Camilla Bardel

Camilla Bardel


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Arbetar vid Institutionen för språkdidaktik
Telefon 08-120 767 23
Besöksadress Universitetsvägen 10 E
Rum E 945
Postadress Institutionen för språkdidaktik 106 91 Stockholm

Om mig

Jag är sedan 2010 professor i moderna språk med didaktisk inriktning vid Institutionen för språkdidaktik. Jag har en bakgrund i romanska språk och jag disputerade år 2000 i italienska vid Lunds universitet. 2013 blev jag även professor i italienska vid Stockholms universitet och var verksam vid dåvarande institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk fram till 2014.

Jag har en internationell profil och är involverad i olika samarbeten både vad gäller forskning och utbildning. Jag hyser även ett starkt intresse för frågor som rör samverkan med det omgivande samhället. Jag är för närvarande ordförande för Humanvetenskapliga områdets samverkansberedning samt för SU:s samordningsgrupp för praktiknära forskning i skolan (ULF).


Jag har lång erfarenhet av undervisning i språk, språkvetenskap, litteratur och språkdidaktik på grundnivå och avancerad nivå samt inom forskarutbildning, främst vid Stockholms universitet men även vid andra universitet i Sverige och utomlands.

Jag har handlett många uppsatsskrivande på grundnivå och avancerad nivå, såväl som forskarstuderande i italienska, franska, engelska och språkdidaktik. När det gäller forskarutbildning samarbetar jag gärna över institutions- och lärosätesgränser och deltar regelbundet i internationella betygsnämnder. Under åren 2012-2015 var jag ansvarig för forskarskolan i de främmande språkens didaktik, FRAM. För närvarande är jag vetenskaplig ledare och koordinator för forskarskolan SEMLA, som riktar sig till lärarutbildare.


Mina forskningsintressen ligger inom det breda fältet språkdidaktik. I mina tidigare projekt har jag ägnat mig åt tvärspråkliga influenser i tredjespråksinlärning och flerspråkighet, avancerade nivåer av främmande språks- och andraspråksinlärning, korpuslingvistik och lexikografi. Jag är eller har varit ansvarig för följande externfinansierade projekt: The role of the background languages in third language acquisition. Vocabulary and syntax (Vetenskapsrådet, 2012-2016), Aspects of the advanced French and Italian L2 learner’s lexicon (Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 2006-2012), The role of the background languages in second language development. Target language Italian (Vetenskapsrådet, 2001-2006). Sedan 2016 forskar jag inom projektet Learning, teaching and assessment of second foreign languages - an alignment study on oral language proficiency in the Swedish school context (Vetenskapsrådet, 2016-2018), även kallat TAL-projektet, som leds av professor Jonas Granfeldt vid Lunds universitet.

Jag är anlitad för refereegranskning av internationella tidskrifter som Language Learning, Modern Language Journal, Second Language Research, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, med flera.

Jag är även anlitad som bedömare av projektansökningar till olika forskningsråd och fonder, i Sverige såväl som utomlands.


I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
  • 2018. Camilla Bardel, Anna Gudmundson. High-level language proficiency in second language and multilingual contexts.
  • 2017. Camilla Bardel, Anna De Meo.
  • 2017. Camilla Bardel (et al.). Language Teaching 50 (2), 290-293

    Since 2008, the Swedish government has launched occasional offers of funding for graduate schools aimed at practising teachers. The fundamental purpose of this initiative is to enhance quality in the Swedish school system by implementing what is stated in the Education Act, namely that education at all levels should be based upon scientific knowledge and evidence-based experience.

  • Bok (red) Romance Languages
    2017. Anna Gudmundson, Laura Alvarez López, Camilla Bardel.

    This volume contains a collection of papers that deal with Romance linguistics from two broad perspectives: multilingualism and language acquisition. Some of the contributions investigate these phenomena in the light of language contact, language attitudes and code switching in multilingual societies or multilingual families. Others focus on the acquisition of rhythmic patterns, intonation or even emotions in a second language. Many of the contributions present themes related to oral production or speech. The book in itself is multilingual and includes papers written in Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and English.

  • 2017. Camilla Bardel, Laura Sánchez. L3 Syntactic Transfer, 85-101

    This chapter provides a nuanced view of the L2 status factor model, emphasizing explicit metalinguistic knowledge as the key factor governing transfer, together with individual differences in working memory and the operations associated with it. We argue that individual differences regarding the degree of explicit metalinguistic knowledge attained either in L1 or in L2 and differences when it comes to working memory, attention and noticing should be taken in consideration when accounting for transfer from previously acquired or learned languages in L3 learning.

  • 2017. Laura Sánchez, Camilla Bardel. L3 Syntactic Transfer, 223-250

    This chapter addresses the role of proficiency in a prior non-native language (L2 proficiency) on transfer in third language learning. It discusses some methodological considerations and gaps in previous research, while also bringing up conceptual difficulties in defining, operationalizing and measuring L2 proficiency. An empirical study is presented on the role played by overall proficiency in L2 German on the occurrence of transfer in L3 English written production in Spanish/ Catalan bilingual learners (n = 73). The statistical treatment of the data relied on an ANCOVA with number of transferred items as the dependent variable and L2 proficiency as the independent variable. Biological age and proficiency in the target language (L3 proficiency) were used as covariates in this analysis.

  • 2016. Laura Sánchez, Camilla Bardel. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée 21 (2), 123-138

    The study attempts to investigate whether there is a relationship between individual differences in cognitive abilities, learners' perceptions about typology relations, and negative transfer in written production. To this aim, data were analyzed from Spanish/Catalan bilingual learners of L3 English (n= 47) aged 10-15, with German as L2. The cognitive abilities measured were working memory, attention control, and attention switching. Furthermore, proficiency in the L3 was also controlled, based on the results of the participants' performance in the Oxford Placement Test. It was found that learners with lower attentional abilities had a harder time in identifying areas of structural contrast between the L2 and the L3, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of transfer from this language.

  • 2016. Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist.
  • 2016. Camilla Bardel. Tredjespråksinlärning, 115-134
  • 2016. Rakel Österberg, Camilla Bardel. Tredjespråksinlärning, 13-28
  • 2016. Franco Pauletto, Camilla Bardel. Language, Interaction and Acquisition 7 (1), 89-116

    In this study, we analyze the kind of actions L1 and L2 speakers of Italian perform by prefacing their responsive turns with the discourse marker be’. As a baseline, the article begins with an analysis of how native speakers of Italian use be’. We then carry out a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of the use of be’ in a number of L2 learners at different proficiency levels from three data sets of different types of interactions between students and native speakers of Italian. In the qualitative analysis, we adopt a conversation analytic perspective. The results suggest that both native speakers and L2 speakers, at an intermediate to an advanced level, perform a variety of social actions by be’-prefacing their responsive turns.  

  • 2016. Camilla Bardel. Advanced proficiency and exceptional ability in second languages
  • 2015. Anna Gudmundson, Camilla Bardel. Cultural Migrants and Optimal Language Acquisition, 17-58
  • Kapitel Direi che
    2015. Franco Pauletto, Camilla Bardel. Les marqueurs du discours dans les langues romanes, 425-437

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the cooperative strategies resorted to by an advanced learner of Italian L2 in a casual conversation with a native speaker, with a focus on discourse markers and other pragmatic and linguistic resources used with mitigating effects.

  • 2015. Camilla Bardel. Transfer effects in multilingual language development
  • 2015. Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Camilla Bardel. Bilingualism 18 (2), 227-235

    In this study we explore the role of explicit metalinguistic knowledge (MLK) of first language (L1) in the learning of a third language (L3). We compare the oral production of 40 participants with varying degrees of explicit MLK of the L1, who are exposed to a completely new L3. In accordance with the second language (L2) status factor, which is further motivated by the distinction between implicit competence and explicit knowledge (Bardel & Falk, 2012; Paradis, 2009), we hypothesize that the participants with low explicit MLK in their L1 will transfer from their L2, and that the participants with high explicit MLK in the L1 will transfer from their L1. The structure of interest is adjective placement, which is the same in the L1 and the L3 (but not in the participants' L2s). The results show that the degree of explicit MLK in the L1 plays a decisive role at the initial state of L3 learning.

  • 2014. Christina Lindqvist, Camilla Bardel. Essential Topics in Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism, 253-266

    The present study examines lexical crosslinguistic influence (CLI) from L1 and L2 in two cases of L3 learning. It focuses on the role of the proficiency level of the background languages and of typological proximity in the activation of the background languages in L3 oral production. Earlier research has shown that both these factors play a role for CLI. Here we aim at further understanding the role of these factors, and how they are related to the proficiency level of the L3. The first case, which will be summarized briefly and used as a point of comparison in this chapter, concerns a Swedish learner of Italian L3, with English, French and Spanish as L2s (Bardel and Lindqvist 2007). The results showed that low-proficiency Spanish L2 was the background language that was most used in the beginning of the acquisition process of Italian, especially in code-switches of function words. High-proficiency French L2 was also used but in a different way, mostly in word construction attempts. Both the proficiency and the typology factor played a role, but their impact varied at different stages of development in the L3. The second case concerns a bilingual Swedish/Italian L1 speaker learning Spanish L3, with English and French as L2s. The data was gathered following the same procedure as in the first study, and consist of three recordings of interviews and retellings. The results indicate that the proficiency and typology factors are decisive for CLI here too, but in slightly different ways as compared to the first case. Italian L1 is used for both code-switches and word construction attempts, suggesting that a high-proficiency language may well be activated for both purposes, if it is similar enough to the target language. These results show that further investigation of both factors is necessary for our understanding of their interplay.

  • 2014. Niclas Abrahamsson (et al.). avancerad andraspråksanvändning, 20-46
  • 2014. Laura Sánchez, Camilla Bardel. Abstracts, 134-134

    In this contribution, we review the field of studies on psychotypology in L2 and L3 learning. We propose different definitions of the construct and discuss theories about learners’ perceptions of similarity that have been suggested in L2 and L3 research, from Kellerman’s (1983) notion to recent studies (e.g. García Mayo & Rothman 2012). Psychotypology involves similarity, and more importantly, perceived similarity. Intuitively, this is an attracting way of trying to explain CLI between similar languages, but it is not clear from the literature to what extent learners are aware of themselves perceiving similarity and of the possibility to draw on this process in additional language learning. Crucially, in the process of learning a new language, learners may be aided by their multilingual metalinguistic knowledge (cf. e.g. Jessner, 2008), but their conscious or unconscious knowledge of the similarity between two languages can also, in particular cases, mislead the learner (Bardel & Falk 2012, García Mayo & Rothman 2012).

  • 2014. Christina Lindqvist, Camilla Bardel.
  • 2013. Christina Lindqvist, Anna Gudmundson, Camilla Bardel. L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, 109-126

    The aims of this chapter are a) to give a comprehensive description of a new toolfor lexical profiling by reporting how it was developed, and b) to indicate possibleareas of use and future developments of the tool. The tool has been used for meas-uring the lexical sophistication of Swedish learners of French and Italian. The dif-ferent steps of development have partly been presented in previous studies (Bardel&Lindqvist, 2011; Bardel, Gudmundson & Lindqvist, 2012; Lindqvist, Bardel &Gudmundson, 2011) but are complemented here through a detailed account ofthe tool, in order to enable replication and use of the method with other languages. The outline of this chapter is as follows: first, as a background, we provide a sur-vey of methods designed to measure lexical richness in L2 production. Then wediscuss the inherent differences between written and spoken language and whatthese differences may imply when lexical richness is measured. Next, we presenta new method for analyzing L2 learners’ lexical profiles in oral production data,giving a detailed technical description of the creation of the tool. We then dis-cuss pros and cons with frequency-based measures in general and present oursolutions to some of the problems brought up. Finally, we suggest some poten-tial areas of use and discuss some possible improvements of the method.

  • 2013. Camilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist, Batia Laufer.

    This book is intended for researchers and students in the field of second language (L2) acquisition. As its title suggests, the book discusses L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, and examines them from the perspectives of assessment and corpus analysis. The chapters also address some additional central research issues: the role of word frequency in the input, the difference between single words and multi-word units, and the distinction between vocabulary of oral and written language. The first three chapters of the book present critical reviews of different aspects of vocabulary acquisition. The other four chapters contain empirical studies that relate to the central themes of the book. The data in the studies draw on a variety of source and target languages: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Hebrew and Japanese. The book offers some new insights into the field of vocabulary and suggests avenues of research.

  • 2012. Leah Roberts (et al.).
  • 2012. Camilla Bardel, Anna Gudmundson, Christina Lindqvist. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34 (2), 269-290

    This article reports on the design and use of a profiler for lexical sophistication (i.e., use of advanced vocabulary), which was created to assess the lexical richness of intermediate and advanced Swedish second language (L2) learners' French and Italian. It discusses how teachers' judgments (TJs) of word difficulty can contribute to the methodology for lexical profiling and compares two methods, one purely frequency based and one modified on the basis of TJs of word difficulty. It has been suggested elsewhere that factors other than frequency play an important role in vocabulary acquisition. Here it is argued that cognates and thematic vocabulary related to teaching materials, although infrequent in target language (TL) corpora, should not necessarily be considered advanced and that analyses of learners' lexical sophistication would benefit from integrating these aspects. In this study, the frequency-based method normally used in lexical profiling was modified by recategorizing some low-frequency words considered easy by many teachers. On the basis of the TJs, a basic vocabulary, which consisted mainly of high-frequency words but also of cognates and thematic words, was defined, which was based on the fact that teachers judged certain low-frequency cognates and thematic words as relatively easy. Using the modified method, learners' lexical profiles were found to be more homogeneous within groups of learners at specific proficiency levels. The superiority of the new method over the purely frequency-based one was shown when comparing effect sizes. It is argued that this method gives a more correct picture of advanced L2 lexical profiles.

  • 2012. Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk. Third language acquisition in adulthood, 61-78
  • 2011. Camilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist. EUROSLA Yearbook 11, 75-93
  • 2011. Christina Lindqvist, Camilla Bardel, Anna Gudmundson.
  • 2011. Ylva Falk, Camilla Bardel. Second language research 27 (1), 59-82

    Several studies on L3 lexicon, and recently also some on L3 syntax, have convincingly shown a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true L2 and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Some studies even indicate that L2 takes on a stronger role than L1 in the initial state of L3 syntax (e.g. Bardel and Falk, 2007; Rothman and Cabrelli Amaro, 2010). In this article we further investigate syntactic transfer from L1/L2 to L3 in learners at an intermediate level of proficiency in the target language. Data have been obtained from 44 learners of German as L3, testing the placement of object pronouns in both main and subordinate clauses in a grammaticality judgement/correction task (GJCT). The learners constitute two groups (both n = 22): One group has English as L1 and French as L2 and the other group has French as L1 and English as L2. This particular combination of background languages allows us to pinpoint the source of transfer, since object placement is pre-verbal in French and post-verbal in English, this being applied in both main and subordinate clauses. In target language (TL) German, however, the object placement varies between pre-verbal in the sub clause and post-verbal in the main clause. The two groups behave differently as to both acceptance and rejection of the test items (60 grammatical and ungrammatical main and sub clauses with object pronouns). This difference is significant and can be ascribed to their L2s, respectively. Our results thus show that the L2 transfers into the L3 even at an intermediate level, and on the basis of this we claim a strong role for the L2 status factor.

  • 2010. Camilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist.
  • 2010. Christina Lindqvist, Camilla Bardel. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 48 (2-3), 87-90

    Information about several papers discussed at a conference titled The Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. Romance Languages as L1, L2 or L3 which was held in Stockholm, Sweden on February 5, 2009 on third language (L3) acquisition is presented. Topics include Romance languages as background languages, research on vocabulary and syntax. The conference presented the works several language researchers including Christina Lindqvist, Rebekah Rast, and Jason Rothman.

  • 2010. Ylva Falk, Camilla Bardel. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 48 (2/3), 185-219

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning cross-linguistic influence (CLI). Lexical CLI and syntactic transfer have in most cases been studied separately, but as we will see studies indicate that L3 learners seem to rely on both vocabulary and grammar from their background languages, at least to some extent. The role of the background languages in morphology and phonology has been less investigated in L3 studies, although there are a few studies that indicate that L3 performance can reflect activation of previously acquired languages at these linguistic levels too. The paper also includes a survey of neurolinguistic approaches to multilingualism and discusses how these findings can contribute to the understanding of transfer in L3 acquisition.

  • 2008. Camilla Bardel.
  • 2008. Camilla Bardel, Anna Gudmundson. La comunicazione parlata
  • 2008. Camilla Bardel. Languages of Italy.
  • 2007. Camilla Bardel, Anna Gudmundson, Jane Nystedt. Linguistica e Letteratura (1/2), 151-183

    The aim is to privilege the text, analyzed in all its inner characteristics, in its relationships with other literary works and other languages, like those used by reviewers and in visual arts ground. An interdisciplinary approach will be emphasized as wider as possible, in order to reach the intertextuality and interexpressivity levels, and search the comparison with textualities and different codes from scientific and tecnological culture.

  • 2007. Camilla Bardel, Britt Erman.
  • 2007. Camilla Bardel.
  • 2007. Camilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist. Atti del VI Congresso Internazionale dell’Associazione Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, Napoli, 9-10 febbraio 2006, 123-145
  • 2007. Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk. Second Language Research 23 (4), 459-484

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe that such influence generalizes to morphosyntactic aspects of the grammar. For example, Håkansson et al. (2002) introduce the Developmentally Moderated Transfer Hypothesis (DMTH), which incorporates transfer in Processability Theory (PT). They argue against syntactic transfer from L2 to L3. The present study presents counter-evidence to this hypothesis from two groups of learners with different L1s and L2s acquiring Swedish or Dutch as L3. The evidence clearly indicates that syntactic structures are more easily transferred from L2 than from L1 in the initial state of L3 acquisition. The two groups behave significantly differently as to the placement of negation, a difference that can be attributed to the L2 knowledge of the learners in interaction with the typological relationship between the L2 and the L3.

  • 2006. Camilla Bardel. Progetto dizionario italiano-svedese. Atti del primo colloquio, Stoccolma, 10–12 febbraio 2005, 23-31
  • 2006. Camilla Bardel. AILE : Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère 24, 149-179

    Cet article traite de l’influence translinguistique qu’exerce la connaissance de langues secondes (L2) apprises antérieurement sur la syntaxe d’une troisième langue (L3). L’objet de l’étude est l’acquisition de la position préverbale de la négation de phrase en italien L3. Les données ont été collectées auprès d’un groupe de lycéens suédois, apprenants d’italien et ayant tous le suédois comme langue maternelle, une langue où la négation dans la proposition principale est postverbale. Les apprenants ont l’anglais comme première L2, et ils ont par la suite étudié le français, l’espagnol, ou l’allemand. Dans ces différentes langues, la position de la négation varie. L’espagnol est la seule de ces langues dans laquelle la négation est placée en position préverbale, à savoir dans une position similaire à celle de l’italien. L’étude de la négation de phrase offre donc des possibilités intéressantes d’examiner l’incidence de la proximité typo­logique entre L1/L2 et L3 sur l’acquisition d’une L3. Les résultats indiquent un transfert positif de l’espagnol L2 sur l’italien L3 ; seul le groupe ayant étudié l’espagnol produit exclusivement la négation préverbale, alors que les étudiants ayant étudié uniquement des langues germaniques (anglais et allemand) antérieurement à l’italien produisent principalement la négation post­verbale avec les verbes non thématiques. Cette dernière structure a également été relevée dans le groupe connaissant le français, mais dans une moindre mesure.

  • 2005. Camilla Bardel. Copenhagen Studies in Language (31), 377-387
  • 2004. Camilla Bardel. Second language acquisition and usage, 11-30
  • 2004. Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk. International Journal of Multilingualism 1 (11), 71-73
  • 1996. Camilla Bardel. The Clarion 2 (11)
Visa alla publikationer av Camilla Bardel vid Stockholms universitet

Senast uppdaterad: 25 augusti 2020

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