

How far do you travel for cheap beer?

In 1995 quotas for private imports of alcohol were markedly increased in Sweden. This encouraged people to take advantage of the lower alcohol prices in Denmark, the main gateway being the ferry line between Helsingør (Denmark) and Helsingborg. Application of the indirect method to estimate unrecorded alcohol consumption (B3) suggests that the ensuing increase in cross-border trading in southern Sweden brought in substitutes for, rather than additions to alcohol obtained from the regular source, Systembolaget. But how far were people prepared to travel to get the cheaper Danish alcohol? Under the premise of substitution (suggested by B3), a drop in Systembolaget’s sales of beer (which was the main beverage imported) can be interpreted as an increase in cross-border trading. The analyses in B4 thus focus on Systembolaget’s county-specific sales of beer over the 24-month period following the change in quotas. The findings suggest that cross-border trading decreased in proportion to the square of the distance to Helsingør (which is consistent with Reilly’s “law of retail gravitation”), and that the maximum travelling distance was about 250 kilometres.

Is unrecorded alcohol extra harmful?

Some studies suggest that consumption of unrecorded alcohol is particularly associated with the risky drinking pattern of binge drinking. In A41, Mats Ramstedt and I thus test the hypothesis that alcohol-related harm rates would respond more strongly to changes in various forms of unrecorded alcohol consumption than to Systembolaget’s alcohol sales. Analyses of time-series data did not lend any support to the hypothesis, although it appeared that a comprehensive consumption indicator (including unrecorded consumption as well as Systembolaget’s sales) was a better predictor of harm than any of the constituent measures.


Suicide is a classic topic within sociology that I have addressed in some articles. In A17 I elaborate a theoretical link between alcohol abuse and suicide risk within the framework of Durkheim’s suicide theory, a notion that the referees strongly resisted initially. The empirical analyses, focusing on divorce, unemployment and religiosity, in addition to alcohol use, relies on the synthetic approach outlined in A10, that is, a triangulation of micro and macro data modelled with a variety of techniques. The outcome suggests that the alcohol factor is a strong correlate of suicide; religiosity and unemployment have some explanatory power as well, but divorce does not. The aggregate link between alcohol and suicide is also addressed from a comparative perspective in a couple of papers (A7, A18), concluding that the link is stronger in countries with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern (e.g. Sweden) than in countries with a more tempered pattern of drinking (e.g. France). Further, the possibility of beverage-specific effects is explored in a couple of studies; in A26, Ingeborg Rossow and I conclude that Norwegian and Swedish suicide rates respond to changes in beer and spirits sales (but not wine sales); in A57, Kenji Shibuya, Andrew Stickley and I report similar findings for Japan.


Some papers assess the impact of economic change (mainly indicated by real wages) on various indicators of life chances in the second half of the 19th century in Sweden. A8 focuses on the impact of various pull and push factors on the emigration flow to the USA. Findings suggest that changes in the Swedish agrarian economy were the primary driving force at the beginning of the period, while the impact of pull factors was not felt until the end of the study period. According to A6, the steady improvement in real wages accounts for the marked reduction in theft criminality. (Further analyses, pertaining to the period a century later, after about 1950, suggest that indicators of economic growth then had the reverse effect on thefts.) Given these findings I found the then-received wisdom in historical demography surprising, namely that after the mid-1800s mortality would have ceased to respond to economic change in the way observed for prior periods. In A9 I thus tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effect of increasing real wages was partially masked by its indirect negative health impact via increased alcohol consumption. It did appear that the wage effect did not attain significance unless alcohol was included in the model.


In a couple of articles Tommy Ferrarini, Joakim Palme and I assess the degree to which changes in the generosity of welfare state policies affect population health. The analyses comprise fixed-effects modelling of post-war time-series data for 18 OECD countries. A47 concludes that the more generous the family policies, the lower the infant mortality, while A48 concludes that the more generous the pension rights, the lower the old-age mortality. These findings are summarized and contextualized in A43.


In a set of papers, Mats Thorslund and I address various topics within gerontology. They are all based on data for 421 persons 75 years of age and older in central Sweden. In A15 we conclude that a commonly used self-assessed global health measure indeed is global as it is significantly associated with each of a large set of more specific health indicators. In A13 we analyse the psychometric properties of various measures of disability. In A14 we analyse the degree to which those measures are related to the use of home help.



A87. Norström, T., M. Ramstedt, & Svensson, J. (2018) Extended opening hours at nightclubs in Visby: An evaluation of a trial in the summer of 2014. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (DOI: 1455072518784850). Download(external)

A86. Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2018). The link between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Sweden, 1987–2015. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 79: p. 578-584. Download(external)

A85. Norström, T., Rossow, I. & Pape, H. (2018). Social inequality in youth violence: the role of heavy episodic drinking. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37: 162-169. Download(external)

A84. Sherk, A., Stockwell, T. Chikritzhs, T., Andréasson, S., Angus, C., Gripenberg, J., Holder, H., Holmes, J., Mäkelä, P., Mills, M., Norström, T., Ramstedt, M. & Woods, J. (2018). Alcohol consumption and the physical availability of take-away alcohol: systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the days and hours of sale and outlet density. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 79: 58–67. Download(external)

A83. Pape, H., Rossow, I., Andreas, J. B., & Norström, T. (2018). Social class and alcohol use by youth: different drinking behaviors, different associations? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 79: 132-136. Download(external)

A82. Brunborg, G. S., Norström, T. & Storvoll, E. E. (2018). Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37: 389-395. Download(external)

A81. Norström, T. & Raninen, J. (2018). Drinking trajectories of at‐risk groups: Does the theory of the collectivity of drinking apply? Drug and Alcohol Review, 37: S15-S21. Download(external)

A80. Nilsson, T., Allebeck, P., Leifman, H., Andréasson, S., Norström, T. & Guldbrandsson, K. (2018). Effects on alcohol consumption and alcohol related harm of a community-based prevention intervention with national support in Sweden. Substance Use & Misuse, 53: 412-419. Download(external)

A79. Thern, E., T. Jia, M. Willmer, J. de Munter, T. Norström, M. Ramstedt, G. D. Smith, P. Tynelius & Rasmussen, F. (2017). No effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality during four decades: a natural experiment. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71: 1072-1077 Download(external)

A78. Pape, H., Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (2017) Adolescent drinking–a touch of social class? Addiction, 112: 792-800. Download(external)

A77. Dadgar, I. & Norström, T. (2017) Short-term and long-term effects of GDP on traffic deaths in 18 OECD countries, 1960–2011. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71: 146-153. Download(external)

A76. Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (2016) Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for suicidal behavior: a systematic review of associations at the individual and at the population level. Archives of Suicide Research, 20: 489-506. Download(external)

A75. Pape, H. & Norström, T. (2016) Associations between emotional distress and heavy drinking among young people: A longitudinal study. Drug and Alcohol Review, 35: 170-176. Download(external)

A74. Norström, T. & Raninen, J.
(2015) Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption
and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2011. Addiction, 110: 967-974. Download(external)

A73.Norström, T. & Grönqvist, H. (2015) The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69:110-116. Download

A72.Norström, T. & Svensson, J. (2015) The declining trend in Swedish youth drinking: collectivity or polarization? Addiction, 109: 1437-1446. Download(external)-(external)

A71. Norström, T. & Svensson, J. (2014) No polarization in youth drinking in Stockholm county: response to Hallgren. Addiction, 109: 1385-1386. Download(external)

A70.Rossow, I. & Norström, T. (2014) Heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm in young people: a longitudinal cohort study. Addiction, 109: 930-936. Download(external)

A69.Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (2014) Cannabis use and violence: Is there a link? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42: 358-363. Download(external)

A68.Norström, T. (2014) Commentary on Pridemore (2014): Drinking and suicide in Russia—strong evidence of a strong link. Addiction, 109: 189–190. Download(external)

A67. Jiang, H., Livingston, M., Room, R., Dietze, P., Norström, T., & Kerr, W. C. (2014) Alcohol consumption and liver disease in Australia: A time series analysis of the period 1935–2006. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 49: 363–368. Download(external)

A66. Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (2014) On the mis-match between population drinking and drink driving. Response to Gjerde et al. Addiction, 109: 333-334. Download(external)

A65.Ramstedt, M., Leifman, H., Müller, D., Sundin, E. & Norström, T. (2013) Reducing youth violence related to student parties: Findings from a community intervention project in Stockholm. Drug and Alcohol Review, 32:561-565. Download(external)

A64.Norström, T. & Trolldal, B. (2013) Was the STAD-program really that successful? Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 30: 171–178. Download(external)

A63. Norström, T. & Stickley, A. (2013) Alcohol tax, consumption and mortality in tsarist Russia: is a public health perspective applicable? The European Journal of Public Health, 23: 340-344. Download(external)

A62.Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (2013) Population drinking and drink driving in Norway and Sweden: an analysis of historical data 1957–89. Addiction, 108: 1051-1058. Download(external)

A61.Moan, I.S., Norström, T. & Storvoll, E. (2013) Alcohol use and drunk driving: the modifying effect of impulsivity. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74:114-119. Download(external)

A60.Rossow, I. & Norström, T. (2013) The use of epidemiology in addiction research. Addiction, 108: 20-25. Download(external)

A59. Norström, T., Sundin, E., Müller, D. & Leifman, H. (2012) Hazardous drinking among restaurant workers. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40: 591–595. Download(external)

A58. Norström, T. & Pape, H. (2012) Associations between adolescent heavy drinking and problem drinking in early adulthood: implications for prevention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73: 542–548. Download(external)

A57. Norström, T., Stickley, A. & Shibuya, K. (2012) The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-2007. Drug and Alcohol Review, 31:251-256.Download(external)

A56. Rossow, I. & Norström, T. (2012) The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities. Addiction, 107: 530–537. Download(external)

A55. Landberg, J. & Norström, T. (2011) Alcohol and homicide in Russia and the United States – a comparative analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72: 723–730. Download(external)

A54. Norström, T. (2011) The role of alcohol in the Russian mortality crisis. Addiction, 106: 1957–1965. Download(external)

A53. Norström, T. (2011) Alcohol and homicide in the United States – is the link dependent on wetness? Drug and Alcohol Review, 30: 458–465. Download(external)

A52. Stickley, A., Jukkala, T. & Norström, T. (2011) Alcohol and suicide in Russia, 1870-1894 and 1956-2005: Evidence for the continuation of a harmful drinking culture across time? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72: 341-347. Download(external)

A51. Norström, T. & Pape, H. (2010) Innovative but insufficient? A response to Graham's commentary on ‘Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence’. Addiction, 105: 2219-2220. Download(external)

A50. Norström T., Miller T., Holder H., österberg E., Ramstedt M., Rossow I. & Stockwell T. (2010) Potential consequences of replacing a retail alcohol monopoly with a private license system: Results from Sweden. Addiction, 105: 2113-2119. Download(external)

A49. Norström, T. & Pape, H. (2010) Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence. Addiction, 105: 1580-1586. Download(external)

A48. Norström, T. & Palme, J. (2010) Public pension institutions and old-age mortality in comparative perspective. International Journal of Social Welfare, 19: S121-S130. Download(external)

A47. Ferrarini, T. & Norström, T. (2010) Family policy, economic development and infant mortality: a longitudinal comparative analysis. International Journal of Social Welfare, 19: S89-S102. Download(external)

A46. Norström, T. & Razvodovsky, Y. (2010) Per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Belarus, 1970-2005. The European Journal of Public Health, 20: 564–568. Download(external)

A45. Bloomfield, K., Rossow, I. & Norström, T. (2009). Changes in alcohol-related harm after alcohol policy changes in Denmark. European Addiction Research, 15:224-231. Download(external)

A44. Norström, T. & Moan, I.M. (2009) Per capita alcohol consumption and sickness absence in Norway. The European Journal of Public Health, 19: 383-388. Download(external)

A43. Lundberg, O., åberg Yngwe, M., Kölegård Stjärne, M., Elstad, J.I., Ferrarini, T., Kangas, O., Norström, T., Palme, J. & Fritzell, J. (2008) The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study. The Lancet, 372: 1633-1640. Download(external)

A42. Norström, T. (2008) How to model two-wave panel data? Addiction, 103: 938-939. Download(external)

A41. Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2008) Unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Sweden, 2001-2005. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 25: 101-113. Download(external)

A40. Norström, T. (2007) Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in the United States, 1950-2002. Contemporary Drug Problems, 34: 513-525. Download(external)

A39. Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2006) Sweden – Is alcohol becoming an ordinary commodity? Addiction, 101: 1543-1545. Download(external)

A38. Norström, T. (2006) Per capita alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Addiction, 101: 1421-1427. Download(external)

A37. Andréasson, S., Holder, H.D., Norström, T., österberg, E. & Rossow, I. (2006) Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy: Results from past and present estimates. Addiction, 101: 1096-1105. Download(external)

A36. Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2005) Mortality and population drinking: a review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24: 537-547. Download(external)

A35. Norström, T. (2005) The price elasticity for alcohol in Sweden 1984–2003. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 22: 87-101. Download(external)

A34. Norström, T. & Skog, O.-J. (2005) Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in Sweden: an experiment in two phases. Addiction, 100: 767-776. Download(external)

A33. Norström, T. (2004) Per capita alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in Canada, 1950-98. Addiction, 99: 1274-1278. Download(external)

A32. Norström, T. & Skog, O.-J. (2003) Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in Sweden: an impact analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64: 393-401. Download(external)

A31. Wallin, E., Norström, T. & Andréasson, S. (2003) Alcohol prevention targeting licensed premises: a study of effects on violence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64: 270-277. Download(external)

A30. Norström, T. (2001) Per capita alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in 14 European countries. Addiction, 96: S113-S128. Download(external)

A29. Norström, T. & Skog, O.-J. (2001) Alcohol and mortality: methodological and analytical issues in aggregate analyses. Addiction, 96: S5-S17. Download(external)

A28. Norström, T. (2000) Outlet density and criminal violence in Norway, 1960-1995. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61: 907-911. Download(external)

A27. Norström, T. & Romelsjö, A. (1999) Social class, drinking and alcohol-related mortality. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10: 385-395. Download(external)

A26. Norström, T. & Rossow, I. (1999) Beverage specific effects on suicide. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 16: 109-118. Download(external)

A25. Norström, T. (1999) European comparative alcohol
study – ECAS. Project presentation. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 16: 5-6. Download(external)

A24. Norström, T. (1998) Estimating changes in unrecorded alcohol consumption in Norway using indicators of harm. Addiction, 93: 1531-1538. Download(external)

A23. Norström, T. (1998) Effects on criminal violence of different beverage types and private and public drinking. Addiction, 93: 689-699. Download(external)

A22. Norström, T. (1997) Assessment of the impact of the 0.02% BAC-limit in Sweden. Studies on Crime & Crime Prevention, 6: 245-258. Download(external)

A21. Norström, T. (1996) Per capita alcohol consumption and total mortality: an analysis of historical data. Addiction, 91: 339-344. Download(external)

A20. Norström, T. (1996) Drunken driving, alcohol misuse and criminality. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 5: 105-112. Download(external)

A19. Holder, H., Giesbrecht, N., Horverak, O., Nordlund, S., Norström, T., Olsson, O., österberg, E. & Skog, O.-J. (1995) Potential consequences from possible changes to the Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership. Addiction, 90: 1603-1618. Download(external)

A18. Norström, T. (1995) Alcohol and suicide: a comparative analysis of France and Sweden. Addiction, 90: 1463-1469. Download(external)

A17. Norström, T. (1995) The impact of alcohol, divorce, and unemployment on suicide: a multilevel analysis. Social Forces, 74: 293-314. Download(external)

A16. Norström, T. (1995) Prevention strategies and alcohol policy. Addiction, 90: 515-524. Download(external)

A15. Thorslund, M. & Norström, T. (1993) The relationship between different measures of health in an elderly population. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 12: 61-70. Download(external)

A14. Thorslund, M., Norström, T. & Wernberg, K. (1991) The utilization of home help: a multivariate analysis. The Gerontologist, 31: 116-119. Download(external)

A13. Norström, T. & Thorslund, M. (1991) The structure of IADL and ADL measures: Some findings from a Swedish study. Age and Ageing, 20: 23-28. Download(external)

A12. Norström, T. (1989) The use of aggregate data in alcohol epidemiology. British Journal of Addiction, 84: 969-977. Download(external)

A11. Norström, T. (1988) Deriving relative risks from aggregate data. 2. An application to the relationship between unemployment and suicide. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 42: 336-340. Download(external)

A10. Norström, T. (1988) Deriving relative risks from aggregate data. 1. Theory. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 42: 333-335. Download(external)

A9. Norström, T. (1988) Real wages, alcohol consumption and mortality in Sweden, 1861-1913. European Journal of Population, 4: 183-196. Download(external)

A8. Norström, T. (1988) Swedish emigration to the United States reconsidered. European Sociological Review, 4: 223-231. Download(external)

A7. Norström, T. (1988) Alcohol and suicide in Scandinavia. British Journal of Addiction, 83: 553-559.Download(external)

A6. Norström, T. (1988) Theft criminality and economic growth. Social Science Research, 17: 48-65.Download(external)

A5. Norström, T. (1987) The abolition of the Swedish alcohol rationing system: effects on consumption distribution and cirrhosis mortality. British Journal of Addiction, 82: 633-641. Download(external)

A4. Norström, T. (1987) Lagged response or omitted predictor: the case of government popularity. Social Science Research, 16: 119-137. Download(external)

A3. Norström, T. (1987) The impact of per capita consumption on Swedish cirrhosis mortality. British Journal of Addiction, 82: 67-75. Download(external)

A2. Norström, T. (1983) Law enforcement and alcohol consumption policy as counter-measures against drunken driving: possibilities and limitations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 15: 513-521.Download(external)

A1. Norström, T. (1978) Drunken driving: a tentative causal model. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology, 16: 69-78. Download(external)

B6. Norström, T. (2006) Per capita alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in Russia. In: Elster, J., Gjelsvik, O. & Moene, K. (Eds.) Understanding Choice, Explaining Behaviour. Essays in honour of Ole-Jørgen Skog. Oslo: Unipub forlag/Oslo Academic Press (pp. 211-223). Download(external)

B5. Norström, T., Hemström, ö., Ramstedt, M., Rossow, I. & Skog, O.-J. (2002) Mortality and population drinking. In: Norström, T. (Ed.) Alcohol in Postwar Europe: Consumption, Drinking Patterns, Consequences and Policy Responses in 15 European Countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell (pp. 157-176). Download(external)

B4. Norström, T. (2000) The geography of cross-border trading of alcohol. In: Holder, H. (Ed.) Sweden and the European Union. Changes in National Alcohol Policy and Their Consequences. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell (pp. 121-135). Download(external)

B3. Norström, T. (2000) Cross-border trading of alcohol in southern Sweden - substitution or addition? In: Holder, H. (Ed.) Sweden and the European Union. Changes in National Alcohol Policy and Their Consequences. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell (pp. 221-238). Download(external)

B2. Norström, T. (1987) A time series analysis of the Swedish suicide rate. In Bergryd, U. & Janson, C.-G. (Eds.) Sociological Miscellany, Essays in Honour of Gunnar Boalt, University of Stockholm (pp. 142-159). Download(external)

B1. Norström, T. (1981) Party preferences – a causal model. In: Boalt, G. & Bergryd, U. Political Value Patterns and Parties in Sweden. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell (pp. 128-131). Download(external)

C13.Norström, T. (2012) Män har större chans än kvinnor att få forskningsanslag från FAS. Läkartidningen, 109: 1962-1963. Download(external)

C12. Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2009) Totalkonsumtionen av alkohol 1995-2007 – ekonomiska faktorer viktigare än tillgänglighet. Alkohol & Narkotika, 103: 28-33. 12.Download(external)

C11. Norström, T. (2007) Forskningsanslag beviljades oftare för män än för kvinnor. Läkartidningen, 104, 3273-3275. Download(external)

C10. Norström, T. (2005) Alkohol och olycksfall. I: Andréasson, S. & Allebeck, P. (Red.) Alkohol och hälsa. Stockholm: Folkhälsoinstitutet (pp. 55-60). Download(external)

C9. Norström, T. (2005) Priselasticiteten för alkohol 1984-2003. I: Gränslös utmaning – alkoholpolitik i ny tid. SOU 2005:25, 409-429.

C8. Boman, U., Leifman, H., Norström, T & Romelsjö, A. (2005) Alkohol och sjukskrivning - analyser på individ- och befolkningsnivå. I: Marklund, S., Bjurvald, M., Hogstedt, C., Palmer, E. & Theorell, T. (Red) Den höga sjukfrånvaron - problem och lösningar. Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet (pp. 63-111).Download(external)

C7. Norström, T. (1999) ökad totalkonsumtion av alkohol leder till ökat rattfylleri. Alkohol & Narkotika, 93: 27-30. Download(external)

C6. Norström, T. (1998) Påföljdsval vid rattfylleri: effekter av 1990 års reform av trafikbrottslagen. Nordisk Tidskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, 85: 81-99. Download(external)

C5. Norström, T. (1997) Alkoholkonsumtionens mörkertal i Sverige 1960-1994. Nordisk alkohol- och narkotikatidskrift, 14: 65-73. Download(external)

C4. Norström, T. & Romelsjö, A. (1996) Några studier av relevans för alkoholpolitken i Sverige. I: Edwards, G. (Red.): Alkoholpolitik för bättre folkhälsa. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur (pp. 258-304).

C3. Norström, T. (1994) Preventionsstrategier på alkoholområdet. I: Svensk alkoholpolitik - bakgrund och nuläge. SOU 1994:25, 223-237.

C2. Norström, T. (1993) Familjevåld och totalkonsumtionen av alkohol. Nordisk alkoholtidskrift, 10: 311-318. Download(external)

C1. Norström, T. (1993) Projektioner av alkoholskadeutvecklingen i Sverige. Nordisk alkoholtidskrift, 10: 247-255.

D3. Norström, T. (Editor) (2002) Alcohol in Postwar Europe: Consumption, Drinking Patterns, Consequences and Policy Responses in 15 European Countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. Download(external)

-(external)D2. Edwards, G., Anderson, P., Babor, T. F., Casswell, S., Ferrence, R., Giesbrecht, N., Godfrey, C., Holder, H.D., Lemmens, P., Mäkelä, K., Midanik, L.T., Norström, T., österberg, E., Romelsjö, A., Room, R., Simpura, J. & Skog, O.-J. (1994) Alcohol Policy and the Public Good. Oxford University Press.

D1. Norström, T. (1981) Studies in the Causation and Prevention of Traffic Crime. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. (Dissertation.) Download (external)

Norström, T. (2009) Leder arbetslöshet till fler självmord? Framtider, 3/2009: 18-20. Download(external)

Holder, H., Agardh, E., Högberg, P., Miller, T., Norström, T., österberg, E., Ramstedt, M., Rossow, I. & Stockwell, T. (2008) Alcohol Monopoly and Public Health: Potential effects of privatization of the Swedish alcohol retail monopoly. östersund: Swedish National Institute for Public Health. Download(external)

Norström, T. & Ramstedt, M. (2005) Vad händer i alkoholfrågan? Politik, konsumtion och skador i dagens Sverige. Framtider, 4/2005: 14-18. Download(external)

Holder, H.D., Andréasson, S., Norström, T., österberg, E. & Rossow, I. (2005). Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy. Stockholm: National Institute of Public Health.Download(external)

Norström, T. (1992) Konsumtionsfördelning och alkoholskador. Alkoholpolitiska strategier i ljuset av motbokssystemets effekter. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 69: 360-364. Download(external)

Norström, T. (1986) Självmord, arbetslöshet och alkoholkonsumtion: hänger det ihop? Forskning och Framsteg, nr 2: 24-28. Download(external)



The impact of the financial crisis on population health
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The ongoing financial crisis, bursting in the fall of 2007, is considered to be the deepest recession since the Great Depression with an immense impact on incomes and unemployment rates. Although it is considered a global crisis, some countries and some population segments are pa...