Eastern Europe: The Timanian and Uralian Orogens

Victoria Pease

 

Abstract
Orogeny, or mountain building, is the result of collision between two landmasses. This may occur via collision of continental crust (continent-continent collision) or when oceanic and continental crust collide (ocean-continent collision). The later often results in an accretionary orogen, i.e., the accretion of oceanic crustal elements (arcs, sea floor crust, etc.) onto continental crust. Orogens such as these are often associated with the supercontinent cycle. The East European Craton (EEC; or the paleocontinent Baltica) preserves a geological record of two orogens: The accretionary Neoproterozoic Timanian Orogen and the collisional Paleozoic Uralian Orogen. While the latter has components of an accretionary orogen, it ultimately evolved into continent-continent collision. These two orogens occupy nearly the same geographic region, are similar in size and scale (though the former is more fragmented), and reflect similar crustal-scale processes. They document the way continental crust is created on planet Earth.

cover of Encyclopedia of Geology journal