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Elisabet BorgUniversitetslektor



I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Assessing depressive symptoms with the Borg centiMax Scale® in a Swedish sample of patients and students

    2020. Elisabet Borg, Frida Jonsson, Ewa Mörtberg. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 61 (2), 325-331


    The Borg centiMax Scale, is a psychophysically composed general intensity ratio scale, which could enable more precise inter‐ and intraindividual comparisons of the intensity of depressive symptoms. In the present study, the properties of the centiMax scale were examined in 38 patients with clinical depression and 109 students. Additionally, preliminary centiMax cut‐off scores for mild, moderate and severe depression were estimated. The psychometric properties of the centiMax were found to be satisfactory regarding internal consistency, convergent, discriminative and predictive validity. Moreover, the centiMax was demonstrated to provide meaningful comparisons of symptom intensity, which makes it possible to evaluate the relative importance of individual symptoms in a profile and make more precise comparisons within and between individuals. With regard to intraindividual comparisons, patients rated , for example, the intensity of feeling “guilt” twice as strong as feelings of “being punished,” and the intensity of “loss of pleasure” almost three times as strong as “being punished.” With regard to interindividual comparisons, patients rated e.g., the intensity of “being punished” as 12 times stronger than controls, and the intensity of “worthlessness” about nine times stronger. In conclusion, the centiMax was shown to be reliable and valid for assessing depressive symptoms. The centiMax with level anchored ratio data, appears to be highly advantageous as it permits rather precise values of symptom intensity for intra‐ and interindividual comparisons that could be useful in the diagnostic process and in treatment planning.

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  • A pilot study comparing The Borg CR Scale®(centiMax®) and the Beck Depression Inventory for scaling depressive symptoms

    2019. Elisabet Borg (et al.). Nordic Psychology 71 (3), 164-176


    The Borg centiMax scale is a psychophysically constructed general intensity scale with verbal anchors placed in congruence with the numerical scale (0–100); thus, ratio data are obtained. With ratio data, quantitative relationships among perceptions and feelings can be determined in a statistically more solid way. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of using the Borg CR Scale® (centiMax®, CR100) for measuring depressive symptoms in a pilot study of 50 students, who completed the centiMax along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Convergent validity and reliability were examined by correlation analyses (Pearson, Spearman, and Split-half with Spearman–Brown correction), and group and individual symptom profiles were constructed to illustrate the possible advantage of level anchored ratio data. The strong correlation 0.75 (p < .001) between the instruments supports an acceptable convergent validity of the centiMax and indicates a common underlying construct. Additionally, the reliability was high (cM = 0.96; BDI = 0.90). With symptom profiles, it was demonstrated that level anchored ratio data can show both how intense (level) and how many times more intense (relation) the feelings of separate symptoms are. In conclusion, the centiMax appears to be a valid and reliable instrument; however, further studies in larger samples including clinically depressed participants are needed for evaluating its diagnostic importance.

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  • A demonstration of the Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100) for performance evaluation in diving

    2018. Elisabet Borg, Chantella Love. Nordic Psychology 70 (3), 228-244


    In many sports, for example in diving, figure skating, or ski jumping, judges subjectively score the performance on a category scale. The level-anchored ratio Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100), a general intensity scale from 0 to 100 commonly used for self-appraisal of exertion, is an interesting and valuable alternative. The aim was to explore the possibility of using the Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100), for performance evaluation in diving. In Study 1, 16 participants used the centiMax scale and the traditional diving scale (FINA) during a judicial training course on pre-recorded material; and in Study 2, six professional judges used the two scales during qualifying, semi-finals, and finals in the Swedish Championships in orebro, 2012. Strong and significant correlations were obtained between judged performances with the two scales (r >=.8), as well as with contest results (r >=.6). The continuous and finely graded centiMax scale has promising possibilities of improving measurement with both level determinations (how good) and ratio relationships (how much better). With a Borg CR scale, more interesting comparisons can be made, for example, direct comparisons between performance measures and perceptual variables (e.g., perceived exertion and motivation). This is of importance in training and coaching of athletes.

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  • Assessing traits in a psychophysical way

    2018. Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos, Elisabet Borg. Fechner Day 2018, 36-42


    The aim of this study was to investigate if different scale formats affect what conclusion one can draw about the prevalence of a specific trait in a sample. More specifically, we compared the original scale format of Need for cognition (1-5) and Behavioral Inhibition/Approach (1-4) with an 11-point scale (0-10), and a psychophysical scale originally developed to measure physical exertion, Borg centiMax Scale®. Forty-eight psychology undergraduate students participated in return for course credit. In a within-subjects design, all participants completed both questionnaires in all three versions. Results revealed that the mean was consistently reaching ceiling effects when using the original scale formats, and the variation was relatively low compared to the other scales. In sum, the results revealed that the scale format plays a significant role in how prevalent a specific trait becomes in a sample.

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  • Improving the psychological assessment of patients by using psychophysical methods

    2018. Adsson Magalhães (et al.). Fechner Day 2018, 45-49


    For many years, psychologists have developed instruments for assessing disorders based on ordinal scales. These scales, despite being widely used, easy to apply, and producing good results, have some imperfections. By bringing the knowledge acquired by the psychophysics field during the last century, it is possible to improve psychological assessment creating new instruments based in psychophysical methods of measurement like ratio scaling.

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  • Reliability of Hypernasality Rating

    2018. Renata Paciello Yamashita (et al.). The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 55 (8), 1060-1071


    Objective: To compare reliability in auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality for 3 different methods and to explore the influence of language background.

    Design: Comparative methodological study.

    Participants and Materials: Audio recordings of 5-year-old Swedish-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate consisting of 73 stimuli of 9 nonnasal single-word strings in 3 different randomized orders. Four experienced speech-language pathologists (2 native speakers of Brazilian-Portuguese and 2 native speakers of Swedish) participated as listeners. After individual training, each listener performed the hypernasality rating task. Each order of stimuli was analyzed individually using the 2-step, VISOR and Borg centiMax scale methods.

    Main Outcome Measures: Comparison of intra- and inter-rater reliability, and consistency for each method within language of the listener and between listener languages (Swedish and Brazilian-Portuguese).

    Results: Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found within each listener for all methods, 2-step:kappa = 0.59-0.93; VISOR: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.99; Borg centiMax (cM) scale: ICC = 0.80-1.00. The highest inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for VISOR (ICC = 0.60-0.90) and Borg cM-scale (ICC = 0.40-0.80). High consistency within each method was found with the highest for the Borg cM scale (ICC = 0.89-0.91). There was a significant difference in the ratings between the Swedish and the Brazilian listeners for all methods.

    Conclusions: The category-ratio scale Borg cM was considered most reliable in the assessment of hypernasality. Language background of Brazilian-Portuguese listeners influenced the perceptual ratings of hypernasality in Swedish speech samples, despite their experience in perceptual assessment of cleft palate speech disorders.

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  • Reliability of auditory perceptual assessment of hypernasality in speech using different scales

    2018. Anette Lohmander (et al.). Fechner Day 2018, 43-44


    Auditory-perceptual assessment has been criticized because of its inherent subjectivity. However, perceptual judgments are the primary tool in the clinical assessment of voice and resonance parameters and a key task for the speech–language pathologist/therapist (SLP/T). Decision on treatment or further examination is based on the perceptual speech assessment which need to be reliable. Of all perceptual dimensions used to distinguish normal from abnormal speech the most difficult to judge reliably is hypernasality (Watterson et al., 2017). Nevertheless, the final decision regarding whether an individual has nasality or other speech problems is based on the listener’s subjective measurement (Moll, 1λ64). Nasality is present in normal voice production and refers to perceived nasal sounds arising from the coupling of the oral and nasal resonating cavities. Nasal consonants are common in the languages. Normal nasal resonance has a range of acceptability and is perceived along a continuum, while nasal resonance disorders are associated with defects or dysfunction in the palate. In the current study the reliability of perceptual assessment of hypernasality with three different methods were compared. Standardised audio recordings of 5-year-old Swedish-speaking children with repaired cleft palate consisting of 73 stimuli in three different randomised orders were perceptually assessed by four experienced speech-language pathologists using three different methods: a sort and rate procedure (VISOR) allowing comparison between and ordering stimuli along a visual analogue scale; a 2- step method beginning with determination whether the speech resonance is within normal range or not. If not, the stimulus is rated along a 3 point ordinal category scale; a combined category-ratio scale (Borg centiMax®(cM)), where verbally well-defined categories are levelanchored to a ratio scale. Each listener completed a total of 657 hypernasality ratings (73 stimuli in 3 orders by 3 methods) for the rating task. Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found within each listener for all methods. The highest inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for VISOR and the Borg cM. High consistency within each method was found with the highest for the Borg cM. In conclusion, both the VISOR and the Borg centiMax® seem appropriate for auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality with similar and high reliability. However, the Borg cM showed slightly better consistency and seems easiest to use in a clinical setting. Further research should aim for valid definitions of how hypernasality corresponds to the categories along the scale.

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  • So what's that on a scale from 1 to 10?

    2018. Elisabet Borg. Fechner Day 2018, 29-35


    The Borg CR Scales® are general psychophysical intensity scales intended for measurements of all kinds of perceptions and feelings. They are based on several important principles to give level-anchored ratio data with high interindividual validity. Some of these principles are: numerical coverage of the total subjective dynamic range; quantitative semantics for finding and choosing the best verbal (or pictorial) anchors to obtain high agreement concerning quantitative interpretation and preciseness for valid level-determinations; magnitude estimation for ratio data; congruence between numbers and anchors; Gunnar Borg’s Range Model for interindividual comparisons; and a general point of reference or “fixed star” as a unit (for example a maximal perceived exertion). In this presentation, a short review is given of the rationale behind the Borg RPE scale® and Borg CR Scales®, and some examples of applications with the Borg centiMax Scale® (CR100) are given.

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  • Validity evidence of the specific pictorial scale of perceived exertion for football players - GOL Scale

    2018. Luis Felipe Tubagi Polito (et al.). Fechner Day 2018, 50-55


    Despite the methods usually used for ratings of perceived exertion to estimate the internal training load and monitoring the exercise, few instruments have been developed and validated for specific sports using just pictorial anchors. This study aimed: (1) to suggest one specific theoretical model to elaborate a pictorial scale; (2) to analyze the evidences of validation of a scale for football players named GOL Scale. In the first phase of the development the cartoons of the scale were drawn based on the theoretical construction of perceived exertion. The final version of the scale is composed by six cartoons which show different grades of effort. To ensure the representativeness of the cartoons they were validated by nine judges from seven different research lines in Sports Science. In the second phase, thirteen male football players were evaluated by a three-minute progressive protocol up to voluntary exhaustion with a one-minute recovery between stages (Maximal Cardiopulmonary Effort Test – MCET), and by Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test – Level 1. The Borg RPE Scale (6-20), The Cavasini Scale, The cartoon GOL Scale, Heart Rate (HR), Percentage of Heart Rate (%HR) and Blood Lactate Concentration ([La]) were immediately determined after each stage of both tests. The level of significance was 0.05. In the MCET, significant correlation between the GOL Scale and RPE 6 – 20 Borg Scale (r = 0.92), Cavasini Scale (r = 0.93), %HR (r = 0.86), HR (r = 0.80), and blood lactate (r = 0.58) were found, whereas during Yo-Yo Test, significant correlation between the GOL Scale and Borg RPE Scale (r = 0.93), Cavasini Scale (r = 0.93), %HR (r = 0.82), HR (r = 0.80), and Blood Lactate (r = 0.77) were found. These results showed that the GOL Scale is a promissory instrument to measure perceived exertion, without the translation problems commonly found in the verbal scales.

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  • Scaling depression with psychophysical scaling

    2017. Elisabet Borg, Jessica Sundell. Fechner Day 2017, 101-107


    A non-clinical sample (n=71) answered an online survey containing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), that rates the frequency of symptoms of depression (DSM-IV). The questions were also adapted for the Borg CR Scale® (CR100, centiMax®) (0–100), a general intensity scale with verbal anchors from a minimal to a maximal intensity placed in agreement with a numerical scale to give ratio data). The cut-off score of PHQ-9?10 was found to correspond to ?29 cM. Cronbach's alpha for both scales was high (0.87) and the correlation between the scales was r=0.78 (rs=0.69). Despite restriction of range, the cM-scale works well for scaling depression with added possibilities for valuable data analysis.

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  • Using psychophysical scaling, the Borg centiMax® Scale (CR100), in questionnaires to study work-related needs and behaviors

    2017. Elisabet Borg, Johanna Andersson, Elin Wigert. Fechner Day 2017, 108-114


    In test construction, thorough effort is put into formulating test items. Commonly, however, these are scaled with category or Likert scales. In this study, items from four work-related questionnaires were adapted and scaled with the Borg CR Scale® (CR100, centiMax®), a general intensity scale for level determination with ratio data (Borg & Borg, 2001; Borg, 2007). Tests measured Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Perceived Organizational Support, and Procedural Justice. In their original forms, Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.74–0.98, whereas this study obtained 0.83–0.92 (n=30 and n=81). Adapted to the centiMax scale, Cronbach’s alpha were 0.72–0.95 (n=81 and n=142). For Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction (n=81) and for Organizational Citizenship Behavior (n=30) correlations between centiMax and Likert scales were r=0.79 (p<0,001) and r=0.69 (p<0,001). The centiMax scale worked well and can be recommended with the advantage of more interesting statistical analysis that comes with ratio data.

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  • Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy

    2015. Ulrike Braun, Elisabet Borg, Per Carlbring. Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), 12-12


    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacological treatment predicts successful treatment outcomes in conjunction with self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder (with or without elements of ICBT). Two treatment groups (n = 138) underwent a six-week self-help treatment. Treatment for one of the groups included a mobile application. Measurements using the Liebowitz So-cial Anxiety Scale Self-Report as the main outcome measure were taken before, during, and in connection with the completion of treatment. Recruitment via DN was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.1) compared to recruitment via Facebook. Similarly, absence of previous psychological treatment was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.4).

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  • A range model and a schematized conception for intermodal comparisons

    2014. Elisabet Borg. Fechner Day 2014, 7-7


    The human brain is supposed to have a capacity for supramodal evaluation of information-interaction from several senses (often studied through fMRI). Gunnar Borg’s Range Model is a theoretical framework for interindividual, intermodal and interdisciplinary comparisons. The model postulates that the total natural subjective dynamic range from zero (or the threshold) to maximum (or a terminal level very close to the maximal intensity) is approximately subjectively equal for all individuals. Each individual experience is thus interpreted in relation to its position in the individual range, regardless of the size of the physical stimulus range. For interindividual and intermodal comparisons it is also important to have a good reference, a firmly schematized conception, with high interindividual agreement. A maximal perceived exertion has been found to work well for this purpose. Perceived exertion is an emergent modality consisting of many symptoms and cues with several sensory systems involved in conveying information to the brain from the muscles, respiration, skin, joints etc.; and with several important physiological correlates (e.g., heart rate, blood lactate, ventilation, skin temperature). In contrast to many other modalities, the perception of exertion comes from an active interaction of the body with the environment and the person usually regulates performance as a response to the perception. For healthy people it is also not harmful with a maximal exertion.  Thus, a maximal perceived exertion is something most of us have experienced. In a questionnaire study the idea was investigated that, at least in some cases, what schematized conception is used will have importance. This should for example be true for modalities where individual experiences vary greatly, as, e.g., for pain. Modalities included were taste (sourness and sweetness), heaviness, loudness, brightness, fear, smell, and pain. Two groups of 20 persons (10 men and 10 women) followed one of two instructions. Group A compared each item with their conception of a maximal heaviness (as “100”) and Group B used item-specific (intramodal) references of "sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc., imaginable". The cross-modal task of comparing different modalities to the conception of a maximal heaviness worked well. As expected there was a significant difference between the two kinds of instructions for pain (with a lower mean value for group B, p < 0,001), but, and more importantly, also a larger variance for group B. For most modalities, except for pain, the intramodal references (sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc.) may thus be conceived of as similar across individuals as well as approximately equal to the reference of a maximal heaviness, or at least was used that way. For a modality, such as pain, where individual experiences may differ extensively, the cross-modal task of using the conception of a maximal heaviness should be preferred.

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  • Evaluating elite performance with the Borg CR100 scale® in a Swedish championship in diving

    2014. Elisabet Borg, Chantella Love. Fechner Day 2014, 9-9


    In many sports, such as for example, in diving, figure skating and ski jumping, subjective assessment is essential in evaluating the performance. Judges usually score the performance according to a complicated setup of rules but uses quite simple rating scales. The Borg CR Scales®, commonly used for perceptual scaling of a variety of modalities and symptoms, may also be used for performance evaluation. The Borg CR100 Scale®, is a general intensity scale from 0 to 100,  "Maximal". For diving, “Maximal” was anchored in a "perfect dive". Five judges used the Borg CR100 scale together with the traditional scale for 4 men and 6 women who partook in the semi-finals in the Swedish Championships in diving, 2012. Judges were consistent in their way of using the scales, as can be seen from individual correlations with the contest results. Strong significant correlations were obtained between the traditional scale and the Borg CR100 scale® (r = 0.80) and for both scales with the contest results (0.63 and 0.62). With the Borg CR100 scale® several dives were assessed with a more precise differentiation between the dives. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 by the two individual dives no. 281 and 350. Since the CR100 is more finely graded, the scale gives a better flexibility in the judgments. Because the Borg CR scales can be used for self appraisal of for example perceived exertion, perceived difficulty, and motivation, the results in this study opens up an interesting field of possible comparisons in the study of performance enhancement and in the training of elite athletes.

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  • Scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®

    2014. Elisabet Borg, Charlotte Carlberg. Fechner Day 2014, 8-8


    The Borg CR Scales® are general intensity scales suitable for most kinds of experiences and symptoms including loudness, but have predominantly been used for perceived exertion and pain assessment. Even if earlier versions have, the present Borg CR100 scale® has not, however, been tested on loudness. The scales are constructed to give ratio data and exponents that mimic what is obtained with magnitude estimation (ME). To also give level determinations and for interindividual comparisons, verbal labels are placed on the scale in congruence with the ratio scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 100 (”Maximal” and anchored in a previously experienced perception of, for example, perceived exertion), with, for example, ”Strong” at 50 and with the possibility to exceed 100 in extreme situations1. 36 university students (9 men and 27 women: mean age 22.4 years, s = 3.1 years) partook in a loudness experiment, scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®. All sounds, S ={40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 90; 100} dB(A), were presented four times in the same randomized order to all subjects. Sounds were generated by NMATLAB script, presented through earphones (Sennheiser HD 580 Precision) in a sound proof listening room using a stationary computer (Windows 7 Professional with RME Fireface 400 external sound card, sampling frequency 48 kHz, 24 bit depth). Geometric means of results obtained with the Borg CR100 scale® were R = {4.7; 7.3; 12.2; 19.2; 29.5; 51.0; 86.5} thus ranging from approx. “Very week” to just below “Extremely strong”. The power function, computed from individual geometric means, was R = 61.7 x S0.42 (r = 0.912) and thus similar to what has often been obtained with ME and also with previous versions of Borg CR scales. Coefficients of variation fell from 0.61 (40 dB) to 0.14 (100 dB), similar to what has been obtained for perceived exertion. The latest Borg CR100 scale® thus works fine for scaling loudness of pure tones.

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  • To determine the magnitude of pain with Borg CR-scales®

    2014. Gunnar Borg, Elisabet Borg. Fechner Day 2014, 10-10


    There are many demands on a good pain-scale. It should be possible to: use for all kinds of pain; determine direct levels of intensity over the total range; treat responses with statistical methods, preferably parametric statistics; study degrees of changes with stimulus intensity, medication and time; make interindividual, intermodal and psychophysiological comparisons; avoid ceiling and floor effects; make estimations and also productions; determine psychophysical S-R-functions, possible to describe with a general equations as, e.g., R=a+c(S-b)^n, where a is the basic “noise” at rest  (or the absolute threshold), and b is the starting point of the function; make two-way communication; handle round off tendencies; use internationally. To meet these demands the scale must be constructed according to basic psychophysical and linguistic knowledge, and tested in relevant experiments. To cover the total subjective range there is a need of a number variation from 0 to 50 or a little more, about 26. Several anchors should be used that people understand very well, and that are placed correctly. Most existing scales do not fulfill these demands. A common drawback is that there is a too limited range, or a maximal endpoint defined as “Highest (or Worst) Imaginable”, which is not a schematized conception and problematic for interindividual comparisons. Examples are the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and is the "Labeled Magnitude Scale" (LMS) for oral sensation. On the LMS verbal anchors are placed to give ratio data, but “Strong” is 34.7, “Very strong” 52,5. For general usage, e.g., in two-way communication for prescription of exercise, this is not good, nor does the scales facilitate predictions of max-levels from sub-max estimations. The best scales are the Borg CR Scales® (CR10 and CR100). In these scales quantitative semantics is used by applying ratio scaling to determine interpretation, meaning position in the range for congruence between anchors (labels) and numbers, and preciseness meaning interindividual agreement. It is especially important that the anchors for Zero and Maximal refer to schematized conceptions. A maximal magnitude is defined as a maximal perceived exertion and effort, for example a maximal heaviness. These ideas have been presented during several ISP meetings by G. Borg, last time in Freiburg 2013. The CR10 has been used in many studies, e.g., during tests of functional capacity and chest pain, and muscular-skeletal pain. The CR100 scale has, however, a greater potential as a general scale making possible determinations of most kinds of perceptual magnitudes. An advantage to the CR10 is that decimals need not be used and that the dynamic range is bigger and more in accordance with the psychophysical demands. The extra constants in the power function can then better reflect the true sensory processes.

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  • Statistik för beteendevetare

    2013. Elisabet Borg, Joakim Westerlund.


    Övningsbok till Statistik för beteendevetare är ett komplement till faktaboken med samma namn. Boken inleds med en kort repetition av grundläggande matematik och på omslagets insida finns ett flödesschema till hjälp för att avgöra vilken statistisk analys som bör väljas i en specifik situation.

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