Lukas SmasUniversitetslektor, docent
Jag är docent i kulturgeografi med inriktning mot samhällsplanering. Min forskning och undervisning rör framförallt urban och regional planering med fokus på styrnings- och kunskapsfrågor, relationer mellan teori och praktik, samt de poltitiska och ekonomgeografiska villkoren för samhällsplanering. Jag är särskilt intresserad av att utforska hur visioner och idéer sätts samman i policys och planer och sedan översätts till rumsliga åtgärder och arrangemang, och vise versa.
Pågende forskningsprojekt och aktiviteter
- Regionala planeringskulturer – institutionella förändringar och platsspecifika praktiker för en hållbar framtid (2023-2025) Formas.
- Cities confronted by protests: Democratic governance for efficient and socially just climate transformation (2020-2023) Norges forskningsråd.
Avslutade forsnings- och uppdragsprojekt
- Justification for agreement-based approaches in Nordic spatial planning: towards situational direct democracy? (2018-2022) Academy of Finland.
- Nordic Policy Styles in Urban and Regional Governance (2018-2020) Vetenskapsrådet, NOS-HS Workshop grant.
- Framtidens universitetssjukhus. Beslut om Nya Karolinska Solna: del projekt 5 NKS ur ett historiskt, samhälleligt rumsligt och globalt planeringsperspektiv (2018-2020) Stockholms läns landsting.
- Comparative Analysis of Territorial Governance and Spatial Planning Systems in Europe (2016-2018) ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme.
- Co-creating Attractive Urban Areas and Lifestyles: Exploring new forms of inclusive urban governance (2013-2016) JPI Urban Europe/Formas.
- Detecting Territorial Potentials and Challenges (2012-2014) ESPON 2013 Programme.
- Ledamot av redaktionsrådet för Nordic Journal for Urban Studies 2020-
- Ledamot av redaktionskommittén för Europa XXI 2020-
- Representant för Sverige i Council of Representatives (CoRep) Association of European Schools of Planning (AESOP) 2022-2023
- Ledamot i den rådgivande kommitté för Centrum för forskning om hållbar samhällsförändring (CRS) vid Karlstads universitet 2015-
I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas
Region + planering = regionplanering – en komplicerad ekvation
2022. Lukas Smas, Peter Schmitt. Regioner och regional utveckling i en föränderlig tid, 43-62Kapitel
I detta kapitel undersöker vi regional planering som generell företeelse och den svenska regionala planeringens besynnerligheter. Med utgångspunkt i detta är syftet med kapitlet att klargöra varför regional planering är en så komplicerad ekvation i Sverige idag.
Fysisk samhällsplanering på lokal nivå
2022. Lukas Smas. Lokalt beslutsfattande, 203-228Kapitel
Att lokalisera och formge ett megaprojekt
2021. Lukas Smas. Megaprojekt, 181-205Kapitel
Varför lokaliserades megaprojektet Nya Karolinska Solna till Hagasta- den mitt i Stockholmsregionen? Förutsättningarna för att bygga ett nytt sjukhus på denna plats var minst sagt komplexa och har i stor utsträckning påverkat planeringen och utformningen av sjukhuset samtidigt som projektet bidragit till att förändra platsen och dess omgivning. Ett megaprojekt beskrivs ofta i termer av komplexitet, ekonomisk storlek och tidsomfång men i detta kapitel analyseras lokaliseringen och formgivningen av ett megaprojekt, dess rumsliga dimensioner och bevekelsegrunder. Megaprojekt är som Flyvbjerg (2014) poängterat inte bara uppförstorade mindre projekt utan ofta extraordinära projekt med samhällsförändrande potential. De utmanar rådande samhällsstrukturer snarare än anpassar sig till dem. Ett megaprojekt är således svårt att avgränsa och att lokalisera det i tid och rum är en komplex fråga.
Detta kapitel utgår ifrån ett utredningsuppdrag om beslutsprocesserna kring planeringen av Nya Karolinska Solna, det så kallade NKS-projektet. Detta megaprojekt syftade till att uppföra ett nytt sjukhus i den nya stadsdelen som fått namnet Hagastaden på gränsen mellan Karolinska sjukhusets område och Karolinska Institutets campus i Solna och det före detta Norra Stationsområdet i Stockholm. NKS var ett megaprojekt som inte bara handlade om att bygga ett nytt sjukhuskomplex, utan även om att omorganisera sjukvården i Stockholmsregionen. Dessutom var syftet också att främja forskning och tillväxt i regionen. Megaprojektet var en viktig del i en vision om att skapa en plats i världsklass, ett kluster för livsvetenskap integrerat i en internationellt attraktiv stadsmiljö.
Idén om att bygga framtidens sjukhus
2021. Livia Johannesson, Lukas Smas. Megaprojektet Nya Karolinska Solna, 102-117Kapitel
Idén om ett sjukhus i världsklass
2021. Lukas Smas, Lena Fält. Megaprojektet Nya Karolinska Solna, 86-101Kapitel
Sjukhuset, staden och en vision om förändring
2021. Martin Qvist, Lukas Smas. Megaprojektet Nya Karolinska Solna, 69-84Kapitel
En särskild typ av megaprojekt
2021. Catrin Andersson, Lukas Smas, Göran Sundström. Megaprojektet Nya Karolinska Solna, 26-51Kapitel
Ist die formelle Regionalplanung in Europa wirklich tot?
2021. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. Nachrichten der ARL 3/2020, 23-27Artikel
Positioning regional planning across Europe
2020. Lukas Smas, Peter Schmitt. Regional studiesArtikel
Many scholars argue that regional planning has lost its political significance and practical relevance in recent years. Based on a comparative analysis of formal regional planning in eight European countries, this study questions and nuances this view. It is concluded that the institutional conditions for regional planning are still extensive and have been adapted to changing contexts since the year 2000, but along different pathways across the analysed countries. The investigation highlights that multiple forms of planning regions have been incorporated in the planning systems through multipurpose planning instruments that have further added to the existing dynamic and diversified regional planning landscape across Europe.
Dissolution Rather than Consolidation - Questioning the Existence of the Comprehensive-Integrative Planning Model
2020. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. Planning practice + researchArtikel
Previous research has shown that the comprehensive-integrative planning model seems to be expedient for modernising planning systems, specifically regarding the relation between spatial planning and sectoral policies. However, contemporary, and particularly comparable studies are non-existent. Based on empirical findings from a European research project our comparative analysis explores whether spatial planning in nine countries conforms to key features of this idealised planning model. Our analysis reveals discrepancies regarding how spatial planning is positioned in relation to sectoral policies across the various countries. We argue that this planning model appears rather to be in a state of dissolution than of consolidation.
Sjukhuset, regionen och staden
2020. Lukas Smas.Rapport
Nya Karolinska sjukhuset i Solna (NKS) har varit ett omfattande samhällsplaneringsprojekt. Det har handlat om att bygga ett nytt sjukhus i världsklass och om att reformera sjukvården i regionen – en ny byggnad för en ny organisation. Det urbana sjukhuset har även varit en viktig komponent i stadsutvecklingsprojektet Hagastaden och i utvecklingen av ett regionalt kluster i världsklass. För att förstå ett megaprojekt som NKS är det viktigt att sätta in det i ett vidare samhälleligt sammanhang men också i den lokala och regionala kontext det är sprunget ur. Denna här rapporten redovisar resultat från en rumslig analys av detta samhällsplaneringsprojekt. I analysen har fokus varit dels på kontextens betydelse, dels på de olika typer av rumsliga föreställningar och fysiska åtgärder som har underbyggt planeringen av NKS och stadsdelen Hagastaden.
Shifting Political Conditions for Spatial Planning in the Nordic Countries
2019. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. Politics and Conflict in Governance and Planning, 133-150Kapitel
The political conditions for spatial planning in the Nordic countries are changing in multiple directions. This chapter investigates recent shifts and trajectories of change in spatial planning in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The focus is on the politics behind these recent shifts and the induced rescaling processes and modification of spatial planning instruments. The chapter provides at first a background on the so-called Nordic model, the different political-administrative structures in the Nordic countries and recent changes in regard to the political conditions for spatial planning. After that, we review the shifts in the spatial planning systems in the countries with a particular focus on the spatial planning instruments in the last 15 years. This is followed by a section in which we compare a number of further trajectories related to spatial planning. In the concluding discussion, we take up the post-political question in order to reflect upon to what extent we can identify signifiers towards either depoliticization or even repoliticization in regard to spatial planning in the Nordic countries.
Former för regional planering
2019. Lukas Smas. Samhällsplaneringens teori och praktik, 276-284Kapitel
Planeringssystem i Norden
2019. Lukas Smas, Peter Schmitt. Samhällsplaneringens teori och praktik, 362-370Kapitel
Det europeiska perspektivet
2019. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. Samhällsplaneringens teori och praktik, 371-377Kapitel
COMPASS – Comparative Analysis of Territorial Governance and Spatial Planning Systems in Europe
2018. Vincent Nadin (et al.).Rapport
The objective of the COMPASS project was to provide an authoritative comparative report on changes in territorial governance and spatial planning systems in Europe from 2000 to 2016. This Final Report presents the main findings, conclusions and policy recommendations. The COMPASS project compares territorial governance and spatial planning in 32 European countries (the 28 EU member states plus four ESPON partner countries). COMPASS differs from previous studies in that the accent is not on a snapshot comparison of national systems, but on identifying trends in reforms from 2000 to 2016. It also seeks to give reasons for these changes with particular reference to EU directives and policies, and to identify good practices for the cross-fertilisation of spatial development policies with EU Cohesion Policy. The research is based on expert knowledge with reference wherever possible to authoritative sources. Experts with in-depth experience of each national system were appointed to contribute to the study. The research design involved primarily collection of data from the 32 countries through questionnaires and five in-depth case studies of the interaction of EU Cohesion Policy and other sectoral policies with spatial planning and territorial governance.
2018. Lukas Smas, Johannes Lidmo.Artikel
In some European countries, sub-national regions are important geographical arenas for spa- tial planning. However, in Sweden, statutory regional planning is rather limited and the regional level is often described as having a weak position in the spatial planning system. In this article, we investigate territorial governance practices in two Swedish regions, with a focus on their interaction with the EU and the national level, and with the local level, as well as how these regions function as organisations and arenas for coordination of different policy fields. The study is based on semi-structured expert inter- views and document analysis. The results show that spatial planning is practised both through statutory planning and soft planning approaches, and that these practices in different ways coordinate sectoral policies i.e. transport infrastructure and regional development. Both cases also illustrate difficulties not only of external coordination between different institutions and policy fields but also internally within or- ganisations. It is also highlighted that spatial planning at the regional level focuses on coordinating actors and policy fields but that spatial planning is also an instrument to implement regional policies. In con- clusion, it is argued that the organisation and territorial governance practices within a given institutional arrangement and the perception of spatial planning are crucial in determining how regions might function as multi-level coordination actors and policy arenas within spatial planning.
Integrating environmental sustainability into strategic spatial planning
2018. Sara Gustafsson, Brita Hermelin, Lukas Smas. Journal of Environmental Planning and ManagementArtikel
Strategic spatial planning has been suggested as a means for environmental sustainability. However, there are significant challenges with operationalising and integrating policy-driven strategic spatial planning within the standardised and process-oriented management systems of local authorities. This aspect has motivated discussions on how implementation of strategic spatial planning with a focus on environmental sustainability is conditioned by management systems. The empirical case is local planning and management practices in a local authority in Sweden. Interviews with planners, together with planning and policy documents, make up the empirical material. The analysis proposes that the integration of environmental perspectives into strategic spatial planning processes depends on (i) the overall concerns for environmental issues in local policy, and (ii) how administrative management systems can facilitate transformative practice in planning. In conclusion, this article illustrates how environmental sustainability in strategic spatial planning is formed and conditioned through interplay between local policy and administrative management procedures.
Spatial Planning in Sweden: key notions, trajectories and challenges
2018. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. Territory and States. Essentials for the Coordination of Spatial Planning Policies in the XXIst Century, 597-620Kapitel
Re-thinking and reviewing European spatial planning systems through spatial planning instruments
2018. Lukas Smas, Peter Schmitt.Konferens
Plans and other planning instruments that are used to mediate and regulate spatial development are fundamental for the operation of spatial planning systems, and for defining them, as well as pursing spatial planning objectives. This paper is based on an extensive comparative study of spatial planning systems in Europe (ESPON COMPASS), which included a review of spatial planning instruments that are used to mediate competition over the use of land, to allocate rights of development, to regulate change and to promote preferred spatial and urban form. Over 250 spatial planning instruments in 32 different European countries were identified by national experts. The results show a diverse pattern with strong differences in regard to the instruments' characteristics (e.g. visionary, strategic, framework or regulative) at different policy levels (national, regional and local) even between countries that have been grouped together within similar types or traditions in earlier studies. Furthermore, many individual planning instruments are often expected to combine several functions, e.g. they are expected to simultaneously be, in different combinations; visionary and agenda setting, providing strategic and long-term coordination, establishing policy frameworks for other plans and decisions, and/or be regulatory including legally binding land use commitments. Many planning instruments might thus be understood as 'multi-purpose tools'. Based on this review and analysis we offer empirically derived typologies and conceptualizations of spatial planning instruments that provide a different image of spatial planning systems across Europe compared to earlier studies, and as such gives insights in what directions spatial planning in Europe is moving.
What is the role of spatial planning in relation to other policy areas?
2018. Peter Schmitt, Lukas Smas. AESOP 2018Konferens
Spatial planning is often expected to coordinate other policy areas or sector policies, in particular those that have strong spatial impacts. Ideally this process of coordination shall lead to policy integration or to other forms of consensual agreements such as policy packages. Inevitably the question arises to what extent spatial planning can be considered as an autonomous policy area with specific instruments (e.g. statutory frameworks that are of visionary, strategic or regulative character) and power resources. We address this question by discussing and comparing the role of spatial planning across 32 European countries in relation to 14 other policy areas based on findings from the ESPON COMPASS study. First, the degree of integration of spatial planning is investigated within other policy areas at three different policy levels (national, sub-national and local). Secondly, the extent to which these 14 policy areas are influential in current debates on spatial planning will be compared with the year 2000. The analysis reveals a number of recurrent patterns and types of spatial planning as well as directions of change. In the end we argue that spatial planning plays a significant and for the most part even increasing role in relation to other policy areas in most of the studied countries in Europe, but at the same time we can construe a growing degree of diversification between countries, policy levels and policy areas.
Spänningar på ett fält
2017. Moa Tunström, Lukas Smas. Urban utveckling och interaktion, 145-164Kapitel
Urban Planning through Exhibition and Experimentation in Stockholm
2016. Peter Schmitt (et al.). Smart me up! How to become and how to stay a Smart City, and does this improve quality of life?, 1003-1007Konferens
In this paper we discuss findings of our case study on the making and implementation of the exhibition 'Experiment Stockholm' in 2015, which, based on artistic exhibits as well as a number of forums, aimed at generating creative narratives for the sustainable urban future in the Swedish capital city-region. Our analytical framework is informed by the emerging notion of 'urban living labs' across Europe as well as 'communicative' and 'actor-relational' planning theory', which is discussed in another paper within the poceedings of this conference (cf. Schmitt et al. 2016). We argue that the exhibition 'Experiment Stockholm' and the activities around it can be characterised as a soft mode of urban governance that can help to unlock creativity and to open up avenues for experimentation and alternative solutions in urban planning. However, caution must be taken to not overvalue such approaches, as our example implies a rather exclusive expert forum instead of a a mode of governance that might be associated with openness and wider engagement. In addition, our example illustrates the significance of suitable and unconventional methods, which otherwise considerably limits the innovative capacity of the participating stakeholders and their search for alternative solutions.
Brave new ‘mega-regional worlds’? Critical reflections from a North European perspective
2015. Lukas Smas, Peter Schmitt. Megaregions, 146-174Kapitel
How can the established concept of ‘Norden’ – which covers the Northern European countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – be understood in a brave new world of megaregions? The significance of Norden, which literary means ‘the North’, is often acknowledged to be a ‘stabilised’ transnational (mega) region (Gustafsson, 2006). This is due, in part, to the Nordic countries sharing a number of cultural and historical commonalities, somewhat similar political trajectories through the 20th century and a well-known welfare state tradition. Yet, on closer inspection, we have seen in recent years various diverging development paths in territorial policy and politics in general, and urban and regional planning in particular. Furthermore, when adopting a relational perspective, we can detect how a number of Nordic city-regions are being formed and transformed – through transnational (business) networks and various related state spatial strategies – with the aim being to strategically place them as nodes within the global space of flows. What this amounts to is a more fluid geographical image of Norden. Against this backdrop the concept of Norden is an interesting example of how (mega) regions are being constructed through particular sets of relations, processes and mechanisms, while at the same time being challenged and deconstructed by other sets of relations, processes and mechanisms. In this chapter, we seek to problematize these happenings, providing critical reflections from a North European perspective. The research presented derives from a range of studies and observations produced by Nordregio – The Nordic Centre for Spatial Development.
Hotels in the city and cities in the hotel
2012. Lukas Smas. Hotel spaces, 73-80Kapitel
2012. Lukas Smas.Bok (red)
Knowledge Dynamics in the KIBS and medtech sectors in Stockholm
2010. Brita Hermelin, Lukas Smas. Regional trajectories to the knowledge economy, 49-56Kapitel
Knowledge Dynamics in the Stockholm Region
2010. Brita Hermelin, Lukas Smas.Rapport
This report discusses aspects of the transformation of the economy in the wake of thedevelopment of information and communication technology (ICT) using a case study ofStockholm. This study is conducted as a part of a Nordic research project titled ‘RegionalTrajectories to the Knowledge Economy—Nordic-European Comparisons’ (REKENE).REKENE involves seven regional teams from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland, witheach team made up of both researchers and practitioners.The objective of REKENE and the Stockholm case study is to identify activities and processesthat generate knowledge development and innovations. REKENE involves a conceptualframework, which particularly stresses the concepts of knowledge dynamics, of different typesof knowledge, gender aspects, multilocal networks and the processes of anchoring resources tothe region.The different regional teams in REKENE study different industrial sectors. For Stockholm, ourpoint of departure is knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) with a particular focus oncomputer services/ICT expertise and medical technicians and technologists (medtech).The report describes the development of knowledge from the point of departure from a smallfirm engaged in medtech. This description illustrates how interactions between sectors andknowledge domains are distinctive for KIBS, wherein firms work closely with their clients andusually adopt the roles of co-creators and co-producers. Important developments are thengenerated through composite knowledge whereby policies may facilitate the integration of arange of competencies, skills and experiences in networks. Indeed, it is difficult to discern anyouter boundary delimiting the skills that are most relevant for the development of ICTapplications. Although the establishment of strong relationships among local actors in theStockholm region is an important resource for knowledge dynamics to be effective, widerinternational connections are needed for sustainable development.
De informella nätverkens återinträde i regionalpolitiken
2010. Lukas Smas. Nätverk och skuggstrukturer i regionalpolitiken, 25-30Kapitel
Consumption Through a City Quarter
2009. Lukas Smas. Cultural Quarters and Urban Transformation, 280-303Kapitel
2008. Lukas Smas (et al.).Avhandling (Dok)
Consumption forms and is formed by the city. How, when and where commodities are transacted is essential in this urban drama of mutual relationships. This thesis explores how consumption and everyday life in cities are interrelated. The specific objective is to analyse how commodity transaction situations are configured and constrained in time and space, and, how consumer service spaces are formed in and are part of city formation. Transactions are conceptualised as economically and socially situated material projects constituted by consumers, commodities and producers. Commodities and values are transferred and created through transaction spaces. The theoretical perspective is framed around consumption and production of spaces, and particularly informed by Hägerstrand’s time-geographical thinking and Lefebvre’s work on urban space. Methodologically different examples of consumption projects and spaces are used to discuss configurations and formations for commodity transactions.
The thesis stresses material and time-spatial constraints for commodity transaction and it discusses the blurring of boundaries between what conventionally has been separate social and economic activities and places. Changing transaction configurations and the formation of consumer service spaces in the city are explored through analysis of different consumption places and commodities such as books, coffee and clothes and property development projects in Stockholm city centre. Transaction configurations display geographical and historical continuities and changes as well as time-spatial flexibility and spatial fixity. Transactions spaces are continuously formed and reformed through processes embedded in the global cultural economy, urban development and politics, as well as through people’s everyday life. Producers’ strategic production and consumers’ tactical appropriation of transactions spaces are accentuated as crucial in the spatial practice of transactions, places and city formation.
Shopping - ett geografiskt projekt
2008. Lukas Smas. Geografiska notiser (4), 215-222Artikel
Konsumtion, det urbana livet och stadens morfologi
2005. Lukas Smas.Avhandling (Lic)
Urban consumption is both created and recreated by everyday urban life and the morphological structure of the city. Consumption is here conceived of as a drama, where a distinction can be made between consumption as a societal phenomenon and consumption as an everyday life project, which unfolds upon the city stage. The thesis analyses this mutually interdependent relationship by focusing on transactions of commodity goods and services in time and space. This is conducted through a theoretical analysis of the relationships between consumers, products and producers, in which the role of material and immaterial restrictions and institutions are emphasised. Hägerstrand’s time-geography and Lefebvre’s theory of socio-spatial dialectics are in the thesis used for the development of a time-space perspective in which moments of transactions are abstracted from transaction situations. The relationships of transactions are illustrated within their time-space context with concrete examples from Stockholm City.