Stockholms universitet

Stefan WiklundProfessor, prefekt

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Professor, prefekt


Social barnavård och evidensbaserat socialt arbete


Individ- och familjeomsorgen med särskild intriktning mot social barnavård



I urval från Stockholms universitets publikationsdatabas

  • Local translations of a universal concept

    2020. David Pålsson, Stefan Wiklund. Children & society


    In recent years, scholars have called for studies exploring how key concepts originating from the children's rights discourse are understood in local contexts. In Sweden, national policy advocates that a child perspective should guide social assistance (SA), a cash benefit constituting society's last safety net. The study analyses the child perspective as an idea (i.e. an ambiguous principle), which is translated (i.e. reformulated and interpreted) at the local level. The findings indicate multiple and partly inconsistent translations of a child perspective. The study argues that it is unclear what adopting a child perspective implies for children in families receiving SA.

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  • Impression management in the market for residential care for children and youth in Sweden

    2020. Emelie Shanks (et al.). Social Policy & Administration


    In what has become quite a turbulent quasi‐market for residential care for children and youth, providers now compete for public contracts. To create visibility and attract customers, many providers use marketing activities to project the desired impression of themselves to maintain or strengthen their market position. In this article, we analyse how companies that provide residential care for children manage the impressions they project on their websites and in advertisements. The results reveal that residential care providers use a range of impression management strategies to enhance their organizational image and to respond to potentially damaging or threatening images. The information providers choose to disclose leaves customers—in this case, the social workers responsible for choosing and purchasing care on behalf of clients—with rather limited opportunities to evaluate the quality of care. This is a significant problem considering other, more reliable, sources of information are difficult to access.

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  • Harmful care. To what extent is terminology from medicine and clinical psychology applicable to out‐of‐home care?

    2019. Emelie Shanks (et al.). Child & Family Social Work


    Research concerning outcomes for children who have been placed in out‐of‐home care has indicated that the care may have unwanted consequences. However, there has been no coherent terminology for differentiating between different types of such unwanted consequences. In this article therefore, we attempt to disentangle different aspects of potentially harmful care for looked after children, as well as to discuss potential pathways to more systematically approach and report adverse events for this group. In this endeavour, we turn to two adjacent disciplines, medicine and psychology, where these issues have received more interest. The applicability of the concepts used in these fields is discussed, and it is concluded that although they provide some help in categorizing different aspects of harmful care, the complexity of out‐of‐home care makes existing models difficult to adopt without adjustments. This has consequences for the possibility of evaluating care in research, as well as for monitoring adverse events in practice. Importantly, the causality will often be unknown. We therefore suggest that it is essential to shed more light on how decisions should be made about when to intervene or not in out‐of‐home care, despite limited information.

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  • Privatisering inom individ- och familjeomsorgen

    2018. Marie Sallnäs, Stefan Wiklund. Manifest, 59-69


    Privata aktörer har en framträdande roll inom flera av socialtjänstens verksamhetsområden, något som påverkar förutsättningarna för arbetet. Forskningen har pekat ut flera problem som är förknippade med den typ av marknadsförhållanden som råder på socialtjänstområdet. En försvårande omständighet är att de som direkt berörs av socialtjänstens insatser är en socialt selekterad grupp med svag samhällsposition och med starkt begränsade möjligheter att utöva någon form av konsumentmakt. I kapitlet diskuteras privatiseringens omfattning och konsekvenser, samt i vilken riktning man ska tro att utvecklingen går i framtiden.

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  • Signs-of-Safety i praktiken

    2018. Francesca Östberg, Stefan Wiklund, Åsa Backlund.


    Signs-of-Safety utvecklades i Australien och kan i grunden ses som en modell för utredning och uppföljning i socialt barnavårdsarbete i avsikt att säkerställa barns säkerhet och skydd. I denna rapport redovisas en studie av modellens spridning och tillämpning i Stockholms stads stadsdelar samt övriga kommuner i Stockholm län. Tre delstudier presenteras. Det övergripande syftet med studien var att undersöka i vilken omfattning och på vilket sätt Signs-of-Safety används i Stockholms län samt att beskriva och analysera principiellt viktiga förtjänster och begränsningar som är förenade med att ta modellen i bruk.

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  • The wide-meshed safety net

    2017. Hugo Stranz, Patrik Karlsson, Stefan Wiklund. European Journal of Social Work 20 (5), 711-723


    This article explores and analyses, with the help of both client and social worker data on 423 applications for social assistance in Sweden, (i) the extent to which social assistance benefits and labour market strengthening measures are granted and (ii) factors concerning clients as well as social workers that are associated with the granting of benefits. Considering (i), the results show that social assistance is granted in about 74% of cases while only 6% of applicants are granted additional labour market strengthening measures. With regard to (ii), the results indicate that the granting of benefits seems to depend on abroad spectrum of factors at both the client and the social worker levels. For example, more experienced social workers are less willing to grant social assistance while chances increase when an applicant is already registered at the local public employment service and/or social insurance office. Moreover, the granting of benefits also co-varies withmore or less invariable factors at the client level: social workers are in general more generous towards women and people born outside Sweden, but rather less generous vis-à-vis single parents. The findings are discussed in terms of workfare and professionalization among social workers.

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  • People processing in Swedish personal social services

    2016. Hugo Stranz, Stefan Wiklund, Patrik Karlsson. Nordic Social Work Research 6 (3), 174-187


    By utilising data on nearly 1 200 individuals subject to investigations in the three Swedish personal social services (PSS) domains – child welfare (CW), social assistance (SA) and substance abuse treatment (SAT) – this article aims at describing and analysing the individuals processed in PSS as well as the outcome of the filtering process. Specific attention is paid to the extent the PSS domains differ in these respects. The main findings are: (i) a large proportion of clients subject to investigation are men, singles (most common without children in SA and SAT) and a born outside of Sweden (CW and SA). In terms of overall predicaments, SAT raw material seem more exposed than that of SA whereas there are fairly low concentration of abuse and neglect in CW; (ii) recidivism rates are high in all PSS domains: about half of the sample are already known by the agencies; (iii) out-screening are similar in SA and SAT (about 25%) but substantially higher in CW (about 50%). The investigative process is associated with considerably low external and in particular internal referring, indicating an apparent silo mentality between the PSS domains.

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  • Big Business in a Thin Market

    2016. Gabrielle Meagher (et al.). Social Policy & Administration 50 (7), 805-823


    This article analyzes the transformation of Swedish residential care homes for children from a regionally coordinated, public social service system into a thin, but highly profitable, national spot market in which large corporations have a growing presence. Marketization and privatization are theorized as complex processes, through which the institutional structure and logics of this small, but significant, social policy field changed profoundly. Using official documents, register data, media reports and existing research, three consecutive phases in the development of the children’s home market are identified since the early 1980s. Change was driven on one hand by policies inspired by New Public Management, which shifted public authority horizontally to the private sector, and vertically to local authorities (funding) and to the state (regulation). On the other hand were responses of local authorities and private actors to the changing incentives that policy shifts entailed. During the first two phases, both the proportion and size of for-profit providers increased, and the model of family-like care was replaced by a professional model. Cutting across the trend of privatization in the third phase was establishment of a parallel system of homes for unaccompanied refugee children – mostly in public ownership. Similarities with privatization in the English system of children’s care homes are noted. By showing how the Swedish market for residential care has been created by policy and by actors’ responses to those reforms, the article provides a foundation for thinking through how the predictable, significant and well-documented problems of such care markets might be addressed.

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  • Middle managers in social work

    2015. Emelie Shanks, Tommy Lundström, Stefan Wiklund. British Journal of Social Work 45 (6), 1871-1887


    With respect to marketisation and managerialism, the changes in the Swedish social services resemble the changes in many other countries. This article analyses how Swedish middle managers within the personal social services reason about professional identity, everyday work and leadership in the context of these changes. The study draws on four focus group interviews with a total of twenty-two managers. The results suggest a persisting social work identity among the managers, although noticeable changes have taken place within the social services. For example, the managers' budgetary and administrative responsibilities have increased, and relations to private companies in the area of residential care place new demands on their managerial skills. The managersseem to find some of the new conditions easier to integrate with their social work identity than others. The resistance to the reforms appear to be less obvious in Sweden than in, for example, the UK. There are a number of possible explanations for this. For example, it may be connected to the relatively mild implementation of marketisation and managerial strategies, a less apparent downsizing of social work and a relative lack of central state bureaucratic control.

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  • Child welfare activities targeting single mothers on social assistance

    2015. Hugo Stranz, Stefan Wiklund. British Journal of Social Work 45 (4), 1224-1241


    By utilising data on nearly 900 single mothers on social assistance (SA) in Sweden, this article examine (i) prevalence of child welfare interventions and factors associated with such interventions in this population and (ii) case managers’ reporting activities and considerations in relation to this group. The main findings in relation to (i) are (a) that about 30 per cent of the sample was subject toCWSinvolvement during the time of enrolment in the SA agency and (b) factors associated with increased odds ratios of CWS involvement were presence of maternal psycho-social and mental conditions, large family size (more than one child) and persistent maternal SA dependency (over three years). Factors associated with decreased odds ratios were maternal somatic condition and mothers being of non-native origin. The main findings in relation to (ii) are (a) that social work case managers filedCWSreports in 5 per cent of the households (significantlymorecommonin nonnative households) and considered filing a report in an additional 3.4 per cent (more common in native households) and (b) CWS involvement was initiated through SA case managers’ referrals in an estimated 15 per cent of the cases. The findings are discussed in terms of possible clientification processes in the population studied.

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  • One for All or All for One? The Collaboration of Swedish Personal Social Services with Regard to Lone Mothers on Social Assistance

    2015. Hugo Stranz, Stefan Wiklund. British Journal of Social Work 45 (2), 549-567


    Lone mothers on social assistance (SA) constitute a client group where collaboration between agencies may be of particular importance due to their difficulties in maintaining full-time provision and the vast number of children involved. This article aims to analyse to what extent, and with whom, welfare agencies in the field of personal social services collaborate in individual cases. The significance of client factors with regard to collaboration with labour market-oriented and/or treatment-oriented partners, respectively, is being analysed. The study is based on microdata from a cross-sectional sample (n = 875) from the total population of lone mothers receiving SA in one of Sweden's three major cities at some point during 2007. Data were collected through questionnaires that were answered by the case managers responsible. The main findings are: (i) welfare agencies collaborate with at least one partner in about 60 per cent of the cases; (ii) psycho-social impairments and mental health impairments increase collaboration with treatment-oriented partners; and (iii) whereas long-term SA recipiency increases collaboration with labour market-oriented partners, low educational attainment significantly decreases collaboration with labour market-oriented partners. It is suggested that educational measures ought to be improved and given a more significant role in practical social work with this particular client group.

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  • Programs for prevention of externalizing problems in children

    2015. Ann-Charlotte Smedler (et al.). Child and Youth Care Forum 44 (2), 251-276


    Background: Preventing externalizing problems in children is a major societal concern, and a great number of intervention programs have been developed to this aim. To evaluate their preventive effects, well-controlled trials including follow-up assessments are necessary.

    Methods: This is a systematic review of the effect of prevention programs targeting externalizing problems in children. The review covered peer reviewed publications in English, German, French, Spanish and Scandinavian languages. Experimental studies of standardized programs explicitly aiming at preventing externalizing mental ill-health in children (2–19 years), with outcome assessments at ≥6 months post intervention for both intervention and control groups, were included. We also included long-term trials with consecutive observations over several years, even in the absence of follow-up ≥6 months post intervention. Studies of clinical populations or children with impairments, which substantially increase the risk for mental disorders, were excluded.

    Results: Thirty-eight controlled trials assessing 25 different programs met inclusion criteria. Only five programs were supported by scientific evidence, representing selective parent training (Incredible Years and Triple-P), indicated family support (Family Check-Up), and school-based programs (Good Behavior Game, universally delivered, and Coping Power, as an indicated intervention). With few exceptions, effects after 6–12 months were small. Long-term trials showed small and inconsistent effects.

    Conclusions: Despite a vast literature, the evidence for preventive effects is meager, largely due to insufficient follow-up post intervention. Long-term follow up assessment and effectiveness studies should be given priority in future evaluations of interventions to prevent externalizing problems in children.

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  • Risk factors of long-term social assistance recipiency among lone mothers. The case of Sweden

    2012. Hugo Stranz, Stefan Wiklund. European Journal of Social Work 15 (4), 514-531


    For decades, lone mothers have been vastly overrepresented among Swedish social assistance recipients. In Sweden, social assistance is administered in the personal social services. The study aims to explore and analyse factors associated with long-term recipiency among lone mothers. The empirical material consists of micro data on 875 randomly selected lone mothers receiving social assistance in any of the three major cities of Sweden in 2007. In the analysis, a distinction is made between household demographics (e.g. ethnicity) and individual factors (subdivided into individual impairments (e.g. psychosocial conditions) and financial vulnerability (e.g. unemployment)). The main findings are: (1) even though household demographics alone show low explanatory value for long-term social assistance recipiency, analysed factors remain significant when controlling for individual factors; (2) among individual factors, only variables indicating financial vulnerability are significant. A main conclusion in the study is that social workers should be attentative that subgroups within the larger population of lone mothers have higher risk of long-term recipiency (e.g. non-native origin). Furthermore, policy revisions should be considered for this group, since personal social services extensively address individual impairments whereas long-term recipiency is strongly associated with structural factors.

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  • Welfare resources among children in care

    2012. Marie Sallnäs, Stefan Wiklund, Hélenè Lagerlöf. European Journal of Social Work 15 (4), 467-483


    In a study on living conditions among children, 13-18 years old (n = 272) in on-going foster and residential care, concepts from welfare theory and empirical research are applied. We argue that using a welfare perspective and the concept of level of living when assessing looked after children's situation provides several advantages. From this perspective, children are agents for whom access to resources will influence their discretion and possibility to act. By using concepts from welfare research and replicated national surveys of living conditions on a population of placed children, we can assess the extent to which these children enjoy such a standard while in care. In other words, it is possible to assess the compensatory capacity of state care for a population of children that has been recognized as deprived in terms of welfare resources in their birth families. The overall conclusion concerning the welfare dimensions studied is that children in care in general have less access to resources than their peers in the normal population. This holds particularly true for children in residential care, where the differences are substantial. In other words, the care context tends to differentiate the extent to which society acts to compensate for the initial disadvantaged position from which children in care often originate

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  • När man misstänker att barn far illa

    2012. Francesca Östberg, Åsa Backlund, Stefan Wiklund.


    The overarching aim of this report was to gain knowledge on how mandated reporters from different professional fields (staff in child health care, pre-school and school) reason and act in case of child maltreatment suspicion of children 0-12. The principal research method was focus groups (n=3) in which participants were discussing themes in accordance with study objective. The groups were homogenous in terms of professional field affiliation and consisted of 8-9 participants in each group. The mode of analysis was qualitative. 

    What to do if you have a suspicion of child abuse? What should social service workers and educators do if there is any suspicion that a child does not fare well? This Save the Children study is about how Child Welfare Service staff and pre-school and shool officials in Sweden are responding to their obligation to report suspected cases of child abuse and neglect. It is based on interviews made to professionals directly working with children who are mandated to inform the proper authorities if there is a reasonable suspicion that a child is being harmed by caregivers. This study was initiated within the framework of the larger project "Educate do not punish" coordinated between Save the Children in Italy, Romania, Lithuania and Sweden, aimed at protecting children from corporal punishment by supporting the inclusion of the explicit ban of corporal punishment in all settings.

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  • The material side of foster care:

    2011. Stefan Wiklund, Marie Sallnäs. Adoption & Fostering 34 (4), 27-38


    Outcome studies in foster care have tended to focus on children's development and long-term adjustment. The economic aspects of placements and their effect on children's immediate welfare have been little explored. Stefan Wiklund and Marie Sallnäs compare the economic circumstances of Swedish foster carers with adults in the wider population and contrast the situation of 125 older children in foster homes, teenagers in the community and a group in residential care. As few differences were found, except for the relative disadvantage of those in residential settings, it is concluded that there is no intrinsic reason why foster care should deprive children economically. Moreover, as the child's welfare while in care is important in its own right, the criteria used to assess the suitability of carers should include measures of available resources.

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  • Program för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos barn

    2010. Sten Anttila (et al.).


    Det är angeläget att finna metoder för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos barn. Det finns tecken på att psykisk ohälsa hos barn kan ha ökat under de senaste decennierna och strukturerade insatser för att komma till rätta med problemen blir allt vanligare såväl inom kommunal verksamhet som inom hälso- och sjukvård. Interventionen utgörs av så kallade program som är standardiserade och finns beskrivna i manual eller motsvarande. Här sammanfattas det vetenskapliga underlaget för två typer av program: dels de som främst syftar till att förebygga utagerande beteenden hos barn och ungdomar, dels de som i första hand syftar till att förebygga inåtvända problem som ångest, depression och självskadebeteende. Program som har en allmänt hälsobefrämjande effekt, t ex för att förebygga drogmissbruk och våldshandlingar ingår följaktligen inte. Programmen är avsedda att ha effekt, inte bara direkt efter att programmet har avslutats utan även i framtiden. Rapporten har tagits fram på förfrågan av Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien och UPP-centrum (Utvecklingscentrum för barns psykiska hälsa) vid Socialstyrelsen. Båda har efterfrågat en systematisk litteraturöversikt för att klarlägga nyttan med att använda program för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos barn. Slutsatser:

    - Av 33 bedömda standardiserade och strukturerade insatser (program) som syftar till att förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos barn har sju ett begränsat vetenskapligt stöd i den internationella litteraturen. Det är föräldrastödsprogrammen Incredible Years och Triple P, familjestödsprogrammet Family Check-Up samt skolprogrammen Good Behavior Game, Coping Power, Coping with Stress och FRIENDS. Effekterna är med få undantag små. Studierna är utförda i andra länder. Eftersom effekterna sannolikt varierar med sociala och kulturella sammanhang är det oklart i vilken utsträckning som programmen kan överföras till Sverige med bibehållen effekt. Programmen kan också behöva anpassas så att de överensstämmer med svenska värderingar och syn på barns rätt.

    - I Sverige används ett hundratal olika program för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos barn, i huvudsak av utagerande typ. Inget av dem har utvärderats i Sverige i randomiserade studier med minst sex månaders uppföljning. Programmen De otroliga åren (översatt från Incredible Years), Triple P och Family Check-Up har enligt internationella studier begränsat vetenskapligt stöd för förebyggande effekt. Programmen KOMET, COPE, SET, StegVis, Beardslees familjeintervention, Connect och DISA har undersökts i minst en kontrollerad studie vardera men har inte tillräckligt vetenskapligt stöd för förebyggande effekt. Övriga program som används i Sverige är inte vetenskapligt utprövade som preventionsprogram.

    - Program som bygger på att ungdomar med utagerande problem träffas i grupp kan öka risken för normbrytande beteenden. Andra negativa effekter för såväl program för utagerande som för inåtvända problem är tänkbara men ofullständigt belysta.

    - Det behövs randomiserade studier som undersöker om de program som används har förebyggande effekt i svenska populationer och inte medför risker. Det behövs också hälsoekonomiska studier som undersöker om programmen är kostnadseffektiva.

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  • Samhällsvårdade barn, gate-keeping och forskning

    2010. Marie Sallnäs, Stefan Wiklund, Hélène Lagerlöf. Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift 17 (2), 116-133


    Within the discourse of childhood sociology, children are extensively regarded as “social actors”, a perspective that underlines the importance of asking children about their lives and experiences. To actually carry out such research, however, raises several methodological, principal, ethical and practical issues, especially when the research is about vulnerable children as those in out-of-home care. In this article we discuss the issue of gate-keeping when conducting research with children in foster homes or residential care. As a concrete example we use experiences from a survey of living conditions among those children.  The research questions were: 1) How and by whom is gate-keeping carried out when research is conducted among children in out of home care? 2) How could one as a researcher relate to gate-keeping carried out by adults in the environment of the children versus children’s one will? 3) What impact does gate-keeping have on results, feasibility and in a wider perspective the knowledge production regarding children in social care? The article shows that researchers needs to encounter a chain of gate-keepers to be able to get access to the children, and often attrition is high in studies with children as informants. Adults can serve both as gate-keepers and gate-openers. Our conclusion is that children in social care can be reached for research purpose, but that it is time-consuming, challenging and as a researcher one is often faced with ethical dilemmas. It is clear that there has to be a balance between gate-keeping and gate-opening. In this balance, on the one hand, it is possible for children to talk to researchers when they wish to do so, on the other hand, children must be protected so they are not exploited as research objects.

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  • Hemtagningar av placerade ungdomar

    2008. Stefan Wiklund.


    I rapporten beskrivs och analyseras ungdomsplaceringar som avslutas i förtid på socialtjänstens inititativ i fem kommuner i Uppsala län. Rapportens empiriska tyngdpunkt ligger på intervjuer med förvaltningspersonal (n=10) och klienter (n=8). Utifrån dessa intervjuer beskrivs och analyseras a) idén om hemtagningars framväxt i länet; b) olika kommunal kommunala strategier att omsätta idén i praktiken; c) berörda föräldrars och ungdomars upplevelser av hemtagningar samt d) bilder av hur ungdomarnas liv gestaltades efter hemtagningen. Vidare görs analyser baserade på offentlig statistik om tidsmässiga förändringar av ungdomsplaceringar i kommunerna. I dessa analyser relateras bland annat olika kommunala strategier till sådana förändringar. Rapportens resultat diskuteras främst med utgångspunkt i så kallad nyinstitutionell organisationsforskning

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  • Socialtjänsten i blickfånget: organisation, resurser och insatser

    2008. Åke Bergmark (et al.).


    Socialtjänstens individ- och familjeomsorg (IFO) är en central del av den svenska välfärdsmodellen. De insatser som förmedlas där svarar mot behov som andra trygghetssystem inte förmår möta, och till stor del handlar arbetet om att erbjuda hjälp till utsatta grupper i samhället.

    Författarna har studerat tre områden inom socialtjänsten i 100 svenska kommuner: barn och ungdom, försörjningsstöd och missbruk. De försöker identifiera trender och rörelser i socialt arbete. Framför allt är det resurser och organisering som stått i centrum för intresset och hur dessa faktorer påverkar insatserna.  Boken har både ett beskrivande och ett analytiskt anslag och vill fungera som utgångspunkt för diskussioner inom socialtjänsten om dess fortsatta utveckling och kopplingen till de socialpolitiska sammanhangen. Den vänder sig både till studerande vid socionomutbildningen och till yrkesverksamma inom socialtjänstens IFO.

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  • United we stand

    2007. Stefan Wiklund. International Journal of Social Welfare 16 (3), 202-211


    The study describes collaborative involvement of child welfare agencies in Sweden with mandated reporters and analyses the association between socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as collaborative involvement on referral rates. The empirical material consists of data collected on location in 100 Swedish child welfare agencies, augmented with register data. The study shows that: (i) collaboration is common in the child welfare field, (ii) structural factors moderately predict municipal variations in child welfare referrals and (iii) most importantly, that collaboration on the aggregate level seems to serve as a marginal, or even counter-productive, measure in identifying children and adolescents at risk. The results are particularly discussed in the context of policy principles in Swedish child welfare, i.e. collaboration as a statutory requirement for child welfare agencies and the official notion of collaboration as an important means to facilitate early interventions.

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Visa alla publikationer av Stefan Wiklund vid Stockholms universitet